PIC
MCID: PNC059
MIFTS: 32

Punctate Inner Choroidopathy (PIC)

Categories: Eye diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy:

Name: Punctate Inner Choroidopathy 20 58 70
Multifocal Inner Choroiditis 20
Punctate Inner Choroiditis 20
Pic 20

Classifications:

MalaCards categories:
Global: Rare diseases
Anatomical: Eye diseases
Orphanet: 58  
Rare eye diseases


External Ids:

Orphanet 58 ORPHA580951
UMLS 70 C0730321

Summaries for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

GARD : 20 Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is an inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the choroid (vascular layer) of the eye. It most commonly occurs in young, near-sighted (myopic) women. The symptoms and severity may vary from person to person. Symptoms may include a blind spot ( scotomata ), blurred vision, photopsia (perceived flashes of light), floaters, light sensitivity ( photophobia ), distorted vision, and/or loss of peripheral vision. The majority of cases are self-limited (resolving on their own) with good visual prognosis, but permanent, severe visual loss can occur as a result of inflammation and complications such as growth of additional blood vessels ( neovascularization ) and scarring. The exact cause of PIC is not known, but it is thought to involve both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. It is proposed to be an autoimmune disease in which multiple genes interact with each other and an environmental "trigger" (such as an infection or stress) to cause a person to develop PIC. Treatment is challenging and depends on the course of the disease and whether complications arise. The majority of people with PIC who do not have neovascularization do not require treatment. For those who develop complications or have a more severe disease course, treatment may involve local or systemic corticosteroids, other immunosuppressive therapies, intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, and/or surgery.

MalaCards based summary : Punctate Inner Choroidopathy, also known as multifocal inner choroiditis, is related to choroiditis and multifocal choroiditis. An important gene associated with Punctate Inner Choroidopathy is IL10 (Interleukin 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions and Toxoplasmosis. The drugs Fluconazole and Bevacizumab have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye and endothelial.

Related Diseases for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Diseases related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 341)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 choroiditis 31.2 TNF IL10
2 multifocal choroiditis 31.1 TNF IL10
3 panuveitis 30.8 TNF IL10
4 uveitis 30.7 TNF IL10
5 chorioretinitis 30.5 TNF IL10
6 toxoplasmosis 30.1 TNF IL10
7 myasthenia gravis 30.0 TNF IL10
8 scotoma 10.6
9 histoplasmosis 10.4
10 refractive error 10.4
11 acute zonal occult outer retinopathy 10.4
12 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 10.1
13 microvascular complications of diabetes 1 10.1
14 pars planitis 10.1
15 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 10.1
16 microvascular complications of diabetes 2 10.1
17 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 10.1
18 ifap syndrome 2 10.1
19 neuroretinitis 10.1
20 myopia 10.1
21 posterior uveitis 10.1
22 background diabetic retinopathy 10.1
23 papilledema 10.1
24 optic nerve disease 10.1
25 macular retinal edema 10.1
26 retinal disease 10.1
27 neuropathy 10.1
28 toxocariasis 10.1
29 acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy 10.1
30 central serous chorioretinopathy 10.1
31 american histoplasmosis 10.1
32 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 10.0 TNF IL10
33 endomyocardial fibrosis 10.0 TNF IL10
34 spotted fever 10.0 TNF IL10
35 spotted fever rickettsiosis 10.0 TNF IL10
36 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.0 TNF IL10
37 allergic contact dermatitis 10.0 TNF IL10
38 contact dermatitis 10.0 TNF IL10
39 dermatitis 10.0 TNF IL10
40 tertiary syphilis 10.0 TNF IL10
41 bacterial conjunctivitis 10.0 TNF IL10
42 conjunctivitis 10.0 TNF IL10
43 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 10.0 TNF IL10
44 orofacial granulomatosis 10.0 TNF IL10
45 hypopyon 10.0 TNF IL10
46 chemical colitis 10.0 TNF IL10
47 enterocolitis 10.0 TNF IL10
48 eales disease 10.0 TNF IL10
49 transient hypogammaglobulinemia 10.0 TNF IL10
50 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 8 10.0 TNF IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy:



Diseases related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Drugs & Therapeutics for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Drugs for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 6)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational 86386-73-4 3365
2
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational 216974-75-3
3 Angiogenesis Inhibitors
4 Mitogens
5 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
6 Endothelial Growth Factors

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Long-term Outcome of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy or Multifocal Choroiditis With Active Choroidal Neovascularization Managed With Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Completed NCT03897192 Bevacizumab
2 Long-term Outcome of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy or Multifocal Choroiditis With Active Choroidal Neovascularization Managed With Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Completed NCT03793400 Bevacizumab Injection
3 Punctate Inner Choroidopathy (PIC) and Its Role in Progression of Pathological Myopia Not yet recruiting NCT04561869

Search NIH Clinical Center for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Genetic Tests for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Anatomical Context for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy:

40
Eye, Endothelial

Publications for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Articles related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy:

(show top 50) (show all 152)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Punctate inner choroidopathy: A review. 61 20
27751823 2017
2
Punctate inner choroidopathy. 61 20
21056447 2011
3
DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE TO GLUCOCORTICOID IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF TWO DISTINCT INFLAMMATORY SIGNS ASSOCIATED WITH PUNCTATE INNER CHOROIDOPATHY. 61
32804829 2021
4
Patchy hyperautofluorescence as a predictive factor for the recurrence of punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
33359163 2021
5
Punctate inner choroidopathy with atypical presentation. 61
33567007 2021
6
Chorioretinal Atrophy in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy/multifocal Choroiditis: A Five-year Follow-up Study. 61
33684021 2021
7
Use of Short-wave Blue Fundus Autofluorescence to Detect and Monitor Acute Regional Outer Retinopathy in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
33544644 2021
8
Efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol in pregnant women with uveitis. Recommendations on the management with immunosuppressive and biologic therapies in uveitis during pregnancy. 61
33124565 2021
9
OCTA versus dye angiography for the diagnosis and evaluation of neovascularisation in punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
33361443 2020
10
Characteristics of punctate inner choroidopathy complicated by choroidal neovascularisation on Multispectral Imaging in comparison with other imaging modalities. 61
33215937 2020
11
Rapid and spontaneous resolution of hemorrhagic macular hole retinal detachment and subretinal hemorrhages in an eye with pathologic myopia: a case report. 61
32993567 2020
12
Merging Information From Infrared and Autofluorescence Fundus Images for Monitoring of Chorioretinal Atrophic Lesions. 61
32908801 2020
13
Intraretinal Cystoid Spaces in Regression of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy Lesions. 61
31414607 2020
14
[Choroidal neovascularization due to a punctate inner choroidopathy visualized by optical coherence tomography angiography]. 61
32767099 2020
15
Differentiating Multifocal Choroiditis and Punctate Inner Choroidopathy: A Cluster Analysis Approach. 61
32027868 2020
16
The "Sponge sign": A novel feature of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization. 61
32345048 2020
17
Presence or absence of choroidal hyper-transmission by SD-OCT imaging distinguishes inflammatory from neovascular lesions in myopic eyes. 61
31907643 2020
18
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Changes in Choroidal Vasculature following Treatment in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
32058825 2020
19
Development of Secondary Choroidal Neovascularization in Focal Choroidal Excavation of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
30422049 2020
20
Punctate Inner Choroidopathy and Choroidal Neovascularization in Korean Patients. 61
30547702 2020
21
Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascular Membranes in Patients With Noninfectious Uveitis: The Place of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Therapy. 61
32490018 2020
22
Long-term Outcome of Zonal Outer Retinopathy in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy or Multifocal Choroiditis. 61
31906767 2020
23
Long-Term Outcome of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy or Multifocal Choroiditis with Active Choroidal Neovascularization Managed with Intravitreal Bevacizumab. 61
30994378 2020
24
Using optical coherence tomography angiography to guide the treatment of pathological myopic patients with submacular hemorrhage. 61
31470121 2019
25
[White dot syndromes : Principles, diagnostics, and treatment]. 61
31748943 2019
26
Immunosuppressants and/or antivascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in punctate inner choroidopathy? Follow-up results with optical coherence tomography angiography. 61
30337330 2019
27
Two-Year Outcome of Aflibercept for the Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
31043958 2019
28
Optical coherence tomography angiography in comparison with other multimodal imaging techniques in punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
29581353 2019
29
Etiologies and Characteristics of Choroidal Neovascularization in Young Chinese Patients. 61
30153680 2019
30
An update on inflammatory choroidal neovascularization: epidemiology, multimodal imaging, and management. 61
30209691 2018
31
Intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment for choroidal neovascularization secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
28424992 2018
32
Risk Factors for Developing Choroidal Neovascular Membrane and Visual Loss in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
28993011 2018
33
Treatment of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy with Choroidal Neovascularization Using Corticosteroid and Intravitreal Ranibizumab. 61
30302336 2018
34
Long-term results of intravitreal bevacizumab and dexamethasone for the treatment of punctate inner choroidopathy associated with choroidal neovascularization: A case series. 61
29760922 2018
35
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
29020421 2017
36
Punctate inner choroidopathy complicated with exudative neurosensory detachment: A favourable response to treatment with systemic corticosteroids and intravitreal ranibizumab. 61
27555066 2017
37
Efficacy and safety of conbercept as a primary treatment for choroidal neovascularization secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
28606070 2017
38
Choroidal neovascularisation on optical coherence tomography angiography in punctate inner choroidopathy and multifocal choroiditis. 61
27539089 2017
39
Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization in Indian eyes: Etiology, clinical features, and outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. 61
28513493 2017
40
How to Differentiate Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization, Idiopathic Multifocal Choroiditis, and Punctate Inner Choroidopathy Using Clinical and Multimodal Imaging Findings. 61
28297030 2017
41
Observation and Clinical Pattern in Patients with White Dot Syndromes: The Role of Color Photography in Monitoring Ocular Changes in Long-Term Observation. 61
28253223 2017
42
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
29230338 2017
43
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Detecting Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy. 61
27977842 2016
44
Adjunctive use of systematic retinal thickness map analysis to monitor disease activity in punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
26965893 2016
45
Idiopathic Multifocal Choroiditis. 61
27994812 2016
46
Etiology and treatment of choroidal neovascularization in pediatric patients. 61
27375068 2016
47
Clinical Characteristics of Inflammatory Choroidal Neovascularization in a Chinese Population. 61
26171640 2016
48
[Punctate Inner Choroidopathy]. 61
27341099 2016
49
Combined treatment in punctate inner choroidopathy. 61
27729795 2016
50
Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Punctate Inner Choroidopathy: Combination of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF and Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy. 61
26955337 2015

Variations for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Expression for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy.

Pathways for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Pathways related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.93 TNF IL10
2
Show member pathways
11.86 TNF IL10
3 11.83 TNF IL10
4
Show member pathways
11.81 TNF IL10
5 11.77 TNF IL10
6 11.68 TNF IL10
7 11.6 TNF IL10
8 11.58 TNF IL10
9 11.52 TNF IL10
10 11.4 TNF IL10
11
Show member pathways
11.36 TNF IL10
12 11.34 TNF IL10
13 11.3 TNF IL10
14 11.22 TNF IL10
15 11.07 TNF IL10
16 11.01 TNF IL10
17 10.82 TNF IL10
18
Show member pathways
10.71 TNF IL10
19 10.5 TNF IL10
20 10.09 TNF IL10

GO Terms for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

Biological processes related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 9.55 TNF IL10
2 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.54 TNF IL10
3 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 9.52 TNF IL10
4 response to organic substance GO:0010033 9.51 TNF IL10
5 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.49 TNF IL10
6 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.48 TNF IL10
7 positive regulation of cytokine production GO:0001819 9.46 TNF IL10
8 positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:1904707 9.43 TNF IL10
9 positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:1902895 9.4 TNF IL10
10 negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle GO:0045930 9.37 TNF IL10
11 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.32 TNF IL10
12 regulation of synapse organization GO:0050807 9.26 TNF IL10
13 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.16 TNF IL10
14 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 8.96 TNF IL10
15 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 8.62 TNF IL10

Molecular functions related to Punctate Inner Choroidopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 8.62 TNF IL10

Sources for Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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