COPD
MCID: PLM129
MIFTS: 73

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive (COPD)

Categories: Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

Name: Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive 56 74 73 43 37
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 12 74 36 29 6 3 15 62 17
Copd 56 12 73 42 3 62
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 12 73 15
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Severe Early-Onset 56 13
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Susceptibility to 29 6
Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease 12 71
Pulmonary Disease, Obstructive, Chronic, Susceptibility to 39
Severe Early-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 73
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease of Horses 71
Pulmonary Disease Chronic Obstructive 54
Upper Respiratory Infections 71
Common Cold 71
Cold 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:3083
OMIM 56 606963
KEGG 36 H01714
MeSH 43 D029424
NCIt 49 C3199
SNOMED-CT 67 13645005
UMLS 71 C0009443 C0024117 C0041912 more

Summaries for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

MedlinePlus : 42 What is COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a group of lung diseases that make it hard to breathe and get worse over time. Normally, the airways and air sacs in your lungs are elastic or stretchy. When you breathe in, the airways bring air to the air sacs. The air sacs fill up with air, like a small balloon. When you breathe out, the air sacs deflate, and the air goes out. If you have COPD, less air flows in and out of your airways because of one or more problems: The airways and air sacs in your lungs become less elastic The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed The airways make more mucus than usual and can become clogged What are the types of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? COPD includes two main types: Emphysema affects the air sacs in your lungs, as well as the walls between them. They become damaged and are less elastic. Chronic bronchitis, in which the lining of your airways is constantly irritated and inflamed. This causes the lining to swell and make mucus. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but how severe each type is can be different from person to person. What causes COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? The cause of COPD is usually long-term exposure to irritants that damage your lungs and airways. In the United States, cigarette smoke is the main cause. Pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoke can also cause COPD, especially if you inhale them. Exposure to other inhaled irritants can contribute to COPD. These include secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes or dusts from the environment or workplace. Rarely, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can play a role in causing COPD. Who is at risk for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? The risk factors for COPD include Smoking. This the main risk factor. Up to 75 percent of people who have COPD smoke or used to smoke. Long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes and dusts from the environment or workplace Age. Most people who have COPD are at least 40 years old when their symptoms begin. Genetics. This includes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, which is a genetic condition. Also, smokers who get COPD are more likely to get it if they have a family history of COPD. What are the symptoms of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? At first, you may have no symptoms or only mild symptoms. As the disease gets worse, your symptoms usually become more severe. They can include Frequent coughing or a cough that produces a lot mucus Wheezing A whistling or squeaky sound when you breathe Shortness of breath, especially with physical activity Tightness in your chest Some people with COPD get frequent respiratory infections such as colds and the flu. In severe cases, COPD can cause weight loss, weakness in your lower muscles, and swelling in your ankles, feet, or legs. How is COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) diagnosed? To make a diagnosis, your health care provider Will ask about your medical history and family history Will ask about your symptoms May do lab tests, such as lung function tests, a chest x-ray or CT scan, and blood tests Your doctor will diagnose COPD based on your signs and symptoms, your medical and family histories, and test results. What are the treatments for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? There is no cure for COPD. However, treatments can help with symptoms, slow the progress of the disease, and improve your ability to stay active. There are also treatments to prevent or treat complications of the disease. Treatments include Lifestyle changes, such as Quitting smoking if you are a smoker. This is the most important step you can take to treat COPD. Avoiding secondhand smoke and places where you might breathe in other lung irritants Ask your health care provider for an eating plan that will meet your nutritional needs. Also ask about how much physical activity you can do. Physical activity can strengthen the muscles that help you breathe and improve your overall wellness. Medicines, such as Bronchodilators, which relax the muscles around your airways. This helps open your airways and makes breathing easier. Most bronchodilators are taken through an inhaler. In more severe cases, the inhaler may also contain steroids to reduce inflammation. Vaccines for the flu and pneumococcal pneumonia, since people with COPD are at higher risk for serious problems from these diseases Antibiotics if you get a bacterial or viral lung infection Oxygen therapy, if you have severe COPD and low levels of oxygen in your blood. Oxygen therapy can help you breathe better. You may need extra oxygen all the time or only at certain times. Pulmonary rehabilitation, which is a program that helps improve the well-being of people who have chronic breathing problems. It may include An exercise program Disease management training Nutritional counseling Psychological counseling Surgery, usually as a last resort for people who have severe symptoms that have not gotten better with medicines: For COPD that is mainly related to emphysema, there are surgeries that Remove damaged lung tissue Remove large air spaces (bullae) that can form when air sacs are destroyed. The bullae can interfere with breathing. For severe COPD, some people may need lung transplant If you have COPD, it's important to know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You should get emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. Call your health care provider if your symptoms are getting worse or if you have signs of an infection, such as a fever. Can COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) be prevented? Since smoking causes most cases of COPD, the best way to prevent it is to not smoke. It's also important to try to avoid lung irritants such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, chemical fumes, and dusts. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary : Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is related to pleural disease and muckle-wells syndrome, and has symptoms including fever, pruritus and tremor. An important gene associated with Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive is SERPINA1 (Serpin Family A Member 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are IL-17 Family Signaling Pathways and Rheumatoid arthritis. The drugs Terbutaline and mometasone furoate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, testes and heart, and related phenotype is chronic pulmonary obstruction.

OMIM : 56 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disorder associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. COPD is defined by irreversible airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease. Airflow obstruction is typically determined by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices, including forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) (Silverman et al., 2002; Celedon et al., 2004). (606963)

CDC : 3 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems. It includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

KEGG : 36 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a representative chronic inflammatory disorder of the lungs that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is characterized by airway inflammation and progressive airflow obstruction, most commonly caused by cigarette smoking. The major symptoms of which patients complain are cough, breathlessness, and sputum production. COPD is associated with underlying inflammation in response to chronic exposure to noxious particulates and gases and with a number of comorbid conditions. The onset of COPD generally occurs in the 6th to 8th decades of life. Early onset COPD is defined as disease onset before the age of 50 years, irrespective of smoking history. The presence of persons with early onset, severely reduced pulmonary function suggests that individuals may vary in their genetic susceptibility to the effects of smoking. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only proven genetic risk factor for COPD. Bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment since they improve lung function and reduce acute exacerbations. Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators are recommended as first line treatment for patients with persistent symptoms.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive: A common, complex disorder defined by irreversible airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease. Airflow obstruction is typically determined by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices, including forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC).

PubMed Health : 62 About chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary (PULL-mun-ary) disease, is a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe. "Progressive" means the disease gets worse over time. COPD can cause coughing that produces large amounts of mucus (a slimy substance), wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Most people who have COPD smoke or used to smoke. Long-term exposure to other lung irritants—such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust—also may contribute to COPD.

Wikipedia : 74 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by... more...

Related Diseases for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Diseases related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1825)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pleural disease 33.7 TNF SERPINA3 CXCL8 CRP
2 muckle-wells syndrome 33.5 TNF CXCL8 CRP
3 asthma 32.9 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 PDE4A MUC5AC MMP12
4 granulomatosis with polyangiitis 32.8 TNF SERPINA1 ELANE CRP
5 blood group, globoside system 32.7 TNF CXCL8 CRP
6 bronchitis 32.4 TNF SERPINA1 MMP12 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
7 lung disease 32.3 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 PDE4A MUC5AC HMOX1
8 respiratory failure 32.0 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 PDE4A MUC5AC ELANE
9 pneumothorax 32.0 SERPINA1 MMP1 HMOX1 CRP
10 cystic fibrosis 31.9 TNF SERPINA1 MUC5AC HMOX1 HDAC2 ELANE
11 interstitial lung disease 31.9 TNF HMOX1 CXCL8 CRP
12 pneumonia 31.8 TNF SERPINA1 MMP12 HMOX1 ELANE CXCL8
13 atherosclerosis susceptibility 31.8 TUG1 TNF HMOX1 CXCL8 CRP
14 pulmonary hypertension 31.8 TNF PDE4A HMOX1 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
15 pulmonary emphysema 31.8 SERPINA3 SERPINA1 MMP12 MMP1 HMOX1 ELANE
16 chronic ulcer of skin 31.7 TNF MMP1 ELANE CRP
17 pulmonary edema 31.7 TNF HMOX1 CXCL8 CRP
18 lung cancer susceptibility 3 31.7 TUG1 SERPINA3 SERPINA1 MUC5AC MEG3 HMOX1
19 bronchial disease 31.6 TNF SERPINA3 PDE4A MUC5AC ELANE CXCL8
20 apnea, obstructive sleep 31.6 TNF CXCL8 CRP
21 bronchiolitis 31.6 TNF MUC5AC CXCL8 CRP
22 neutropenia 31.5 TNF ELANE CXCL8 CRP
23 common cold 31.5 TNF MUC5AC CXCL8
24 skin disease 31.5 TNF SERPINA3 PDE4A MMP1 CXCL8 CRP
25 peripheral artery disease 31.5 TNF HMOX1 CRP
26 bronchiolitis obliterans 31.5 TNF CXCL8 CRP
27 rheumatoid arthritis 31.5 TNF SERPINA3 MMP12 MMP1 ELANE CXCL8
28 peripheral nervous system disease 31.4 TNF SERPINA3 CXCL8 CRP
29 bronchiectasis 31.4 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
30 myeloma, multiple 31.4 TUG1 TNF SERPINA3 MEG3 CXCL8 CRP
31 respiratory allergy 31.4 TNF MUC5AC CXCL8
32 inflammatory bowel disease 31.4 TNF PDE4A MUC5AC MMP1 HMOX1 ELANE
33 periodontitis 31.4 TNF SERPINA3 MMP1 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
34 diabetes mellitus 31.4 TUG1 TNF SERPINA1 MEG3 HMOX1 CXCL8
35 carotid stenosis 31.4 TNF MMP1 CXCL8 CRP
36 liver disease 31.4 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 MEG3 CXCL8
37 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 31.3 TNF MUC5AC CRP
38 haemophilus influenzae 31.3 TNF CXCL8
39 bronchopneumonia 31.3 TNF SERPINA3 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
40 severe acute respiratory syndrome 31.3 TNF CXCL8 CRP
41 mental depression 31.3 TNF SERPINA3 CRP
42 exanthem 31.2 TNF CXCL8 CRP
43 cerebrovascular disease 31.2 TNF SERPINA3 MEG3 CRP
44 eye disease 31.2 TNF SERPINA3 MMP1 CXCL8 CRP
45 pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic 31.2 TNF SERPINA1 MUC5AC MMP12 MMP1 ELANE
46 alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency 31.2 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 MMP12 MMP1 ELANE
47 peritonitis 31.2 TNF ELANE CXCL8 CRP
48 pneumoconiosis 31.2 TNF SERPINA1 CXCL8
49 peptic ulcer disease 31.2 TNF MUC5AC CXCL8
50 status asthmaticus 31.2 MUC5AC ELANE CXCL8

Comorbidity relations with Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Bronchitis Heart Disease

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:



Diseases related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Human phenotypes related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

31
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 chronic pulmonary obstruction 31 HP:0006510

Clinical features from OMIM:

606963

UMLS symptoms related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:


fever, pruritus, tremor, angina pectoris, tinnitus, rhinorrhea, snoring, sore throat, coughing, vertigo/dizziness, equilibration disorder, catarrh, upper respiratory tract inflammation

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

PubMed Health treatment related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: 62

COPD has no cure yet. However, lifestyle changes and treatments can help you feel better, stay more active, and slow the progress of the disease. The goals of COPD treatment include: Relieving your symptoms Slowing the progress of the disease Improving your exercise tolerance (your ability to stay active) Preventing and treating complications Improving your overall health To assist with your treatment , your family doctor may advise you to see a pulmonologist. This is a doctor who specializes in treating lung disorders .

Drugs for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1040)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Terbutaline Approved Phase 4 23031-25-6 5403
2
mometasone furoate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 83919-23-7
3
Caspofungin Approved Phase 4 162808-62-0, 179463-17-3 2826718 468682
4
Hydromorphone Approved, Illicit Phase 4 466-99-9 5284570
5
Penicillin G Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 61-33-6 5904
6
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4 55268-75-2 5479529 5361202
7
Oseltamivir Approved Phase 4 204255-11-8, 196618-13-0 65028
8
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
9
Acyclovir Approved Phase 4 59277-89-3 2022
10
Cefazolin Approved Phase 4 25953-19-9 656510 33255
11
Hydrocodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 125-29-1 5284569
12
Docosanol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 661-19-8, 30303-65-2 12620
13
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
14
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
15
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
16
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043 55185
17
Norflurane Approved, Experimental Phase 4 811-97-2
18
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
19
Bosentan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 147536-97-8 104865
20
Fosinopril Approved Phase 4 98048-97-6 55891
21
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 23593-75-1 2812
22
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 22916-47-8 4189
23
Chlorpheniramine Approved Phase 4 132-22-9, 113-92-8 2725
24
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051
25
Bisoprolol Approved Phase 4 66722-44-9 2405
26
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
27
Sultamicillin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 76497-13-7
28
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
29
Lansoprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103577-45-3 3883
30
Dexlansoprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103577-45-3, 138530-94-6 9578005
31
Ketoconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 65277-42-1 47576
32
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34911-55-2, 34841-39-9 444
33
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
34
Riociguat Approved Phase 4 625115-55-1
35
Ledipasvir Approved Phase 4 1256388-51-8 67505836
36
Sofosbuvir Approved Phase 4 1190307-88-0 45375808
37
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
38
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
39
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
40
Montelukast Approved Phase 4 158966-92-8 5281040
41
Ticagrelor Approved Phase 4 274693-27-5 9871419
42
Omeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6 4594
43
Norgestimate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 35189-28-7 6540478
44
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
45
Dobutamine Approved Phase 4 34368-04-2 36811
46
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
47
Mycophenolic acid Approved Phase 4 24280-93-1 446541
48
Thyme Approved Phase 4
49
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
50
Povidone Approved Phase 4 9003-39-8

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 7051)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Antibiotic Treatment of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of Intermittent, Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment With Azithromycin Unknown status NCT00132860 Phase 4 azithromycin
2 Differences of Small Airways Function Between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) and Asthma-copd Overlap(ACO) Unknown status NCT03563001 Phase 4 Budesonide(160ug) and Formoterol(4.5ug) bid
3 Efficacy and Safety of Tulobuterol Patch Combined With Tiotropium Bromide for Relieving Dyspnea Symptom of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01465906 Phase 4 tulobuterol;Tiotropium Bromide;tiotropium bromide
4 Pulmonary Effects of the Combination of Metoprolol and Formoterol in COPD Unknown status NCT00288548 Phase 4 Metoprolol
5 An Efficacy Study of Benzalkonium Chloride Solution Clearing the Oral Colonized Bacterium in Hospitalized Patients With COPD Unknown status NCT02269800 Phase 4 Benzalkonium chloride solution;Normal saline
6 Prospective, Open-label Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Caspofungin for the Treatment of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01499433 Phase 4 caspofungin
7 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Quadrivalent Versus Trivalent in Patients With Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT02563184 Phase 4
8 Evaluate the Efficacy of Xuebijing Injection in Acute Exacerbations of COPD:a Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02937974 Phase 4 Xuebijing;Placebo
9 Utilizing Wearable Device to Observe the Clinical Response of COPD Patients Treated With Combined Bronchodilator and Home-based Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program Unknown status NCT03364829 Phase 4 Indacaterol/Glycopyrronium
10 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Effect of Roflumilast on Endothelial Function in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01595750 Phase 4 Roflumilast 500;Placebo
11 Effect of Intravenous Iron (Ferinject®) on Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life of Stable COPD Patients Unknown status NCT02416778 Phase 4 Ferric carboxymaltose, Ferinject® 50mg Iron/ml Solution for Injection / Infusion
12 Inspiratory Muscle Training for Dyspneic Patients With COPD-HF Overlap: a Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02579200 Phase 4
13 Impact of Exercise on Lung Function in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT03551197 Phase 4 Budesonide and formoterol bid
14 Doxycycline and Airway Inflammation in COPD: A Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial Studying the Effects of Doxycycline on Airway Inflammation in Patients With Moderate and Severe Stable COPD. Unknown status NCT00857038 Phase 4 Doxycycline;Placebo
15 Comparing Treatment Efficacy With High and Medium Dose of Fluticasone in Combination With Salmeterol in COPD Patients Unknown status NCT01131806 Phase 4 fluticasone/ salmeterol 125/25 mcg/puff;fluticasone/ salmeterol 250/25 mcg/puff
16 Acute Effect of Sildenafil on Exercise Tolerance and Functional Capacity in COPD, IPF and Post Pneumonectomy Patients Unknown status NCT01382368 Phase 4 Sildenafil
17 Efficacy and Safety of Salmeterol/Fluticasone Propionate vs Ipratropium/Albuterolin Chinese Patients With Moderate-to-severe COPD. Unknown status NCT01243788 Phase 4 Salmeterol/Fluticasone Propionate
18 Effects of Nutritional Supplementation in Malnourished Patients in Stable COPD:a Randomised Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02197871 Phase 4
19 Adherence to Therapy in COPD Patients Under Dose Escalation of Roflumilast Unknown status NCT02018432 Phase 4 Roflumilast escalation dosage;Roflumilast conventional dosage
20 The Lung Attack Alert Study Unknown status NCT01107613 Phase 4
21 Inspiratory Capacity and HRCT Comparison of Nebulized Arformoterol (Brovana) vs. Dry-powder Inhaler Salmeterol (Serevent) Unknown status NCT01361984 Phase 4 Nebulized arformoterol;Salmeterol
22 The Treatment Effect of Inhaled Corticosteroid and Long-acting beta2 Agonist Combination Versus Long-acting Anti-cholinergic Agent on Stratified COPD Patients Based on the Levels of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Unknown status NCT02546349 Phase 4 fluticasone/salmeterol, tiotropium
23 Exacerbation's Prevention in Patients With COPD in GOLD IV Stage (Very Severe) With Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Unknown status NCT01481727 Phase 4
24 The Effects of Simvastatin in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT00680641 Phase 4 Simvastatin;Placebo
25 Evaluation and Treatment of Small Airways in COPD Unknown status NCT02526758 Phase 4 beclomethasone;formoterol;budesonide
26 Description of the Ability to Learn How to Handle Inhaler Devices in COPD Unknown status NCT02813200 Phase 4 Seretide® Diskus® 500/550 μg;Ultibro® Breezhaler® 110/50 μg;Spiriva® Respimat® 2,5 μg
27 Improving Inhaler Treatment and Small Airways Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Unknown status NCT01721291 Phase 4 SALBUTAMOL
28 Inhaled Iloprost for Disproportionate Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01116063 Phase 4 Inhaled iloprost
29 Pulmonary Gas Exchange Response to Indacaterol in Stable Symptomatic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Unknown status NCT02547558 Phase 4 Indacaterol
30 A Multi-Center, Prospective, Clinical Trial Designed to Study the Efficacy of One-Way Valve Implantation Based on a New Treatment Algorithm in Patients With Heterogeneous Emphysema Unknown status NCT00730301 Phase 4
31 Procalcitonin as a Marker of Antibiotic Therapy in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Can Measurement of Procalcitonin Reduce the Use of Antibiotics? Unknown status NCT02171338 Phase 4
32 Advair - CRP Study Unknown status NCT00120978 Phase 4 Advair;Flovent
33 Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Mask Ventilation vs Extrathoracic Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Prospective Study. Unknown status NCT00331656 Phase 4
34 Utility of the AeriSeal System in Patients With Advanced Upper Lobe Predominant Emphysema and Collateral Ventilation Assessed by the Chartis System Unknown status NCT01460108 Phase 4
35 Randomized,Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of the Phytotherapic Compound "Bromelin" on Acute Irritative Cough Unknown status NCT01356693 Phase 4 Bromelin;Placebo
36 Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study Investigating Efficacy and Safety of Arbidol (Umifenovir) in Treatment and Prophylaxis of Influenza and Common Cold. Unknown status NCT01651663 Phase 4 Arbidol (Umifenovir);Arbidol (Umifenovir)
37 Long-Term Oxygen Therapy (LTOT) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients With Moderate Chronic Hypoxemia and Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) Unknown status NCT00668408 Phase 4
38 Reassessment Study of The Effect of N-Acetylcystein on Quality of Life and Air Trapping During Rest and After Exercise Unknown status NCT00476736 Phase 4 Effect on small airways (N-Acetylcystein)
39 The Evaluation of Singulair for the Treatment of Non-Allergic Rhinitis Eosinophil Syndrome (NARES) Unknown status NCT00406094 Phase 4 montelukast;placebo
40 Evaluation and Reconditioning of Marginal Lung Donors to Transplantation by ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Unknown status NCT01353105 Phase 4
41 Phase 4, Single Centre, Single Blinded,Prospective Randomised Cross Over Comparison on the Physiological Response of Post Extubation Intensive Care Patients to Non-invasive Ventilation Using Either Air O2 or Heliox21 Unknown status NCT01498432 Phase 4 Heliox21;Air O2
42 Clinical Relevance of Middle Meatal Bacteriology During Acute Respiratory Infection in Children - Randomised, Double-Blinded Clinical Study Unknown status NCT00545961 Phase 4 placebo;amoxicillin clavulanate acid
43 A Double Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial of Montelukast in the Treatment of Acute Persistent Cough in Young People and Adults in Primary Care Unknown status NCT01279668 Phase 4 Montelukast;Placebo
44 Effects of Exercise Training on Systemic Inflammation an Muscle Repair According to the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Phenotype Unknown status NCT01431625 Phase 4
45 The Effect of 6-Methyl-Prednisolone on Organ Dysfunction and Mortality of Patients With Unresolving Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Unknown status NCT00127985 Phase 4 6-methyl-prednisolone
46 Ultrasound-guided Transverses Abdominis Plane Block in Inguinal Herniorrhaphy: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02299908 Phase 4 TAP block with Bupivacaine at 0.25%;Placebo saline solution
47 Evaluation Whether Higher Retention Rate is in Those of Combined Methadone With N-Acetyl-Cysteine Compared to Those With Methadone Alone During a Six-month Study Unknown status NCT01047956 Phase 4 Methadone; NAC;Methadone
48 Liberal Versus Restrictive Transfusion Management in Patients Being Weaned From Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation Unknown status NCT01256645 Phase 4
49 Banlangen Granules Anti-seasonal Influenza Study: a Randomized, Double Blind, Positive and Placebo Controlled,Clinical Study. Unknown status NCT02232945 Phase 4 placebo of oseltamivir phosphate;oseltamivir phosphate;Banlangen (Radix Isatidis) granules;placebo of Banlangen(Radix Isatidis) granules
50 Cold vs. Laser Internal Urethrotomy Treatment of Urethral Strictures Unknown status NCT01196572 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Ascorbic Acid
Ascorbic Acid Powder
Echinacea Preparation
Guaifenesin
indacaterol
olodaterol
Olodaterol hydrochloride
Phenylpropanolamine
Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride
Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride
Pseudoephedrine sulfate
Sodium Ascorbate
Zinc Acetate
zinc chloride
Zinc Gluconate
Zinc Sulfate
ZINC SULFATE PWDR

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive

Genetic Tests for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Genetic tests related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 29 HMOX1 MMP1
2 Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Susceptibility to 29

Anatomical Context for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

40
Lung, Testes, Heart, Liver, Neutrophil, Kidney, Endothelial

Publications for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Articles related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

(show top 50) (show all 30221)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Heme oxygenase 1 variations and lung function decline in smokers: proof of replication. 56 6
18519631 2008
2
Association of lung function decline with the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter microsatellite polymorphism in a general population sample. Results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), France. 6 56
16882737 2006
3
The role of matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms in the rate of decline in lung function. 6 56
11875051 2002
4
Microsatellite polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with susceptibility to emphysema. 6 56
10631150 2000
5
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Variations for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

6 (show all 14) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 HSPA1L NM_005527.4(HSPA1L):c.1478C>A (p.Thr493Lys)SNV association 694520 rs2227956 6:31778272-31778272 6:31810495-31810495
2 HSPA1A NC_000006.12:g.31815431A>CSNV association 694515 rs1008438 6:31783208-31783208 6:31815431-31815431
3 HSPA1A NM_005345.6(HSPA1A):c.-27G>CSNV association 694516 rs1043618 6:31783507-31783507 6:31815730-31815730
4 HSPA1A NM_005345.6(HSPA1A):c.330G>C (p.Glu110Asp)SNV association 694514 rs562047 6:31783863-31783863 6:31816086-31816086
5 HSPA1A NM_005345.6(HSPA1A):c.1053G>A (p.Gln351=)SNV association 694517 rs1061581 6:31784586-31784586 6:31816809-31816809
6 HSPA1B NC_000006.12:g.31826815C>TSNV association 694519 rs2763979 6:31794592-31794592 6:31826815-31826815
7 HSPA1B NM_005346.6(HSPA1B):c.-178C>TSNV association 694518 rs6457452 6:31795550-31795550 6:31827773-31827773
8 HHIP NC_000004.12:g.144539078A>GSNV association 870129 4:145460230-145460230 4:144539078-144539078
9 HHIP NC_000004.12:g.144559628A>GSNV association 870131 4:145480780-145480780 4:144559628-144559628
10 HHIP NC_000004.12:g.144565237A>GSNV association 870130 4:145486389-145486389 4:144565237-144565237
11 SERPINA1 NM_001127701.1(SERPINA1):c.1096G>A (p.Glu366Lys)SNV Pathogenic 17967 rs28929474 14:94844947-94844947 14:94378610-94378610
12 SERPINA1 NM_001127701.1(SERPINA1):c.863A>T (p.Glu288Val)SNV Pathogenic 17969 rs17580 14:94847262-94847262 14:94380925-94380925
13 SERPINA1 NM_001127701.1(SERPINA1):c.194T>C (p.Leu65Pro)SNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 17971 rs28931569 14:94849381-94849381 14:94383044-94383044
14 HMOX1 HMOX1, (GT)n REPEATundetermined variant risk factor 15897

Copy number variations for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 230707 8 1 12700000 Copy number DEFB4 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Expression for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive.

Pathways for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Pathways related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.07 TNF MUC5AC MMP1 CXCL8
2 11.62 TNF MMP1 CXCL8
3 11.61 TNF MMP1 HMOX1 CXCL8
4 11.55 MMP1 HDAC2 CXCL8
5
Show member pathways
11.45 TNF MMP12 MMP1 ELANE
6
Show member pathways
11.38 TNF MMP1 CXCL8
7 11.33 MMP12 MMP1 CXCL8
8 11.06 TNF SERPINA1 HMOX1 CXCL8
9 11.03 MMP1 HMOX1 CXCL8
10 10.2 TNF HMOX1 CXCL8 CRP

GO Terms for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Cellular components related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.61 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 MUC5AC MMP12 MMP1
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 TNF SERPINA3 SERPINA1 MUC5AC MMP12 HMOX1

Biological processes related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix disassembly GO:0022617 9.33 MMP12 MMP1 ELANE
2 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.32 TNF HMOX1
3 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.26 TNF CRP
4 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.13 TNF HMOX1 ELANE
5 acute-phase response GO:0006953 8.8 SERPINA3 SERPINA1 CRP

Sources for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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