Protein C Deficiency

Categories: Blood diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Protein C Deficiency

MalaCards integrated aliases for Protein C Deficiency:

Name: Protein C Deficiency 12 74 52 25 54 43 15 17 71
Autosomal Recessive Thrombophilia Due to Congenital Protein C Deficiency 52
Severe Hereditary Thrombophilia Due to Congenital Protein C Deficiency 52
Congenital Thrombotic Disease, Due to Protein C Deficiency 71
Autosomal Recessive Thrombophilia Due to Pc Deficiency 52
Hereditary Thrombophilia Due to Protein C Deficiency 25
Proc Deficiency 25


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:3756
MeSH 43 D020151
NCIt 49 C99025
SNOMED-CT 67 76407009
ICD10 32 D68.59
UMLS 71 C0398625 C2930896

Summaries for Protein C Deficiency

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Protein C deficiency is a disorder that increases the risk of developing abnormal blood clots; the condition can be mild or severe. Individuals with mild protein C deficiency are at risk of a type of blood clot known as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). These clots occur in the deep veins of the arms or legs, away from the surface of the skin. A DVT can travel through the bloodstream and lodge in the lungs, causing a life-threatening blockage of blood flow known as a pulmonary embolism (PE). While most people with mild protein C deficiency never develop abnormal blood clots, certain factors can add to the risk of their development. These factors include increased age, surgery, inactivity, or pregnancy. Having another inherited disorder of blood clotting in addition to protein C deficiency can also influence the risk of abnormal blood clotting. In severe cases of protein C deficiency, infants develop a life-threatening blood clotting disorder called purpura fulminans soon after birth. Purpura fulminans is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the small blood vessels throughout the body. These blood clots block normal blood flow and can lead to localized death of body tissue (necrosis). Widespread blood clotting uses up all available blood clotting proteins. As a result, abnormal bleeding occurs in various parts of the body, which can cause large, purple patches on the skin. Individuals who survive the newborn period may experience recurrent episodes of purpura fulminans.

MalaCards based summary : Protein C Deficiency, also known as autosomal recessive thrombophilia due to congenital protein c deficiency, is related to budd-chiari syndrome and splenic infarction. An important gene associated with Protein C Deficiency is PROC (Protein C, Inactivator Of Coagulation Factors Va And VIIIa), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Collagen chain trimerization. The drugs Protein C and Fibrinolytic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, lung and liver, and related phenotypes are Increased replication of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cardiovascular system

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Protein C deficiency is a disorder that increases a person's risk to develop abnormal blood clots due to a deficiency of the Protein C, a protein in the body that prevents blood clotting. It may be inherited or acquired. Inherited deficiency of protein C can lead to familial thrombophilia (increased tendency toward thrombosis). It is caused by mutations in the PROC gene , and in most cases is transmitted in an autosomal dominant way; a few people inherit an abnormal allele from both parents and may have a more severe disease (please see autosomal recessive protein C deficiency ) because they have very low levels of active protein C. Acquired protein C deficiency may be caused by large blood clots, liver disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), infection (sepsis), vitamin K deficiency, use of warfarin or certain types of chemotherapy . While m ost people with protein C deficiency do not have problems, some are at risk for a type of clot called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which can travel through the bloodstream and become stuck in the lung, causing pulmonary embolism . Also, abnormal bleeding can occur in various parts of the body causing purple patches on the skin. Treatment depend on the symptoms severity. Most people do not need any treatment. However, in situations of clot risk such as pregnancy, surgery or trauma, prevention treatment may be indicated.

Wikipedia : 74 Protein C deficiency is a rare genetic trait that predisposes to thrombotic disease. It was first... more...

Related Diseases for Protein C Deficiency

Diseases related to Protein C Deficiency via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 330)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 budd-chiari syndrome 31.8 SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 F2 APOH
2 splenic infarction 30.2 SERPINC1 F2 APOH
3 vitamin k deficiency bleeding 30.2 SERPINC1 F9 F2
4 sagittal sinus thrombosis 30.2 SERPINC1 F5 F2
5 purpura fulminans 30.1 SERPINC1 PROCR PROC F5 F2 APOH
7 esophageal varix 30.0 SERPINC1 F2
8 cavernous sinus thrombosis 30.0 SERPINC1 F2
9 prothrombin-related thrombophilia 29.9 MTHFR F2
10 raynaud phenomenon 29.9 THBD APOH
11 hemophilia b 29.8 SERPINC1 F9 F2
12 neonatal stroke 29.7 SERPINE1 PROC MTHFR
13 hepatic infarction 29.7 SERPINC1 F2 APOH
14 compartment syndrome 29.7 SERPINC1 F2
15 endocarditis 29.6 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F2 APOH
16 pulmonary hypertension 29.6 THBD SFTPC SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F2
17 intracranial thrombosis 29.6 SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 F2 APOH
18 antithrombin iii deficiency 29.6 SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 F2 APOH
19 lateral sinus thrombosis 29.6 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
20 pregnancy loss, recurrent 1 29.6 MTHFR F5 APOH
21 marantic endocarditis 29.6 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
22 varicose veins 29.5 THBD SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 F2
23 amaurosis fugax 29.5 SERPINE1 MTHFR F5
24 atrial heart septal defect 29.4 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
25 chronic venous insufficiency 29.4 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2
26 osteonecrosis 29.3 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
27 cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 29.3 MTHFR F5 F2 APOH
28 thrombophlebitis 29.3 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROC MTHFR F5 F2
29 peripheral vascular disease 29.2 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F5 F2
30 central retinal vein occlusion 29.2 SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 F2 APOH
31 venous insufficiency 29.2 SERPINE1 MTHFR F5 F2
32 disseminated intravascular coagulation 29.2 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROCR F9 F5
33 livedoid vasculitis 29.1 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
34 portal vein thrombosis 29.1 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROC MTHFR F5 F2
35 buerger disease 29.1 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2 APOH
36 ischemic colitis 29.0 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F5 F2 APOH
37 arteriosclerosis 29.0 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1
38 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 28.9 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROCR PROC MTHFR
39 acute promyelocytic leukemia 28.8 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F2
40 legg-calve-perthes disease 28.8 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 APOH
41 thrombocytopenia 28.8 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F9 F5 F2
42 eclampsia 28.7 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
43 essential thrombocythemia 28.7 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F2
44 afibrinogenemia, congenital 28.7 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F5 F2 CFP
45 pulmonary embolism 28.6 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROC MTHFR F9
46 hemorrhagic disease 28.6 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 F9 F5 F2
47 cerebrovascular disease 28.5 THBD SERPINE1 PROCR MTHFR F5 F2
48 protein s deficiency 28.5 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROC MTHFR F5
49 retinal vein occlusion 28.5 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F5 F2 APOH
50 thrombophilia due to activated protein c resistance 28.4 THBD SERPINE1 SERPINC1 MTHFR F9 F5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Protein C Deficiency:

Diseases related to Protein C Deficiency

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Protein C Deficiency

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Protein C Deficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased replication of vaccinia virus (VACV) GR00362-A 9.02 FOXM1 PROC SERPINC1 SERPINE1 THBD

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Protein C Deficiency:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.11 CFP F2 F5 F9 FOXM1 PROC
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.1 APOH CFP F2 F5 F9 FOXM1
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.96 CFP F2 F9 FOXM1 PROC PROCR
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.77 APOH CFP F2 F5 F9 FOXM1
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.76 F5 F9 FOXM1 MTHFR PROC SERPINC1
6 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.1 F2 FOXM1 PROC SERPINE1 SFTPC THBD

Drugs & Therapeutics for Protein C Deficiency

Drugs for Protein C Deficiency (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 24)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Protein C Approved Phase 3
2 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 3
3 Drotrecogin alfa activated Phase 2
4 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
Enoxaparin Approved 9005-49-6 772
Methyltestosterone Approved 58-18-4 6010
Testosterone Approved, Experimental, Investigational 58-22-0, 481-30-1 6013 10204
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational 5949-44-0
Testosterone enanthate Approved 315-37-7 9416
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical 50-81-7 5785 54670067
11 Estrogens
12 Trace Elements
13 Micronutrients
14 Vitamins
15 Anabolic Agents
16 Antioxidants
17 Nutrients
18 Protective Agents
19 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
20 Testosterone 17 beta-cypionate
21 Androgens
22 Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
23 Hormone Antagonists
24 Hormones

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 11)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Phase II/III Clinical Study for the Determination of the Efficacy and Safety of Protein C Concentrate in Subjects With Severe Congenital Protein C Deficiency Completed NCT00157118 Phase 2, Phase 3 Protein C Concentrate (Human) Vapor Heated
2 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter, Phase 3 Study of Drotrecogin Alfa (Activated) Administered as a Continuous 96-hr Infusion to Adult Patients With Septic Shock Completed NCT00604214 Phase 3 Drotrecogin alfa (activated);Placebo
3 Administration of Protein C Concentrates in Adult Critically Ill Septic Patients Terminated NCT01705808 Phase 3 Protein C concentrate
4 Prospective, Randomized Phase II Clinical Trial of Activated Protein C (Xigris) Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury Terminated NCT00112164 Phase 2 Xigris
5 A Retrospective Study to Capture Dosing and Treatment Outcome Data in Subjects With Severe Congenital Protein C Deficiency Who Were Treated With Protein C Concentrate Under an Emergency Use IND Completed NCT00161720 Protein C Concentrate (Human) Vapor Heated
6 Ceprotin Treatment Registry Completed NCT01127529
7 Thromboprophylaxis in Pregnant Women in Hospital: A Prospective Clinical Trial Recruiting NCT02600260 Enoxaparin
8 Sepsis-Associated Purpura Fulminans International Registry - Europe Recruiting NCT02238795
9 Serum Androgen Levels as a Marker for the Severity of Preeclampsia Active, not recruiting NCT03744988
10 Investigation of Ghrelin Levels in Patients With Protein C Deficiency Not yet recruiting NCT04180657
11 Validation of a Novel Dabigatran Based Peri-Operative Bridging Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients on Chronic Warfarin Therapy Withdrawn NCT01810237 Dabigatran.

Search NIH Clinical Center for Protein C Deficiency

Cochrane evidence based reviews: protein c deficiency

Genetic Tests for Protein C Deficiency

Anatomical Context for Protein C Deficiency

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Protein C Deficiency:

Skin, Lung, Liver, Heart, Testes, Kidney, Myeloid

Publications for Protein C Deficiency

Articles related to Protein C Deficiency:

(show top 50) (show all 1297)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Incidence of thrombophilia and venous thrombosis in transsexuals under cross-sex hormone therapy. 54 61
19200981 2010
[Interstitial lung disease in the course of the surfactant protein C deficiency coexisting with the primary humoral immunodeficiency - case study]. 54 61
20461694 2010
Thrombophilia investigation in Malaysian women with recurrent pregnancy loss. 54 61
20144172 2009
Severe purpura fulminans due to coexistence of homozygous protein C deficiency and homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation. 54 61
19954370 2009
[Cerebral venous thrombosis: when etiology makes the difference]. 54 61
19921552 2009
Fulminant sepsis/meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae in a protein C-deficient heterozygote treated with activated protein C therapy. 54 61
18751723 2009
Definite diagnosis in Japanese patients with protein C deficiency by identification of causative PROC mutations. 54 61
19373522 2009
Thrombophilia: 2009 update. 54 61
19289024 2009
Activated protein C concentrate treatment for skin necrosis under warfarin treatment in severe genetic protein C deficiency combined with prothrombin mutation and factor V Leiden. 54 61
19190829 2009
Deficiency of the natural anticoagulant proteins in women with pregnancy related venous thromboembolism. 54 61
19514602 2009
High long-term absolute risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with hereditary deficiencies of protein S, protein C or antithrombin. 54 61
19132194 2009
Etiology of hypercoagulable state in women with recurrent fetal loss without other causes of miscarriage from Southern Italy: new clinical target for antithrombotic therapy. 54 61
19707467 2008
Protein C deficiency. 54 61
19141162 2008
Hereditary deficiency of protein C or protein S confers increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events at a young age: results from a large family cohort study. 54 61
18824642 2008
Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and protein C mutation frequency in Turkish venous thrombosis patients. 54 61
18160601 2008
A model for the formation, growth, and lysis of clots in quiescent plasma. A comparison between the effects of antithrombin III deficiency and protein C deficiency. 54 61
18539301 2008
Arteriovenous thrombosis in chronic renal failure patients receiving renal replacement therapy. 54 61
18760065 2008
Etiological profile of stroke and its relation with prothrombotic states. 54 61
18759085 2008
Thrombophilia differences in cerebral venous sinus and lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. 54 61
18285537 2008
Severe protein C deficiency from compound heterozygous mutations in the PROC gene in two Korean adult patients. 54 61
18573519 2008
Hemostasis activation in thrombophilic subjects with or without a history of venous thrombosis. 54 61
17895509 2008
Risk factors of venous thromboembolism in thai patients. 54 61
18192106 2007
Prothrombotic risk factors in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. 54 61
17875083 2007
Arterial thrombosis and the role of thrombophilia. 54 61
17768691 2007
The prevalence of thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism in total knee arthroplasty. 54 61
17710975 2007
Hirudin treatment for multiple thromboses in a preterm infant with inherited thrombophilia. 54 61
17473583 2007
Myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis in a 42-year old woman with heterozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHRF) gene mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia, and protein C deficiency. 54 61
17360059 2007
Livedoid vasculopathy and hypercoagulability in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome. 54 61
17442092 2007
Livedoid vasculopathy associated with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter homozygosity (4G/4G) treated successfully with tissue plasminogen activator. 54 61
17116837 2006
The relationship between pregnancy induced hypertension and congenital thrombophilia. 54 61
16883445 2006
Stroke in childhood: experience in Istanbul, Turkey. 54 61
16636011 2006
The prevalence of thrombophilia in patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease. 54 61
16607693 2006
Cardiopulmonary bypass for a coronary artery bypass graft patient with heterozygous protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency. 54 61
16615690 2006
Prothrombotic abnormalities in childhood ischaemic stroke. 54 61
16039697 2006
The John Charnley Award: heritable thrombophilia and development of thromboembolic disease after total hip arthroplasty. 54 61
16330983 2005
Protein C Sapporo (protein C Glu 25 --> Lys): a heterozygous missense mutation in the Gla domain provides new insight into the interaction between protein C and endothelial protein C receptor. 54 61
16363234 2005
Thrombophilia testing in patients with venous thrombosis. 54 61
16055356 2005
[Venous thromboembolic disease: which coagulation screening, for whom, when?]. 54 61
16240880 2005
The relationship of the factor V Leiden mutation and pregnancy outcomes for mother and fetus. 54 61
16135581 2005
Ischemic stroke subtypes and thrombophilia in young and elderly Brazilian stroke patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. 54 61
16109904 2005
Protein S deficiency is common in a healthy Thai population. 54 61
16623037 2005
Thrombophilia in children with cystic fibrosis. 54 61
15678507 2005
Homozygous type I Protein C deficiency in neonatal purpura fulminans with a novel frame-shift deletion of 10 base pairs in exon 8 of PROC gene. 54 61
15748260 2005
Ethnic differences in cerebral venous thrombosis. 54 61
15644626 2005
Hydroxychloroquine and surfactant protein C deficiency. 54 61
15647591 2005
Recurrent miscarriage syndrome and infertility due to blood coagulation protein/platelet defects: a review and update. 54 61
15678268 2005
[Primary thrombophilia. Report of 93 cases and 12 asymptomatic relatives]. 54 61
15743157 2004
Prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation and other hereditary thrombophilic factors in Egyptian children with portal vein thrombosis: results of a single-center case-control study. 54 61
15309526 2004
Frequency of hereditary thrombophilia: an AKUH experience. 54 61
15461212 2004
R147W mutation of PROC gene is common in venous thrombotic patients in Taiwanese Chinese. 54 61
15114590 2004

Variations for Protein C Deficiency

Expression for Protein C Deficiency

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Protein C Deficiency.

Pathways for Protein C Deficiency

Pathways related to Protein C Deficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.64 PROC F9 F2
7 10.61 PROC F9 F2
8 10.52 SERPINE1 HRG

GO Terms for Protein C Deficiency

Cellular components related to Protein C Deficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.95 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROCR HRG F9 F2
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.9 SFTPC SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROCR PROC HRG
3 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.73 SERPINC1 PROC F9 F5 F2 CFP
4 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.61 SERPINC1 HRG F2
5 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 9.54 PROC F9 F2
6 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 9.5 SERPINE1 HRG F5
7 collagen-containing extracellular matrix GO:0062023 9.5 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 HRG F9 F2 CFP
8 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.36 THBD SFTPC SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROCR PROC

Biological processes related to Protein C Deficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport GO:0006888 9.8 PROC F9 F5 F2
2 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.8 SFTPC SERPINC1 PROC F5 F2
3 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.78 SERPINE1 HRG F5 APOH
4 blood coagulation GO:0007596 9.76 THBD SERPINC1 PROCR PROC HRG F9
5 negative regulation of endopeptidase activity GO:0010951 9.72 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 HRG
6 fibrinolysis GO:0042730 9.63 SERPINE1 HRG F2
7 negative regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030195 9.62 THBD SERPINE1 PROC APOH
8 blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway GO:0007597 9.61 F9 F2 APOH
9 regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030193 9.56 SERPINC1 HRG F2 APOH
10 negative regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin GO:0033629 9.54 SERPINE1 HRG
11 positive regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030194 9.54 SERPINE1 F2 APOH
12 negative regulation of platelet activation GO:0010544 9.52 THBD F2
13 negative regulation of coagulation GO:0050819 9.51 PROCR PROC
14 negative regulation of fibrinolysis GO:0051918 9.35 THBD SERPINE1 HRG F2 APOH
15 hemostasis GO:0007599 9.23 THBD SERPINC1 PROCR PROC HRG F9

Molecular functions related to Protein C Deficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 10.07 THBD SFTPC SERPINE1 SERPINC1 PROCR PROC
2 serine-type endopeptidase activity GO:0004252 9.5 PROC F9 F2
3 serine-type peptidase activity GO:0008236 9.33 PROC F9 F2
4 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity GO:0004867 9.13 SERPINE1 SERPINC1 HRG
5 heparin binding GO:0008201 8.92 SERPINC1 HRG F2 APOH

Sources for Protein C Deficiency

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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