PEM
MCID: PRT038
MIFTS: 53

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)

Categories: Metabolic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

MalaCards integrated aliases for Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

Name: Protein-Energy Malnutrition 12 73 54 44 15 70
Protein Energy Malnutrition 17
Pem 48

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11801
ICD9CM 34 263.9
MeSH 44 D011502
NCIt 50 C34952
SNOMED-CT 67 72608005
ICD10 32 E46
UMLS 70 C0033677

Summaries for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Disease Ontology : 12 A nutritional deficiency disease that is characterized by inadequate dietary protein and calories, which can have profound systemic effects including decreased metabolism, altered tissue distribution, compromised immunity, and impaired growth, and has material basis in dietary deprivation.

MalaCards based summary : Protein-Energy Malnutrition, also known as protein energy malnutrition, is related to chronic fatigue syndrome and marasmus, and has symptoms including cachexia and emaciation. An important gene associated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Folate Metabolism and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers. The drugs Pentoxifylline and Antioxidants have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, kidney and thyroid, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 73 Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), sometimes called protein-energy undernutrition (PEU), is a form of... more...

Related Diseases for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 542)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chronic fatigue syndrome 31.9 TNF IL6 IGF1
2 marasmus 31.9 TTR SHBG IGF1 ALB
3 kwashiorkor 31.8 TTR SHBG GPT ALB
4 gastroenteritis 30.7 TNF IL6 ALB
5 cardiogenic shock 30.5 TNF IL6
6 acute kidney failure 30.4 HP GPT ALB
7 iron deficiency anemia 30.4 TNF TF IL6 CP
8 eating disorder 30.4 LEPQTL1 LEP ALB
9 brain injury 30.3 IL6 IGF1 ALB
10 fetal macrosomia 30.3 LEPQTL1 LEP IGF1
11 pyuria 30.2 IL6 GPT ALB
12 plague 30.2 TNF IL6 ALB
13 insulin-like growth factor i 30.2 SHBG LEP IGF1
14 pericardial effusion 30.1 TTR IL6 GPT ALB
15 uremia 30.0 TNF LEP IL6 ALB
16 amyloidosis 30.0 TTR TNF IL6 ALB
17 metabolic acidosis 30.0 IL6 IGF1 GPT ALB
18 viral hepatitis 30.0 TNF IL6 GPT CP ALB
19 pancytopenia 30.0 TTR IL6 HP CP
20 plasmodium falciparum malaria 30.0 TNF IL6 HP
21 bacterial pneumonia 29.9 TNF IL6 GPT ALB
22 gingivitis 29.9 TNF MPO IL6
23 alcoholic hepatitis 29.9 TNF IL6 GPT ALB
24 pneumonia 29.9 TNF MPO IL6 CFTR ALB
25 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 29.9 TNF MPO IL6 CFTR ALB
26 otitis media 29.9 TNF MPO IL6 ALB
27 end stage renal disease 29.9 TTR TNF LEP IL6 ALB
28 pre-eclampsia 29.9 TNF LEP IL6 IGF1 ALB
29 fatty liver disease 29.8 TNF RBP4 LEP IL6 GPT
30 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 29.8 TNF IL6 ALB
31 hepatic encephalopathy 29.8 TTR TNF IL6 GPT ALB
32 alcoholic liver cirrhosis 29.8 TNF TF IL6 GPT ALB
33 acute cystitis 29.8 TNF IL6 GPT ALB
34 decubitus ulcer 29.7 TTR TNF IL6 IGF1 ALB
35 bronchitis 29.7 TNF MPO IL6 CFTR ALB
36 adult respiratory distress syndrome 29.7 TNF TF MPO IL6 CP
37 anorexia nervosa 29.7 TTR SHBG LEPQTL1 LEP IGF1
38 neutropenia 29.6 TNF MPO IL6 GPT CP ALB
39 cerebral palsy 29.6 TNF MPO LEP IL6 IGF1
40 acute pancreatitis 29.6 TNF MPO IL6 GPT CFTR
41 hyperinsulinism 29.6 SHBG LEPQTL1 LEP IGF1
42 crohn's disease 29.5 TNF MPO IL6 HP ALB
43 sickle cell anemia 29.4 TNF MPO IL6 IGF1 GPT ALB
44 lipid metabolism disorder 29.4 SHBG RBP4 LEP IL6
45 deficiency anemia 29.3 TTR TNF TF IL6 IGF1 HP
46 malaria 29.3 TNF MPO IL6 HP GPT ALB
47 cystic fibrosis 29.3 TNF MPO IL6 IGF1 HP CP
48 nephrotic syndrome 29.3 TNF TF RBP4 IL6 HP ALB
49 liver disease 29.2 TNF TF RBP4 LEP IL6 GPT
50 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 29.1 TNF RBP4 LEP IL6 IGF1 GPT

Comorbidity relations with Protein-Energy Malnutrition via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 149)


Acquired Thrombocytopenia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Conjunctivitis Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Acute Myocardial Infarction
Acute Pancreatitis Acute Vascular Insufficiency of Intestine
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcoholic Hepatitis
Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Alcoholic Neuropathy
Alzheimer Disease Anorexia Nervosa
Anxiety Atrophic Gastritis
Bacteremia 2 Bronchiectasis
Bronchitis Bronchopneumonia
Bullous Pemphigoid Candidiasis
Cardiac Arrest Cecal Benign Neoplasm
Celiac Disease 1 Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebral Degeneration Cerebrovascular Disease
Cholangitis Cholecystitis
Cholestasis Chronic Intestinal Vascular Insufficiency
Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Pulmonary Heart Disease
Chronic Ulcer of Skin Chylomicron Retention Disease
Colorectal Cancer Conjunctivitis
Crohn's Disease Cystitis
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Dental Caries Dermatomycosis
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Duodenum Cancer
Dyskinesia of Esophagus Dysthymic Disorder
Encephalopathy Enterovesical Fistula

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:



Diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

UMLS symptoms related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:


cachexia; emaciation

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10 ALB CP HP IGF1 IL6 LEP
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.8 ALB CFTR CP HP IGF1 IL6
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.76 ALB CFTR IL6 LEP PIGR RBP4
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.36 ALB CFTR CP HP IGF1 IL6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Drugs for Protein-Energy Malnutrition (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 73)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 3 6493-05-6 4740
2 Antioxidants Phase 3
3 Protective Agents Phase 3
4 Radiation-Protective Agents Phase 3
5 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3
6 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 3
7 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 3
8 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
9
Methylcobalamin Approved, Investigational 13422-55-4
10
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational 98-92-0 936
11
Ferrous fumarate Approved 141-01-5
12
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational 68538-85-2 149436
13
Copper Approved, Investigational 7440-50-8 27099
14
Hydroxocobalamin Approved 13422-51-0 11953898 15589840
15
Iron Approved 7439-89-6 23925 29936
16
Iodine Approved, Investigational 7553-56-2 807
17 Strawberry Approved
18
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
19
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
20
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
21
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613
22
Cefdinir Approved 91832-40-5 6915944
23
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-30-3 6037
24
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical 50-81-7 5785 54670067
25
Cyanocobalamin Approved, Nutraceutical 68-19-9 44176380
26
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 1406-16-2
27
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 83-88-5 493570
28
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 59-67-6 938
29
Thiamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 70-16-6, 59-43-8 1130
30
Pyridoxine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 65-23-6 1054
31
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
32
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 56-40-6 750
33
Aspartic acid Approved, Nutraceutical 56-84-8 5960
34
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical 52-90-4 5862
35
Phenylalanine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 63-91-2 6140
36
Cobalamin Experimental 13408-78-1 6857388
37
Cadexomer iodine Experimental 94820-09-4
38 Vitamin B9
39 retinol
40 Fluorides
41 Retinol palmitate
42 Copper Supplement
43 Vitamin B Complex
44 Vitamins
45 Vitamin B 6
46 Folate
47 Nicotinic Acids
48 Vitamin B2
49 Nutrients
50 Vitamin B 12

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 23)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized, Open Label, Controlled Clinical Trial of Egg Albumin-Based Protein Supplement Versus Renal Specific Oral Supplement in Hemodialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01981083 Phase 4
2 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of Cannabis Oil in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients With Protein-energy Wasting Unknown status NCT03664141 Phase 3 Cannabis oil;Placebo/ Regular Oil
3 Pilot/Feasibility Randomized Control Trial to Examine the Effect of Oral Nutritional Supplements With Anti-inflammatory/Anti-oxidative Properties and Pentoxiphylline on Malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia Syndrome in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Completed NCT00561093 Phase 3 pentoxiphylline;Placebo pill imitating pentoxiphylline
4 NutFish and Nutrient Supplementation in Pregnancy Class to Improve Maternal and Birth Outcomes Unknown status NCT02959125
5 Effectiveness of Safe Drinking Water in Community Based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Unknown status NCT02751476
6 Citrulline Supplementation in Elderly Malnourished and Hospitalised Subjects: Effects on Protein Metabolism Completed NCT00714675
7 "Effect of Citrulline Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Elderly Institutionalized Subjects Undergoing an Exercise Training Programme. " Completed NCT01599676
8 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Protein Pulse-Feeding Pattern in Elderly Patients Completed NCT00135590
9 Distribution of an Energy Rich Formula at Medication Rounds to Individuals Living in Old Peoples Home - Effects on Energy Intake Compared to Standard Nutritional Treatment Completed NCT01259999
10 Glutathione Homeostasis and Oxidant Damage in Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00069134
11 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers of Children < 5 Years Old Completed NCT01790815
12 The (Cost) Effectiveness of Increasing Daily Protein Intake to 1.2 Gram Per Kilo Body Weight on Physical Functioning in Community-dwelling Older Adults With a Habitual Daily Protein Intake < 1.0 Gram Per Kilo Body Weight Completed NCT03712306
13 ART Pharmacokinetics, Mitochondrial Integrity, and Antioxidant Capacity in Severely Malnourished HIV-infected Malawian Children Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
14 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Community-based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Completed NCT01000298 Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
15 A Randomized, Double-blind Pilot Study of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-optimized Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food, Compared to Standard RUTF, in the Therapy of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Amoxicillin
16 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
17 Patient Safety Learning Laboratory: Improving Safety of Diagnosis and Therapy in the Inpatient Setting Recruiting NCT04393909
18 Effect of the Administration of an Enteral Milk Supplemented With Proteins to Infants Admitted in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Recruiting NCT03901742
19 Feeding Behavior and Taste Sensitivity Before and After Liver or Renal Transplantation Recruiting NCT02931812
20 Bioavailability of Essential Amino Acids From the Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) in Young Healthy Jamaican Adults Consuming a Typical Meal Recruiting NCT04118517
21 Intervention Study for Validation of Application of a Prediction Model in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03642678
22 Assess Effect of Oral Nutritional Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Levels in Protein-energy Wasting Patients With Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Not yet recruiting NCT04628117
23 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefit of Antihelminthic Therapy in the Community-Based Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawian Children Withdrawn NCT01395381 Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Cochrane evidence based reviews: protein-energy malnutrition

Genetic Tests for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Anatomical Context for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

40
Liver, Kidney, Thyroid, Skeletal Muscle, Thymus, Bone Marrow, Pancreas

Publications for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Articles related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

(show top 50) (show all 2168)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures. 54 61
19674819 2010
2
The evolution of nutritional status of geriatric patients without cachexia is associated with food intake in sub-acute care. 61 54
19214334 2009
3
Mini Nutritional Assessment (short form) and functional decline in older patients admitted to an acute medical ward. 61 54
18852545 2008
4
Growth hormone treatment during hemodialysis in a randomized trial improves nutrition, quality of life, and cardiovascular risk. 61 54
17554147 2007
5
Are insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins 1 and 3 clinically useful as markers of malnutrition, sarcopenia and inflammation in end-stage renal disease? 54 61
16391585 2006
6
Nutritional status of patients hospitalised in Poland. 61 54
15714213 2005
7
Early detection of protein energy malnutrition in Sharkia Governorate. 61 54
17187748 2005
8
Serum total protein, albumin and A/G ratio in different grades of protein energy malnutrition. 61 54
15695952 2005
9
Serum leptin concentrations in children with mild protein-energy malnutrition and catch-up growth. 61 54
15491379 2004
10
Serum leptin concentrations in children with mild-to-moderate protein-energy malnutrition. 54 61
14521530 2003
11
[Nutritional status of patients in hospitals in Poland. I. Screening of adult patients]. 61 54
14648979 2003
12
Observations with regard to the National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines concerning serum transthyretin in chronic renal failure. 61 54
12553435 2002
13
Affect of serum leptin on nutritional status in renal disease. 54 61
12171457 2002
14
Leptin levels and IgF-binding proteins in malnourished children: effect of weight gain. 54 61
11827758 2002
15
[Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional markers on the follow-up of malnutrition in children]. 54 61
11470636 2001
16
Use and abuse of albumin: a survey of clinical records from an internal medicine ward. 54 61
11327749 2001
17
Nutritional management of maintenance dialysis patients: why aren't we doing better? 61 54
11375441 2001
18
Serum leptin concentrations during severe protein-energy malnutrition: correlation with growth parameters and endocrine function. 61 54
10909989 2000
19
Relationship between plasma retinol and infectious diseases in the elderly. A case-control study. 61 54
11146333 2000
20
The relationship between plasma leptin and nutritional status in chronic hemodialysis patients. 61 54
10576151 1999
21
Low levels of plasma proteins: malnutrition or inflammation? 61 54
10219494 1999
22
Study of plasma albumin, transferrin, and fibronectin in children with mild to moderate protein-energy malnutrition. 54 61
9972082 1998
23
Depression in the quantity of intestinal secretory IgA and in the expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in caloric deficiency of the weanling mouse. 54 61
9800951 1998
24
Arginine increases insulin-like growth factor-I production and collagen synthesis in osteoblast-like cells. 54 61
9701468 1998
25
Repletion of the plasma pool of nutrient transport proteins occurs at different rates during the nutritional rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. 54 61
9446846 1998
26
Increased plasma leptin/fat ratio in patients with chronic renal failure: a cause of malnutrition? 61 54
9394318 1997
27
Transferrin kinetics are altered in children with severe protein-energy malnutrition. 61 54
9237939 1997
28
Nutritional status as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in maintenance dialysis patients. 54 61
9152503 1997
29
Enhanced generation of interleukins 1 beta and 6 may contribute to the cachexia of chronic disease. 61 54
9062543 1997
30
Reduction in the quantity of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor is sufficient to account for the low concentration of intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A in a weanling mouse model of wasting protein-energy malnutrition. 61 54
9082026 1997
31
Assessment of plasma fibronectin in malnourished Nigerian children. 61 54
9106105 1997
32
Albumin kinetics in edematous and nonedematous protein-energy malnourished children. 54 61
8942422 1996
33
Growth hormone-binding proteins and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in protein-energy malnutrition, before and after nutritional rehabilitation. 61 54
8929859 1996
34
Radiological, biochemical, and hormonal changes in malnourished children with rachitic manifestations. 54 61
8820618 1996
35
Plasma free carnitine levels in children with malnutrition. 61 54
8016914 1994
36
Postprandial cholecystokinin secretion in elderly with protein-energy undernutrition. 61 54
1372922 1992
37
Can total parenteral nutrition reverse hypoalbuminemia in oncology patients? 61 54
2136002 1990
38
Global and regional levels and trends of child and adolescent morbidity from 2000 to 2016: an analysis of years lost due to disability (YLDs). 61
33731441 2021
39
Protein energy malnutrition in older Australians: a narrative review of the prevalence, causes and consequences of malnutrition, and strategies for prevention. 61
33783903 2021
40
Limitations with the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) with Special Attention to Plant-Based Diets: a Review. 61
33409931 2021
41
Assessment of the Clinical Impact of a Liver-Specific, BCAA-Enriched Diet in Major Liver Surgery. 61
33139038 2021
42
In vitro protein digestibility of finger millet complementary porridge as affected by compositing precooked cowpea with improved malted finger millet. 61
33568850 2021
43
The Use of Visceral Proteins as Nutrition Markers: An ASPEN Position Paper. 61
33125793 2021
44
Sarcopenic Obesity in Liver Cirrhosis: Possible Mechanism and Clinical Impact. 61
33671926 2021
45
Single-Anastomosis Sleeve Ileal (SASI) Bypass: Hopes and Concerns after a Two-Year Follow-up. 61
32844276 2021
46
Comorbidity of Geo-Helminthes among Malaria Outpatients of the Health Facilities in Ethiopia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 61
33498343 2021
47
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Increases Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With Bacterial Pneumonia: A Retrospective Nationwide Database Analysis. 61
33585131 2021
48
Vitamin D in dysphagic patients who have undergone endoscopic gastrostomy for long-term enteral feeding. 61
33268156 2021
49
Developing a nursing diagnosis for the risk for malnutrition: a mixed-method study. 61
33476490 2021
50
Malnutrition as predictor of poor outcome after total hip arthroplasty. 61
33244636 2021

Variations for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Expression for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Protein-Energy Malnutrition.

Pathways for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

GO Terms for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Cellular components related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.93 TTR TF SI SHBG RBP4 PIGR
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.8 TTR TNF TF SHBG RBP4 PIGR
3 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.56 TF HP CP ALB
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.44 TTR TNF TF RBP4 PIGR MPO

Biological processes related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.92 MPO LEP IL6 IGF1 ALB
2 neutrophil degranulation GO:0043312 9.88 TTR PIGR MPO MGAM HP
3 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.72 TNF LEP IGF1
4 cellular oxidant detoxification GO:0098869 9.69 MPO HP ALB
5 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.67 TNF LEP IL6
6 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.58 TNF IL6 IGF1
7 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.54 TNF IL6
8 retina homeostasis GO:0001895 9.5 TF PIGR ALB
9 bone mineralization involved in bone maturation GO:0035630 9.46 LEP IGF1
10 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.46 TNF LEP IL6 IGF1
11 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.43 TNF IL6
12 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.43 TNF LEP IL6
13 polysaccharide digestion GO:0044245 9.37 SI MGAM
14 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.13 TNF LEP IL6
15 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.1 TTR TF IL6 IGF1 CP ALB

Molecular functions related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity GO:0004558 8.62 SI MGAM

Sources for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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