Categories: Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pseudoarthrosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pseudoarthrosis:

Name: Pseudoarthrosis 38
Pseudarthrosis 73


External Ids:

UMLS 73 C0033785

Summaries for Pseudoarthrosis

MalaCards based summary : Pseudoarthrosis, also known as pseudarthrosis, is related to osteofibrous dysplasia and spondylolisthesis. An important gene associated with Pseudoarthrosis is BMP2 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Hippo signaling pathway and SMAD Signaling Network. The drugs Anesthetics and Cimetidine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, bone marrow and spinal cord, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and craniofacial

Wikipedia : 76 Nonunion is permanent failure of healing following a broken bone unless intervention (such as surgery)... more...

Related Diseases for Pseudoarthrosis

Diseases in the Pseudoarthrosis family:

Congenital Pseudoarthrosis

Diseases related to Pseudoarthrosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 60)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 osteofibrous dysplasia 31.9 BMP2 NF1
2 spondylolisthesis 29.8 BMP2 BMP7
3 osteonecrosis 29.2 BMP2 BMP7 PTH
4 congenital pseudoarthrosis 12.2
5 congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia 12.2
6 congenital pseudoarthrosis of the fibula 12.1
7 congenital pseudoarthrosis of the radius 12.1
8 congenital pseudoarthrosis of the ulna 12.1
9 congenital pseudoarthrosis of the femur 12.1
10 congenital pseudoarthrosis of the limbs 12.0
11 clavicle, pseudarthrosis of, congenital 11.4
12 spondylitis 10.5
13 spondyloarthropathy 1 10.4
14 neurofibromatosis, type i 10.1
15 hyperostosis 10.1
16 diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis 10.1
17 arthritis 10.1
18 amniotic band syndrome 10.1
19 osteoporosis 10.0
20 scoliosis 10.0
21 osteomalacia 10.0
22 thoracic outlet syndrome 10.0
23 osteochondroma 10.0
24 bone disease 9.9 BMP7 PTH
25 osseous heteroplasia, progressive 9.9 BMP2 BMP7
26 multiple endocrine neoplasia, type iia 9.9 NF1 PTH
27 bone deterioration disease 9.9 BMP2 BMP7
28 carpal tunnel syndrome 9.8
29 cervical rib 9.8
30 cleft palate, isolated 9.8
31 coxa vara 9.8
32 pityriasis rubra pilaris 9.8
33 scoliosis, isolated 1 9.8
34 psoriatic arthritis 9.8
35 devriendt syndrome 9.8
36 mononeuropathy of the median nerve, mild 9.8
37 diabetes mellitus 9.8
38 osteoarthritis 9.8
39 somatostatinoma 9.8
40 idiopathic scoliosis 9.8
41 osteomyelitis 9.8
42 klippel-feil syndrome 9.8
43 primary hyperparathyroidism 9.8
44 synostosis 9.8
45 hyperparathyroidism 9.8
46 exostosis 9.8
47 ankylosis 9.8
48 spondylolysis 9.8
49 duodenal somatostatinoma 9.8
50 osgood-schlatter's disease 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pseudoarthrosis:

Diseases related to Pseudoarthrosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pseudoarthrosis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pseudoarthrosis:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.71 BMP2 BMP7 NF1 PTH
2 craniofacial MP:0005382 9.67 BMP2 BMP7 NF1 PTH
3 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.56 BMP2 BMP7 NF1 PTH
4 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.5 BMP2 BMP7 NF1
5 immune system MP:0005387 9.46 BMP2 BMP7 NF1 PTH
6 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.26 BMP2 BMP7 NF1 PTH
7 skeleton MP:0005390 8.92 BMP2 BMP7 NF1 PTH

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pseudoarthrosis

Drugs for Pseudoarthrosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 20)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Anesthetics Phase 2,Not Applicable
Cimetidine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 51481-61-9 2756
Meloxicam Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 71125-38-7 54677470 5281106
s 1 (combination)
5 Gentamicins
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents ,Not Applicable
7 Anti-Infective Agents ,Not Applicable
8 Anesthetics, Inhalation Not Applicable
9 Ether Not Applicable
10 Central Nervous System Depressants Not Applicable
11 Anesthetics, General Not Applicable
12 Antitubercular Agents Not Applicable
13 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Not Applicable
14 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Not Applicable
15 Antirheumatic Agents Not Applicable
16 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Not Applicable
17 Analgesics Not Applicable
18 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Not Applicable
19 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Not Applicable
20 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 BIO4 Clinical Case Study: Cervical Spine Active, not recruiting NCT03077204 Phase 4
2 Surgical Treatment of Spinal Deformity With Sagittal Imbalance Using Patient-specific Rods: A Multicenter, Controlled, Double- Blind Randomized Trial: The PROFILE Study Not yet recruiting NCT02730507 Phase 3
3 Clinical Trial Based on the Use of Mononuclear Cells From Autologous Bone Marrow in Patients With Pseudoarthrosis Completed NCT01813188 Phase 2
4 Treatment of Atrophic Nonunion by Preosteoblast Cells Completed NCT00916981 Phase 1, Phase 2
5 A Study of INFUSE Bone Graft (BMP-2) in the Treatment of Tibial Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) Recruiting NCT02718131 Phase 2
6 A Clinical Trial to Assess the Effect of HC-SVT-1001 and HC-SVT-1002 in the Surgical Treatment of Atrophic Pseudarthrosis of Long Bones (Bonecure) Recruiting NCT02483364 Phase 2
7 Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for the Treatment of Non-union Fractures of Long Bones Active, not recruiting NCT02230514 Phase 1, Phase 2 XCEL-MT-OSTEO-ALPHA
8 Phase 2a Study on Allogeneic Osteoblastic Cells Implantation in Lumbar Spinal Fusion Active, not recruiting NCT02205138 Phase 2 ALLOB® cells with ceramic scaffold
9 Study on Allogeneic Osteoblastic Cells Implantation in Rescue Interbody Fusion Active, not recruiting NCT02328287 Phase 2 ALLOB®
10 Osseous Setting Improvement With Co-implantation of Osseous Matrix and Mesenchymal Progenitors Cells From Autologous Bone Marrow Suspended NCT00557635 Phase 2
11 Feasibility Study of Aastrom Tissue Repair Cells to Treat Non-Union Fractures. Terminated NCT00424567 Phase 1, Phase 2 Cultured Bone Marrow Tissue
12 Clinical Trial of Use of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells Seeded on Porous Tricalcium Phosphate Matrix and Demineralized Bone Matrix in Patients With Osteonecrosis Recruiting NCT02566681 Phase 1
13 rhBMP-2 vs Autologous Bone Grafting for the Treatment of Non-union of the Docking Site in Tibial Bone Transport Unknown status NCT01756144 Not Applicable
14 Radiostereometric Analysis of Spine Arthrodesis Unknown status NCT01721889
15 Humeral Shaft Pseudoarthrosis Treated With Bone Autograft Versus Platelet Rich Plasma Completed NCT02520089 Not Applicable
16 Segment Transport Versus Acute Shortening In The Treatment of Tibial Pseudarthroses With Bone Loss Completed NCT01246934 Not Applicable
17 Facet Wedge Post Market Study Completed NCT02203448
18 Validation of Laboratory Test for Predicting Bone Tissue Regeneration Completed NCT01362413
19 A Study Comparing Fusion Rates of Two Lumbar Fusion Procedures Completed NCT01972256
20 The Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Completed NCT02218229 Not Applicable
21 Modification of ESIN-osteosynthesis in a Femoral Fracture Model and Its Transmission to Clinical Practice Completed NCT01673048 Not Applicable
22 Evaluation of Handling and Possible Complications Related to the Newly Developed Angular Stable Locking System (ASLS) Completed NCT00793637
23 INDEPENDENCE Spacer for Lumbar Fusion Completed NCT02299323
24 Patient Outcomes Evaluation of the EBI Vuelock™ Anterior Cervical Plate System Completed NCT00726128
25 Supplemental Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) in Spinal Deformity Completed NCT01601054 Not Applicable
26 Surgical Treatment for Degenerative Scoliosis Completed NCT01439906
27 High Tibial Osteotomy for Osteoarthritis of the Knee Completed NCT01977261 Not Applicable
28 Posterior Lateral Fusion (PLF) With Dynesys Completed NCT00791180
29 Single Versus Double Kirschner Wires for Intramedullary Fixation of Metacarpal V Fractures Completed NCT01803789 Not Applicable
30 Clinical Follow-up to Evaluate the Clinical Usefulness of Gentamicin-coated Titanium Nails in Tibia Fractures Completed NCT01282294
31 Sagittal Plane Correction With Pass-LP Device in Adult Deformity Patients Completed NCT01635322
32 The Effect of Combined Surgery in Management of Congenital Pseudarthrosis of Tibia Recruiting NCT02640040 Not Applicable
33 A Retrospective Study of Surgical Treatment of Congenital Pseudarthrosis of Tibia in China Recruiting NCT02896114
34 The Effect of Percutaneous Kirschner Wire Technique in Management of CPT Under One Year Old Recruiting NCT03257826 Not Applicable
35 Musculoskeletal Non-tumoral Pathology Quantitative Perfusion Recruiting NCT02683252 Not Applicable
36 Clinical Outcomes Associated With the Use of ViviGen® for the Treatment of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Recruiting NCT03733626 Not Applicable
37 Prospective Study of Fusion Rates Using Spira-C Device for Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Surgery Recruiting NCT03786432 Not Applicable
38 Comparison of Focused and Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Recruiting NCT03671473 Not Applicable
39 Bone Microcirculation After Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Recruiting NCT02554500 Not Applicable
40 Bone Microcirculation After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Recruiting NCT02424084 Not Applicable
41 Influence of Laminoplasty and Internal Fixation on Vertebral Stability After Laminectomy Recruiting NCT02436863
42 Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Distal Metatarsal Metaphyseal Osteotomy for Central Primary Metatarsalgia Recruiting NCT03639103
43 Lumbar Fusion With Nexxt Spine 3D-Printed Titanium Interbody Cages Recruiting NCT03647501 Not Applicable
44 Human Bone Graft for Fixation of Osteochondral Defects in the Knee Joint Recruiting NCT03777735
45 Plate Fixation Versus Intramedullary Nailing of 3 and 4 Part Proximal Humerus Fractures Recruiting NCT02944058 Not Applicable
46 MIS ReFRESH: Robotic vs. Freehand Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgeries Recruiting NCT02057744
47 Patient Specific Template Guided Pedicle Instrumentation Versus Free Hand Technique Recruiting NCT03318692 Not Applicable
48 Septic Pseudarthrosis Of Long Bone : Experience In A Regional Reference Center Active, not recruiting NCT03620305
49 Post-market Surveillance Study With the HYPERION Hip Endoprosthesis System in Defect Reconstruction Active, not recruiting NCT03382665
50 CORset Versus OstéoSynthese in Adult Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis Active, not recruiting NCT03524209 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pseudoarthrosis

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Pseudoarthrosis cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Pseudoarthrosis:
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of pseudoarthrosis
PREOB�, autologous osteoblasts for bone disorders
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Pseudoarthrosis:
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)

Genetic Tests for Pseudoarthrosis

Anatomical Context for Pseudoarthrosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pseudoarthrosis:

Bone, Bone Marrow, Spinal Cord

Publications for Pseudoarthrosis

Articles related to Pseudoarthrosis:

(show top 50) (show all 918)
# Title Authors Year
Salvage Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Pseudoarthrosis After Posterior or Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Review of 10 Patients. ( 29309972 )
Preventing Pseudoarthrosis and Proximal Junctional Kyphosis: How to Deal with the Osteoporotic Spine. ( 29933804 )
Anterolateral Bowing of Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of Tibia Treated by Percutaneous Osteotomy and Gradual Correction Using Taylor Spatial Frame, then Late Insertion of a Fussier-Duval Nail: A Case Report. ( 29636441 )
A Cohort Study of the Natural History of Odontoid Pseudoarthrosis Managed Nonoperatively in Elderly Patients. ( 29597016 )
Retraction Notice to: Amniotic Band Syndrome with Pseudoarthrosis of Tibia and Fibula: A Case Report [J Foot Ankle Surg. 56 (2017) 1121-1124]. ( 29478484 )
Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle: Should we reconsider timing and fixation method? ( 30235983 )
Evaluation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell quality from patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. ( 30352605 )
Late presentation of critical upper limb ischemia caused by pseudarthrosis of the clavicle. ( 30377431 )
Risk of Pseudoarthrosis After Spinal Fusion: Analysis From the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. ( 30114540 )
The Effect of Smoking on Posttraumatic Pseudoarthrosis Healing after Internal Stabilization, Treated with Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). ( 30263969 )
Pseudoarthrosis of second metatarsal fracture. ( 30514075 )
Prevalence of curable and pseudoarthrosis stages of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis. ( 30546798 )
Feasibility of percutaneous interbody fusion as a treatment for adjacent vertebral stress fracture of ankylosing spondylitis with intervertebral pseudarthrosis formation. ( 30214277 )
Radiologic and Pathological Investigation of Pseudarthrosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Distinguishing Between Inflammatory and Traumatic Etiology. ( 30219768 )
Use of flexible intramedullary nailing in combination with an external fixator for a postoperative defect and pseudarthrosis of femur in a girl with osteogenesis imperfecta type VIII: a case report. ( 30269195 )
rhBMP-2 and Intramedullary Fixation in Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia. ( 27261960 )
Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia in children: should we defer surgery until 3 years old? ( 28562492 )
Salvage of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia by the induced membrane technique followed by a motorised lengthening nail. ( 29241817 )
Comments on "vascularised fibula or induced membrane to treat congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: A multicentre study of 18 patients with a mean 9.5-year follow-up" of F. Vigouroux, G. Mezzadri, R. Parot, A. Gazarian, S. Pannier, F. Chotel. Published in Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2017 Sep;103:747-753. ( 29653239 )
What Factors Influence Union and Refracture of Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia? A Multicenter Long-term Study. ( 29664876 )
Current treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29878977 )
Amputation Outcomes in Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia. ( 29939871 )
Treat the congenital pseudarthrosis of the Tibia with Ilizarov technology: Case report. ( 30544410 )
A Novel 4-Rod Technique Offers Potential to Reduce Rod Breakage and Pseudarthrosis in Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomies for Adult Spinal Deformity Correction. ( 28973658 )
Case of femoral pseudarthrosis due to Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent patient with successful conservative treatment and review of literature. ( 29274090 )
Pseudarthrosis in adult and pediatric spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of incidence, characteristics, and risk factors. ( 29411177 )
Closed Reduction, Osteotomy, and Fibular Graft Are Effective in Treating Pediatric Femoral Neck Pseudarthrosis After Infection. ( 29698303 )
CORR Insights®: Closed Reduction, Osteotomy, and Fibular Graft Are Effective in Treating Pediatric Femoral Neck Pseudarthrosis After Infection. ( 29781914 )
Pseudarthrosis of the Calcaneus: Advantages of Regenerative Medicine in the Management of a Rare Entity, A Case Report and Review of Literature. ( 29785224 )
Risk Factors for Pseudarthrosis in Minimally-Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion. ( 30213165 )
Development of a validated computer-based preoperative predictive model for pseudarthrosis with 91% accuracy in 336 adult spinal deformity patients. ( 30453452 )
Urinary N-Telopeptide Can Predict Pseudarthrosis after Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion (ACDF): A Prospective Study. ( 30475338 )
Fivefold higher rate of pseudarthrosis with polyetheretherketone interbody device than with structural allograft used for 1-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. ( 30485200 )
Two-level reverse Bohlman transsoseous approach for treatment of symptomatic pseudarthrosis. ( 30522354 )
What Is the Fate of Pseudarthrosis Detected 1 Year After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion? ( 28146025 )
Does Additional Uncinate Resection Increase Pseudarthrosis Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion? ( 28604487 )
Anterior Cervical Pseudarthrosis Treated with Bilateral Posterior Cervical Cages. ( 28637309 )
Improved union and bone strength in a mouse model of NF1 pseudarthrosis treated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and zoledronic acid. ( 28767180 )
Amniotic band syndrome with pseudoarthrosis of tibia and fibula: A case report. ( 28737311 )
Management of Coxa Vara Septica and Pseudoarthrosis of the Femoral Neck: A Case Report. ( 28434011 )
Amniotic Band Syndrome With Pseudoarthrosis of Tibia and Fibula: A Case Report. ( 28623060 )
Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Distal Radius Treated With Physeal-Sparing Double-Barrel Vascularized Free Fibula Transfer: A Case Report. ( 28403653 )
Femoral neck pseudoarthrosis in a polio patient treated with closed reduction and cell therapy. ( 29644312 )
Pedicled Sensate Composite Calcaneal Flap in Children With Congenital Tibial Pseudoarthrosis. ( 28195886 )
Outcomes of Revision Surgery Following Instrumented Posterolateral Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Comparative Analysis between Pseudarthrosis and Adjacent Segment Disease. ( 28670415 )
One-stage posterior grade 4 osteotomy and bone graft fusion at pseudarthrosis for the treatment of kyphotic deformity with Andersson lesions in ankylosing spondylitis. ( 28521184 )
Evaluating a Posterior Approach for Surgical Treatment of Thoracolumbar Pseudarthrosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis. ( 28107237 )
Erratum to: Prevalence of neurofibromatosis type 1 in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. ( 28478524 )
Relationship between postoperative complications and fibular integrity in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia in children. ( 28070823 )
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 for the treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia or persistent tibial nonunion in children and adolescents: A retrospective study with a minimum 2-year follow-up. ( 28213747 )

Variations for Pseudoarthrosis

Expression for Pseudoarthrosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pseudoarthrosis.

Pathways for Pseudoarthrosis

GO Terms for Pseudoarthrosis

Biological processes related to Pseudoarthrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 33)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 9.83 BMP2 BMP7 PTH
2 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.77 BMP2 BMP7 PTH
3 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008285 9.74 BMP2 BMP7 NF1
4 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.65 BMP2 NF1
5 animal organ morphogenesis GO:0009887 9.65 BMP2 BMP7
6 osteoblast differentiation GO:0001649 9.65 BMP2 NF1
7 ossification GO:0001503 9.64 BMP2 BMP7
8 positive regulation of neuron differentiation GO:0045666 9.64 BMP2 BMP7
9 BMP signaling pathway GO:0030509 9.63 BMP2 BMP7
10 cartilage development GO:0051216 9.63 BMP2 BMP7
11 positive regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043065 9.63 BMP2 BMP7 NF1
12 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation GO:0001938 9.62 BMP2 NF1
13 cell development GO:0048468 9.62 BMP2 BMP7
14 positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation GO:0045669 9.61 BMP2 BMP7
15 SMAD protein signal transduction GO:0060395 9.61 BMP2 BMP7
16 odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth GO:0042475 9.6 BMP2 BMP7
17 positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation GO:0010862 9.58 BMP2 BMP7
18 positive regulation of cell differentiation GO:0045597 9.58 BMP2 BMP7
19 negative regulation of cell cycle GO:0045786 9.56 BMP2 BMP7
20 positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition GO:0010718 9.55 BMP2 BMP7
21 bone mineralization GO:0030282 9.54 BMP2 PTH
22 negative regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043407 9.52 BMP7 NF1
23 epithelial to mesenchymal transition GO:0001837 9.51 BMP2 BMP7
24 cellular response to BMP stimulus GO:0071773 9.49 BMP2 BMP7
25 metanephros development GO:0001656 9.48 BMP7 NF1
26 camera-type eye morphogenesis GO:0048593 9.43 BMP7 NF1
27 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.43 BMP2 BMP7 PTH
28 response to vitamin D GO:0033280 9.4 BMP7 PTH
29 positive regulation of ossification GO:0045778 9.37 BMP2 PTH
30 mesenchymal cell differentiation GO:0048762 9.32 BMP2 BMP7
31 mesenchyme development GO:0060485 9.16 BMP2 BMP7
32 regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043408 9.13 BMP2 BMP7 NF1
33 positive regulation of bone mineralization GO:0030501 8.8 BMP2 BMP7 PTH

Molecular functions related to Pseudoarthrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.16 BMP2 BMP7
2 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding GO:0005160 8.96 BMP2 BMP7
3 BMP receptor binding GO:0070700 8.62 BMP2 BMP7

Sources for Pseudoarthrosis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 Tocris
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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