Prostate Cancer (PC)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Prostate Cancer

MalaCards integrated aliases for Prostate Cancer:

Name: Prostate Cancer 57 12 43 72 36 13 54 42 3 15 37 62
Prostate Carcinoma 12 43 54 15 17 70
Prostate Cancer, Familial 57 12 73 20 70
Prostate Neoplasm 12 43 29 6
Prostatic Neoplasms 54 44 70
Prostatic Cancer 12 43 15
Prostate Cancer, Susceptibility to 57 6
Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate 70 32
Familial Prostate Carcinoma 29 6
Malignant Tumor of Prostate 29 6
Hereditary Prostate Cancer 12 20
Prostate Cancer, Somatic 57 6
Familial Prostate Cancer 20 58
Prostatic Neoplasm 12 43
Prostate Cancer, Familial, Susceptibility to 57
Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate 43
Malignant Tumor of the Prostate 12
Ngp - New Growth of Prostate 12
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary 20
Cancer of the Prostate 43
Tumor of the Prostate 12
Carcinoma of Prostate 12
Prostatic Carcinoma 43
Cancer of Prostate 12
Cancer, Prostate 39
Prca 72
Pc 72


Orphanet epidemiological data:

familial prostate cancer
Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (United States); Age of onset: Adult;


57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
somatic mutation
autosomal dominant


prostate cancer:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance somatic mutation


Orphanet: 58  
Rare urogenital diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10283 DOID:10286
OMIM® 57 176807
KEGG 36 H00024
ICD9CM 34 185
MeSH 44 D011471
ICD10 32 C61
MESH via Orphanet 45 C537243
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 C61
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C2931456
Orphanet 58 ORPHA1331
MedGen 41 C0376358
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 124975008 263681008 399068003
UMLS 70 C0033578 C0376358 C0600139 more

Summaries for Prostate Cancer

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm.Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical procedure called a digital rectal exam. As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer.The severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening.Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Bone metastases of prostate cancer most often cause pain in the lower back, pelvis, or hips.A small percentage of all prostate cancers cluster in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.

MalaCards based summary : Prostate Cancer, also known as prostate carcinoma, is related to prostate cancer, hereditary, 1 and prostate disease, and has symptoms including tremor, angina pectoris and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Prostate Cancer is CHEK2 (Checkpoint Kinase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Prostate cancer and Transcriptional misregulation in cancer. The drugs Tacrolimus and Ofloxacin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include prostate, bone and lymph node, and related phenotypes are prostate cancer and cellular

Disease Ontology : 12 A male reproductive organ cancer that is located in the prostate.

GARD : 20 Familial prostate cancer is a cluster of prostate cancer within a family. Most cases of prostate cancer occur sporadically in people with no family history of the condition. However, approximately 5% to 10% of prostate cancer cases are believed to be primarily caused by a genetic predisposition to the condition. In many families, the underlying genetic cause is unknown; however, some of these cases are caused by changes ( mutations ) in the BRCA1, BRCA2, HOXB13, or several other genes. Other cases are likely due to a combination of gene(s) and other shared factors such as environment and lifestyle. High-risk cancer screening at an earlier age is typically recommended in men who have an increased risk for prostate cancer based on personal and/or family histories.

MedlinePlus : 42 The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare in men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family history, and being African American. Symptoms of prostate cancer may include Problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling Low back pain Pain with ejaculation To diagnose prostate cancer, you doctor may do a digital rectal exam to feel the prostate for lumps or anything unusual. You may also get a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These tests are also used in prostate cancer screening, which looks for cancer before you have symptoms. If your results are abnormal, you may need more tests, such as an ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy. Treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. How fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage. Men with prostate cancer have many treatment options. The treatment that's best for one man may not be best for another. The options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

CDC : 3 Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. Not including skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men.

KEGG : 36 Prostate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of key molecular alterations in prostate-cancer cells implicates carcinogen defenses (GSTP1), growth-factor-signaling pathways (NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27), and androgens (AR) as critical determinants of the phenotype of prostate-cancer cells. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1) are detoxifying enzymes. Cells of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, devoid of GSTP1, undergo genomic damage mediated by carcinogens. NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27 regulate the growth and survival of prostate cells in the normal prostate. Inadequate levels of PTEN and NKX3.1 lead to a reduction in p27 levels and to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is normally activated by its androgen ligand. During androgen withdrawal therapy, the AR signal transduction pathway also could be activated by amplification of the AR gene, by AR gene mutations, or by altered activity of AR coactivators. Through these mechanisms, tumor cells lead to the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

Novus Biologicals : 55 Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and second most deadly cancer for men in the United States. Prostate cancer occurs when cells within the prostate grow uncontrollably and create small tumors. If untreated, cells from these tumors can spread via metastasis. Metastasis transports prostate cancer cells through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to other parts of the body where they can grow into secondary tumors. PSA, a protein produced by the prostate, is released into the bloodstream in small amounts under normal conditions. However, PSA is released in increasing amounts when the prostate is malfunctioning, as is the case with prostate cancer.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Prostate cancer: A malignancy originating in tissues of the prostate. Most prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas that develop in the acini of the prostatic ducts. Other rare histopathologic types of prostate cancer that occur in approximately 5% of patients include small cell carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, prostatic ductal carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma (basaloid), signet-ring cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma.

PubMed Health : 62 About prostate cancer: Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate start multiplying uncontrollably. This can happen if the genetic information (DNA) in the cells has changed (mutated). The body’s immune system usually keeps these cells in check. Cancer develops if too many mutated cells multiply and a tumor grows. The diagnosis “prostate cancer” usually comes as a shock to men and those close to them. The good news is that prostate cancer is one of the types of cancer with the best chances of recovery. This is because it often grows very slowly so it is generally possible to treat it effectively.

Wikipedia : 73 Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that... more...

More information from OMIM: 176807

Related Diseases for Prostate Cancer

Diseases in the Prostate Cancer family:

Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 1 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 8
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 3 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 4
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 5 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 6
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 7 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 9
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 10 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 12
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 13 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 11
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 14 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 15
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 2 Prostate Carcinoma in Situ

Diseases related to Prostate Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1426)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 prostate cancer, hereditary, 1 33.7 RNASEL HOXB13
2 prostate disease 33.6 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
3 suppression of tumorigenicity 12 33.4 PTEN MIR145 KLF6 CDH1 AR
4 bladder cancer 33.1 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
5 breast cancer 33.0 ZFHX3 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17
6 gastric cancer, hereditary diffuse 32.9 PTEN CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
7 skin carcinoma 32.9 PTEN MIR21 MIR17 CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
8 ovarian cancer 32.8 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
9 gastric cancer 32.5 ZFHX3 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17
10 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 32.5 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A BRCA2
11 renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary 32.3 PTEN MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR145 CDH1
12 lynch syndrome 32.2 RNASEL PTEN MIR17 CHEK2 BRCA2
13 leukemia, acute myeloid 32.2 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
14 esophageal cancer 32.2 PTEN MIR21 MIR146A MIR145 CHEK2 CDH1
15 pancreatic cancer 32.1 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
16 small cell carcinoma 32.0 PTEN BRCA2 AR
17 hepatocellular carcinoma 32.0 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
18 disease of mental health 32.0 PTEN MIR222 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A EPHB2
19 in situ carcinoma 32.0 PTEN MIR17 CDH1 BRCA2
20 lung cancer susceptibility 3 31.9 MIR21 MIR17 MIR145 KLF6 CDH1
21 leukemia, chronic lymphocytic 31.9 PTEN MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
22 rectum cancer 31.9 MIR21 MIR17 MIR145
23 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 31.8 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR146A MIR145
24 b-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma 31.7 CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
25 li-fraumeni syndrome 31.7 PTEN CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
26 glioma 31.6 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 BRCA2
27 diffuse large b-cell lymphoma 31.6 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR145
28 colorectal adenoma 31.6 PTEN MIR21 MIR17 CDH1
29 sporadic breast cancer 31.5 PTEN MIR146A CHEK2 BRCA2
30 bilateral breast cancer 31.5 PTEN CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
31 cervical cancer 31.5 PTEN MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
32 lipoprotein quantitative trait locus 31.5 ZFHX3 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
33 arteries, anomalies of 31.4 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
34 cowden syndrome 31.4 PTEN MIR21 CHEK2 BRCA2
35 ductal carcinoma in situ 31.4 PTEN CDH1 BRCA2 AR
36 disease by infectious agent 31.3 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
37 squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck 31.3 PTEN MIR221 MIR21 MIR145 CDH1
38 trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type i 31.3 MIR222 MIR221 CDH1
39 male reproductive organ cancer 31.3 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
40 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 31.2 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17
41 thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 1 31.2 MIR222 MIR221 MIR146A
42 dermatomyositis 31.2 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21
43 tongue squamous cell carcinoma 31.1 PTEN MIR222 MIR21 CDH1
44 bone inflammation disease 31.1 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
45 spinal disease 31.1 PTEN MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A AR
46 reproductive system disease 31.1 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
47 familial colorectal cancer 31.1 EPHB2 CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
48 hematologic cancer 31.0 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
49 nervous system disease 31.0 MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A MIR145
50 bile duct cancer 31.0 PTEN MIR21 MIR17 MIR145 CDH1

Comorbidity relations with Prostate Cancer via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 35)

Acute Kidney Failure Anthracosis
Asbestosis Azoospermia
Balanoposthitis Bladder Cancer
Bladder Neck Obstruction Chronic Kidney Disease
Cystitis Cystica Deficiency Anemia
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Epididymo-Orchitis
Gout Hydronephrosis
Kidney Disease Lipoma of Spermatic Cord
Lymphadenitis Nephrolithiasis, X-Linked Recessive, with Renal Failure
Oligospermia Paralytic Ileus
Paraplegia Prostate Calculus
Prostate Carcinoma in Situ Prostate Disease
Prostatic Hypertrophy Prostatitis
Radiation Cystitis Spermatocele
Spinal Cord Disease Ureterolithiasis
Urethral Benign Neoplasm Urethral Calculus
Urethral Stricture Urethritis
Urinary Tract Obstruction

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Prostate Cancer:

Diseases related to Prostate Cancer

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Prostate Cancer

Human phenotypes related to Prostate Cancer:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 prostate cancer 31 HP:0012125

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
early onset prostate cancer

Clinical features from OMIM®:

176807 (Updated 20-May-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Prostate Cancer:

tremor; angina pectoris; equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Prostate Cancer:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.06 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 EPHB2 HOXB13
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.03 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 EPHB2 HOXB13
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.97 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 EHBP1 ELAC2
4 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.56 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 MAD1L1 MXI1
5 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.36 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 EPHB2 HOXB13

Drugs & Therapeutics for Prostate Cancer

PubMed Health treatment related to Prostate Cancer: 62

The possible treatment options for prostate cancer will depend on various factors. These include: how much the cells have changed (how aggressive the tumor is) how much the tumor has grown or spread (the stage of prostate cancer ) the man’s PSA levels individual factors such as the man’s age, how healthy he is otherwise, and how important the pros and cons are to him. Men who have high-risk prostate cancer will usually have their prostate surgically removed or treatment with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy can be done in two ways: from outside of the body (external radiotherapy) or from inside the body (internal radiotherapy , or brachytherapy ). The most common side effects of radiotherapy or removing the prostate gland are accidental leakage of urine (urinary incontinence ) and erection problems (impotence). External radiotherapy is especially likely to cause diarrhea , and in some cases inflammations in the bowel which may result in blood in the stool and cramps . If the tumor is small, only inside the prostate , and not aggressive (low-risk prostate cancer ), the following treatments are also possible: Active surveillance : Here the prostate cancer is simply monitored, and not treated, at first. This strategy is based on the fact that low-risk prostate cancer usually grows very slowly or doesn't grow at all. It is often found that the cancer has still not advanced even years after it was diagnosed. Instead of having treatment , the prostate is checked regularly. Treatment attempting to get rid of the cancer (curative treatment) is only started if the tumor starts growing. The advantage of this approach is that the side effects of surgery or radiotherapy can be avoided as long as the cancer does not grow. One possible disadvantage: If the cancer does progress, that is sometimes discovered too late. It may have already spread to other parts of the body by then (metastasis ). Knowing that you have cancer in your body can be distressing too. Watchful waiting : This strategy also starts by only monitoring the prostate cancer at first. But if the tumor starts growing, only the symptoms are treated, not the tumor itself (this is known as “palliative care ). This approach is mainly considered in older men, who may also have other medical problems. The risks and stress of surgery or radiotherapy could outweigh the possible benefits of this treatment . There is no “right” or “wrong” treatment decision for men who have low-risk prostate cancer . The strategy that one man chooses will mainly depend on his personal preferences and values. Some will feel it is more important to avoid side effects like impotence or incontinence as much as possible. Others will want to be very sure that the cancer has been removed, so they are willing to accept the risks associated with treatment. For more advanced stages of prostate cancer , there are several kinds of hormonal treatments and chemotherapies that aim to slow the growth.

Drugs for Prostate Cancer (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 834)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Tacrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104987-11-3 445643 439492 6473866
Ofloxacin Approved Phase 4 82419-36-1 4583
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 100986-85-4 149096
Udenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 268203-93-6 6918523
Risedronate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105462-24-6 5245
Etidronic acid Approved Phase 4 2809-21-4, 7414-83-7 3305
Dutasteride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 164656-23-9 152945 6918296
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Finasteride Approved Phase 4 98319-26-7 57363
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4 10102-43-9 145068
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
Mepivacaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 96-88-8 4062
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2 149436
Pamidronate Approved Phase 4 40391-99-9 4674
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 738-70-5 5578
Fosfomycin Approved Phase 4 23155-02-4 446987
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 4 723-46-6 5329
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Somatostatin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51110-01-1, 38916-34-6 53481605
Pasireotide Approved Phase 4 396091-73-9 9941444
Cabergoline Approved Phase 4 81409-90-7 54746
Abarelix Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 183552-38-7 16131215
Heparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9005-49-6 772 9812414
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
Dihydrotestosterone Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 521-18-6 10635
Amdinocillin Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 32887-01-7 36273
41 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
42 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 4
43 Calcineurin Inhibitors Phase 4
44 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
45 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
46 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
47 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
48 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
49 Angelica Phase 4
50 Dong Quai Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 4751)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Comparison of Health Related Quality of Life and Other Clinical Parameters Between ThinSeed™ and OncoSeed™ for Permanent Low Dose Rate Implantation in Localized Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT01379742 Phase 4
2 MRI With a Lymph Node Specific Contrast Agent: an Alternative for CT-Scanning and Lymph Node Dissection in Patients With Prostate Cancer? Unknown status NCT00185029 Phase 4
3 A Single Arm, Multi-center Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Docetaxel Combined With Carboplatin Plus Anlotinib as First Line Treatment in Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Unknown status NCT03799601 Phase 4 Anlotinib;Docetaxel;Carboplatin
4 METformin And Longevity (METAL): A Window of Opportunity Study Investigating Biological Effects of Metformin in Localised Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT02511665 Phase 4 Metformin;Placebo
5 Efficiency Study of Aspirin to Prevent the Occurrence of Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT02757365 Phase 4 aspirin;Levofloxacin
6 Intermittent Vs Continuous Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT00293670 Phase 4 Goserelin (Zoladex)
7 A Pilot Phase IV Study to Evaluate Variation in Bone Mineral Density, Lean and Fat Body Mass Index Measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Patients With Prostate Cancer Without Bone Metastasis Treated With Degarelix Unknown status NCT03202381 Phase 4 Degarelix
8 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Investigator Initiated Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Udenafil Dosed Once a Day in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction After Bilateral Nerve-sparing Radical Prostatectomy Unknown status NCT03142542 Phase 4 ZYDENA TAB.75mg(Udenafil 75mg);Placebo Oral Tablet
9 Tacrolimus Treatment for Refractory Pure Red Cell Aplasia, a Prospective Study Unknown status NCT03540472 Phase 4 tacrolimus
10 Sirolimus Treatment for Refractory Pure Red Cell Aplasia, a Prospective Study Unknown status NCT03364764 Phase 4 Sirolimus
11 A Multicenter, Open-label Study to Determine the Effect of iv. Zoledronic Acid on Pain and Quality of Life in Patients With Bone Metastases With or Without Skeletal Related Events (SRE) Resulting From Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00434317 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
12 Randomized Crossover Trial to Assess the Tolerability of GnRH Analogue Administration in Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer Completed NCT01161563 Phase 4 Triptorelin pamoate;Leuprolide acetate
13 Angelica Sinensis for the Treatment of Hot Flashes in Men Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00199485 Phase 4 Angelica Sinensis
14 Effect of Isoflavones on Cognition, Quality of Life and Hot Flashes in Men With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy Completed NCT00245518 Phase 4 Isoflavone;Placebos
15 A Randomized Double-Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Casodex (or Generic Equivalent) 50mg Plus Placebo to Casodex (or Generic Equivalent) 50mg Plus Dutasteride 3.5mg Administered for 18 Months to Men With Prostate Cancer Who Have Failed First-Line Androgen Deprivation Therapy (Assessed by Rising PSA) Followed by a Two-Year Extension Phase Completed NCT00470834 Phase 4 dutasteride;placebo;bicalutamide
16 Zoledronic Acid in the Prevention of Skeletal-related Events in Hormone Refractory and Hormone-sensitive Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases Completed NCT00219219 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
17 A Prospective, Single-arm Multicenter Study to Evaluate Effect of Intravenous Zoledronic Acid on Bone Metabolism Given Over 4 Months in Patients With Prostate Cancer or Breast Cancer and Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00334139 Phase 4 Zoledronic Acid
18 A Prospective, Multicenter, Open-label Clinical Evaluation of the Effect of IV Zoledronic Acid 4mg on PAIN, QUALITY OF LIFE and TIME IN INFUSION CHAIR in Breast Cancer, Multiple Myeloma, and Prostate Cancer Patients With Cancer-related Bone Lesions Completed NCT00029224 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
19 A Pilot Study on Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer (PCa) Patients, With Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease, Treated With Degarelix vs. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Agonists Completed NCT02475057 Phase 4 Degarelix (LHRH antagonist);LHRH agonist
20 Phase IV Study of Safety and Efficacy of Docetaxel in Combination With Prednisone in Advanced Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Treatment Completed NCT00280098 Phase 4 docetaxel
21 A Randomised Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effect(s) of Casodex 150 mg and Zoladex 3.6 mg on Pathological and Genomic Tumour Markers in Subjects Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Localised Prostate Carcinoma Completed NCT00293696 Phase 4 bicalutamide (Casodex), goserelin (Zoladex)
22 A Six-Month, Open-Label, Crossover Study Of the Maintenance Of Serum Testosterone And PSA Suppression After Switching Between Lupron 22.5 Mg And Eligard 22.5 Mg Or Zoladex 10.8 Mg And Eligard 22.5 Mg In Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00220194 Phase 4 leuprolide acetate
23 Effect Of Zoledronic Acid On Circulating And Bone Marrow-Residing Prostate Cancer Cells In Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00219271 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
24 Open Randomized Clinical Trial to Examine Individual Pain Tolerance in the Use of Two Anesthetic Techniques to Perform Saturation Prostate Biopsy Completed NCT02909049 Phase 4 MIDAZOLAM;MEPIVACAÍNE;FENTANILE;KETAMINE
25 A Phase IV, Multicenter, National, Non-comparative, Open-label Study of Cabazitaxel, Combined With Prednisone and Prophylaxis of Neutropenia Complications in the Second-line Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer and After Failure of Docetaxel-based Chemotherapy. Descriptive Assessment of the Circulating Tumor Cells in This Context. Completed NCT01649635 Phase 4 CABAZITAXEL (XRP6258);Prednisone;Ciprofloxacin;G-CSF (Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor)
26 Does Androgen Suppression Treatment In Prostate Cancer Reduce Myocardial Blood Flow Reserve? Completed NCT01230905 Phase 4
27 Non-comparative, Opened Multicenter Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of ELIGARD 22.5mg in the Treatment of Subjects With Prostate Cancer Completed NCT01511874 Phase 4 ELIGARD 22.5mg
28 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing The Efficacy And Safety Of Dutasteride At Improving Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms In Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Being Treated With Single-Dose Goserelin, Trans-Urethral Incision Of Prostate, And Interval Brachytherapy Completed NCT00805701 Phase 4 avodart;Placebo
29 Cabazitaxel in Combination With Prednisolone With Primary Prophylaxis With PEG-G-CSF for the Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Completed NCT02441894 Phase 4 CABAZITAXEL XRP6258;PEG-G-CSF;Prednisolone;Dexchlorpheniramine or Diphenhydramine;Ranitidine;Metoclopramide, Granisetron, or Ondansetron;Dexamethasone
30 An Open Randomised Trial to Compare the Value of Prophylactic Versus Therapeutic Breast Radiotherapy in CASODEX Monotherapy Induced Gynaecomastia and/or Breast Pain in Prostate Cancer Patients Completed NCT00590213 Phase 4 Casodex 150mg
31 A Phase 4 Study of Zytiga in Poor-risk mCRPC (Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer) Patients Who Was Failed the First-line CAB (Combined Androgen Blockade) Therapy Completed NCT02405858 Phase 4 Abiraterone Acetate;Prednisolone
32 A 12 Month Open Label Study of Serum Testosterone Recovery and PSA After Neo-Adjuvant Treatment With Eligard(TM) 22.5mg Used With Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early Prostate Cancer Completed NCT01136226 Phase 4 Eligard (TM)
33 A Multi-center, Single Arm Study of Enzalutamide in Patients With Progressive Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Previously Treated With Abiraterone Acetate Completed NCT02116582 Phase 4 Enzalutamide
34 Evaluation of Bone Markers as Diagnostic Tools for Early Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With High Risk Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00391690 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
35 Open-label Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Zoledronic Acid in Patients With Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastases Completed NCT00242554 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
36 Study to Evaluate Zoledronic Acid on Quality of Life and Skeletal-related Events as Adjuvant Treatment in Patients With Hormone-naïve Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis Who Have Undergone Orchiectomy. Completed NCT00237146 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
37 The Prognosis of Lipid Reprogramming With the HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor, Rosuvastatin, in Castrated Egyptian Prostate Cancer Patients Completed NCT04776889 Phase 4 Rosuvastatin 20mg
38 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Zoledronic Acid in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Cancer Who Can be Treated With a Group of Medications Known as Bisphosphonates Completed NCT00172016 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
39 An Open-label Trial on the Effect of I.V. Zoledronic Acid 4 mg on Bone Mineral Density in Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00035997 Phase 4 Zometa
40 A Multicentric, Multinational (China and Russia), Randomised, Open, Controlled Study of Immediate 9 Months Adjuvant Hormone Therapy With Triptorelin 11.25 mg Versus Active Surveillance After Radical Prostatectomy in High Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Completed NCT01753297 Phase 4 Triptorelin 11.25 mg
41 Assessment of the Efficacy, Tolerability and Pharmaco-economic Impact of Zoledronic Acid Treatment in Prostate Cancer With Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00241111 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
42 MRI Substudy; Metabolic Changes Due to Iatrogenic Hypogonadism in Patients With Prostate Cancer: Orchiectomy vs. Triptorelin Completed NCT02102646 Phase 4 Triptorelin
43 Multicentre, Single Arm, Open Label, Non Controlled Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate Safety of Cabazitaxel (Jevtana) in Combination With Oral Prednisone (or Prednisolone) for the Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Previously Treated With a Docetaxel-containing Regimen Completed NCT02074137 Phase 4 CABAZITAXEL XRP6258;Prednisone;Prednisolone
44 A Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label, Postmarketing Safety Study to Evaluate the Risk of Seizure Among Subjects With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC) Treated With Enzalutamide Who Are at Potential Increased Risk of Seizure Completed NCT01977651 Phase 4 Enzalutamide
45 Effect of Zoledronic Acid in Patients With Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00237159 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
46 A Phase IV Interventional Safety Study of ELIGARD® in Prostate Cancer Patients in Asia (ELIGANT) Completed NCT03035032 Phase 4 Leuprolide
47 The Effect Of Risedronate On Bone Turnover And Bone Mass In Older Men Completed NCT00859027 Phase 4 risedronate;Placebo risedronate oral tablet
48 Global Performance Evaluation of the AMS CONTINUUM™ Device in Facilitating Vesico-Urethral Anastomosis Following a Radical Prostatectomy Completed NCT01083199 Phase 4
49 Improving Prostate Biopsy Efficiency: The Finasteride Challenge Test Completed NCT01296672 Phase 4 Finasteride;Placebo
50 The Effect of Combined General/Epidural Anesthesia Versus General Anesthesia on Diaphragmatic Function After Robot-assisted Prostatectomy Completed NCT01547416 Phase 4 epidural 250mL of 0.2% ropivacaine and 2 μg/mL of fentanyl, 5 mL/hr continuous infusion and 0.5 mL bolus dose;no epidural drug administered

Search NIH Clinical Center for Prostate Cancer

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

Estradiol acetate
estradiol cypionate
estradiol valerate
Estramustine Phosphate Sodium
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Estrogens, Esterified (USP)
Ethinyl Estradiol
etoposide phosphate
Goserelin Acetate
Leuprolide Acetate
Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
polyestradiol phosphate
Sodium estrone sulfate
synthetic conjugated estrogens, A
synthetic conjugated estrogens, B

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Prostate Cancer cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: prostatic neoplasms

Genetic Tests for Prostate Cancer

Genetic tests related to Prostate Cancer:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Familial Prostate Carcinoma 29
2 Malignant Tumor of Prostate 29 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 KLF6 MAD1L1 MXI1 PTEN ZFHX3
3 Prostate Neoplasm 29

Anatomical Context for Prostate Cancer

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Prostate Cancer:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Prostate Cancer:

Prostate, Bone, Lymph Node, Breast, Lung, T Cells, Bone Marrow

Publications for Prostate Cancer

Articles related to Prostate Cancer:

(show top 50) (show all 42777)
# Title Authors PMID Year
The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. 61 57 6
22722839 2012
Comprehensive genetic evaluation of common E-cadherin sequence variants and prostate cancer risk: strong confirmation of functional promoter SNP. 54 57 6
16189707 2005
-160C/A polymorphism in the E-cadherin gene promoter and risk of hereditary, familial and sporadic prostate cancer. 54 57 6
14961571 2004
KLF6, a candidate tumor suppressor gene mutated in prostate cancer. 6 57 54
11752579 2001
Mutation of the MXI1 gene in prostate cancer. 57 6 54
7773287 1995
Exome sequencing identifies recurrent SPOP, FOXA1 and MED12 mutations in prostate cancer. 57 6
22610119 2012
Multiple loci identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer. 6 57
18264096 2008
Multiple newly identified loci associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. 57 6
18264097 2008
8q24 genetic variation and comprehensive haplotypes altering familial risk of prostate cancer. 6 61
32251286 2020
Selective inhibition of the BD2 bromodomain of BET proteins in prostate cancer. 61 57
31969702 2020
IL-23 secreted by myeloid cells drives castration-resistant prostate cancer. 57 61
29950727 2018
Analysis of the androgen receptor-regulated lncRNA landscape identifies a role for ARLNC1 in prostate cancer progression. 57 61
29808028 2018
Rb1 and Trp53 cooperate to suppress prostate cancer lineage plasticity, metastasis, and antiandrogen resistance. 61 57
28059767 2017
SOX2 promotes lineage plasticity and antiandrogen resistance in TP53- and RB1-deficient prostate cancer. 61 57
28059768 2017
Association between germline homeobox B13 (HOXB13) G84E allele and prostate cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. 61 6
27626483 2016
Inherited DNA-Repair Gene Mutations in Men with Metastatic Prostate Cancer. 61 57
27433846 2016
HOXB13 is a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer: results from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). 6 61
23064873 2013
Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study. 57 61
21743467 2011
Comprehensive resequence analysis of a 97 kb region of chromosome 10q11.2 containing the MSMB gene associated with prostate cancer. 61 6
19644707 2009
Induced chromosomal proximity and gene fusions in prostate cancer. 57 54
19933109 2009
Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study. 57 61
19767753 2009
miR-331-3p regulates ERBB-2 expression and androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. 54 47 61
19584056 2009
Fine mapping and functional analysis of a common variant in MSMB on chromosome 10q11.2 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. 6 54
19383797 2009
Duplication of the fusion of TMPRSS2 to ERG sequences identifies fatal human prostate cancer. 57 54
17637754 2008
Distinct classes of chromosomal rearrangements create oncogenic ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer. 57 54
17671502 2007
Nuclear cytokine-activated IKKalpha controls prostate cancer metastasis by repressing Maspin. 57 54
17377533 2007
A large germline deletion in the Chek2 kinase gene is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. 6 54
17085682 2006
A common nonsense mutation in EphB2 is associated with prostate cancer risk in African American men with a positive family history. 6 54
16155194 2006
Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant. 6 54
16609730 2006
Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. 54 57
16254181 2005
A combined genomewide linkage scan of 1,233 families for prostate cancer-susceptibility genes conducted by the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics. 57 61
15988677 2005
Frequent somatic mutations of the transcription factor ATBF1 in human prostate cancer. 6 54
15750593 2005
CHEK2 is a multiorgan cancer susceptibility gene. 6 54
15492928 2004
Two percent of men with early-onset prostate cancer harbor germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene. 6 54
12474142 2003
RNASEL Arg462Gln variant is implicated in up to 13% of prostate cancer cases. 54 6
12415269 2002
Meta-analysis of associations of the Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr variants in ELAC2 (HPC2) and prostate cancer. 54 6
12515253 2002
Germline mutations in the ribonuclease L gene in families showing linkage with HPC1. 54 6
11799394 2002
Association of common missense changes in ELAC2 ( HPC2) with prostate cancer in a Japanese case-control series. 6 54
12522685 2002
BRCA2 mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer. 6 54
11170288 2001
A candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene at chromosome 17p. 6 54
11175785 2001
V89L polymorphism of type-2, 5-alpha reductase enzyme gene predicts prostate cancer presence and progression. 54 57
11164181 2001
Frequent inactivation of PTEN/MMAC1 in primary prostate cancer. 61 6
9371490 1997
The association between family history of prostate cancer and development of prostate cancer among Korean population: A prospective cohort study using KoGES data. 61 42
33607822 2021
Progenitors from the central nervous system drive neurogenesis in cancer. 57
31092925 2019
Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort. 6
25629170 2015
Prospective enterprise-level molecular genotyping of a cohort of cancer patients. 6
25157968 2014
Identification of a novel germline SPOP mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer. 57
24796539 2014
G84E mutation in HOXB13 is firmly associated with prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. 6
24026887 2014
A population-based assessment of germline HOXB13 G84E mutation and prostate cancer risk. 6
22841674 2014
lncRNA-dependent mechanisms of androgen-receptor-regulated gene activation programs. 57
23945587 2013

Variations for Prostate Cancer

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Prostate Cancer:

6 (show top 50) (show all 1623)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 PRNCR1 NR_109833.1(PRNCR1):n.11999A>G SNV association 979039 GRCh37: 8:128104117-128104117
GRCh38: 8:127091872-127091872
2 CASC19 SNV association 979041 GRCh37: 8:128205878-128205878
GRCh38: 8:127193633-127193633
3 CASC19 SNV association 979042 GRCh37: 8:128208369-128208369
GRCh38: 8:127196124-127196124
4 CASC21 Microsatellite association 979043 GRCh37: 8:128285409-128285412
GRCh38: 8:127273164-127273167
5 CASC21 , CASC8 Duplication association 979044 GRCh37: 8:128337272-128337273
GRCh38: 8:127325027-127325028
6 CASC8 SNV association 979045 GRCh37: 8:128479976-128479976
GRCh38: 8:127467731-127467731
7 RNASEL NM_021133.4(RNASEL):c.1767G>A (p.Trp589Ter) SNV Pathogenic 997627 GRCh37: 1:182551193-182551193
GRCh38: 1:182582058-182582058
8 CHEK2 NM_007194.4(CHEK2):c.542G>A (p.Arg181His) SNV Pathogenic 5598 rs121908701 GRCh37: 22:29121015-29121015
GRCh38: 22:28725027-28725027
9 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.9117G>A (p.Pro3039=) SNV Pathogenic 38215 rs28897756 GRCh37: 13:32954050-32954050
GRCh38: 13:32379913-32379913
10 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.5857G>T (p.Glu1953Ter) SNV Pathogenic 51952 rs80358814 GRCh37: 13:32914349-32914349
GRCh38: 13:32340212-32340212
11 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.145G>T (p.Glu49Ter) SNV Pathogenic 51129 rs80358435 GRCh37: 13:32893291-32893291
GRCh38: 13:32319154-32319154
12 CHEK2 NM_007194.4(CHEK2):c.349A>G (p.Arg117Gly) SNV Pathogenic 128071 rs28909982 GRCh37: 22:29121326-29121326
GRCh38: 22:28725338-28725338
13 CHEK2 NM_007194.4(CHEK2):c.1283C>T (p.Ser428Phe) SNV Pathogenic 5603 rs137853011 GRCh37: 22:29091207-29091207
GRCh38: 22:28695219-28695219
14 CHEK2 NM_007194.4(CHEK2):c.417C>A (p.Tyr139Ter) SNV Pathogenic 439092 rs200917541 GRCh37: 22:29121258-29121258
GRCh38: 22:28725270-28725270
15 BRCA2 NM_000059.3(BRCA2):c.2330dup (p.Asp777fs) Duplication Pathogenic 91775 rs80359328 GRCh37: 13:32910821-32910822
GRCh38: 13:32336684-32336685
16 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.92G>A (p.Trp31Ter) SNV Pathogenic 52808 rs397508045 GRCh37: 13:32893238-32893238
GRCh38: 13:32319101-32319101
17 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.100G>T (p.Glu34Ter) SNV Pathogenic 51041 rs80358391 GRCh37: 13:32893246-32893246
GRCh38: 13:32319109-32319109
18 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.3109C>T (p.Gln1037Ter) SNV Pathogenic 37819 rs80358557 GRCh37: 13:32911601-32911601
GRCh38: 13:32337464-32337464