Raynaud Disease

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Raynaud Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Raynaud Disease:

Name: Raynaud Disease 57 11 42 43 14 16 71 33
Raynaud Phenomenon 42 71 33
Raynaud's Disease 11 42 41
Raynaud Syndrome 75 31 33
Raynaud's Syndrome 11 42
Raynaud's 42 63
Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon 71
Raynaud's Disease/phenomenon 75
Cold Fingers, Hereditary 57
Raynaud's Phenomenon 42
Raynauds Phenomenon 53
Raynauds Syndrome 53



Autosomal dominant 57


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:10300
OMIM® 57 179600
MeSH 43 D011928
SNOMED-CT 68 195295006
ICD10 31 I73.0
MedGen 40 C0034734
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 266261006
UMLS 71 C0034734 C0034735 C1282916

Summaries for Raynaud Disease

MedlinePlus Genetics: 42 Raynaud phenomenon is a condition in which the body's normal response to cold or emotional stress is exaggerated, resulting in abnormal spasms (vasospasms) in small blood vessels called arterioles. The disorder mainly affects the fingers but can also involve the ears, nose, nipples, knees, or toes. The vasospasms reduce blood circulation, leading to discomfort and skin color changes.Raynaud phenomenon is episodic, meaning that it comes and goes. A typical episode lasts about 15 minutes after the cold exposure or stressor has ended and involves mild discomfort such as numbness or a feeling of "pins and needles." The affected areas usually turn white or blue when exposed to cold or when emotional stress occurs, and then turn red when re-warmed or when the stress eases.Raynaud phenomenon is categorized as primary when there is no underlying disorder that accounts for the exaggerated response of the blood vessels. It is called secondary when it is associated with another condition. Secondary Raynaud phenomenon is often associated with autoimmune disorders, which occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. Autoimmune disorders with which Raynaud phenomenon can be associated include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren syndrome.Primary Raynaud phenomenon is much more common and usually less severe than secondary Raynaud phenomenon. In severe cases of secondary Raynaud phenomenon, sores on the pads of the fingers or tissue death (necrosis) can occur. Primary Raynaud phenomenon often begins between the ages of 15 and 25, while secondary Raynaud phenomenon usually starts after age 30. Some people with Raynaud phenomenon alone later go on to develop another associated condition; regardless of which comes first, these cases are classified as secondary Raynaud phenomenon.

MalaCards based summary: Raynaud Disease, also known as raynaud phenomenon, is related to antisynthetase syndrome and scleroderma, familial progressive, and has symptoms including nausea and vomiting, constipation and fatigue. An important gene associated with Raynaud Disease is CENPB (Centromere Protein B), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Defects of contact activation system (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin system (KKS). The drugs Cilostazol and Ethanol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, lung and heart, and related phenotypes are abnormality of the skeletal system and raynaud phenomenon

MedlinePlus: 41 Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the blood vessels to narrow when you are cold or feeling stressed. When this happens, blood can't get to the surface of the skin and the affected areas turn white and blue. When the blood flow returns, the skin turns red and throbs or tingles. In severe cases, loss of blood flow can cause sores or tissue death. Primary Raynaud's happens on its own. The cause is unknown. There is also secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are more likely to develop Raynaud's. It is also more common in women, people with a family history, and those over age 30. Treatment for Raynaud's may include drugs to keep the blood vessels open. There are also simple things you can do yourself, such as: Soaking hands in warm water at the first sign of an attack Keeping your hands and feet warm in cold weather Avoiding triggers, such as certain medicines and stress NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

PubMed Health : 63 Raynaud's: Raynaud's is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to different parts of your body. Raynaud's sometimes is called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. The disorder is marked by brief episodes of vasospasm (VA-so-spazm), which is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynaud's, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynaud's, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.

Disease Ontology: 11 A peripheral vascular disease that is characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or cyanosis in response to cold exposure or stress.

Wikipedia: 75 Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, eponymously named after the physician Auguste... more...

More information from OMIM: 179600

Related Diseases for Raynaud Disease

Diseases related to Raynaud Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 669)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 antisynthetase syndrome 31.7 TRIM21 TARS1 SNRNP70
2 scleroderma, familial progressive 31.2 EDN1 CENPB
3 buerger disease 30.4 EDN1 CRP APOH
4 systemic scleroderma 30.2 TRIM21 SNRNP70 EDN1 CRP CENPB
5 telangiectasis 30.1 TRIM21 SNRNP70 CENPB
6 horner's syndrome 30.1 CRP ADRA2C
7 vasculitis 30.0 VWF THBD SELE CRP APOH
8 angina pectoris 30.0 PLAT PIK3C2A EDN1 CRP
9 exanthem 29.9 TRIM21 PIK3C2A CRP
10 impotence 29.9 VWF PDE5A EDN1
11 intermittent claudication 29.9 VWF PF4 CRP APOH
12 eclampsia 29.9 THBD EDN1 APOH
13 congestive heart failure 29.9 VWF PDE5A EDN1 AGTR1
14 pulmonary hypertension 29.8 THBD PDE5A EDN1 CRP AGTR1
15 erythromelalgia 29.8 U2AF1 THBD PF4
16 transient global amnesia 29.8 PLAT PDE5A
17 fabry disease 29.8 SELE CRP AGTR1
18 malignant hypertension 29.8 VWF AGTR1 ADAMTS13
19 coronary artery vasospasm 29.8 PIK3C2A EDN1 CRP
20 inferior myocardial infarction 29.8 PLAT PIK3C2A
21 takayasu arteritis 29.7 THBD SELE EDN1 CRP
22 arteriosclerosis 29.7 THBD SELE EDN1 CRP
23 polyarteritis nodosa 29.7 SELE CRP APOH
24 crest syndrome 29.7 SNRNP70 PDE5A CENPB
25 thoracic outlet syndrome 29.7 PLAT CRP APOH
26 sjogren syndrome 29.7 TRIM21 RNPC3 CENPB APOH
27 hemolytic-uremic syndrome 29.7 VWF THBD ADAMTS13
28 thrombocytopenia due to platelet alloimmunization 29.7 VWF U2AF1 PF4 ADAMTS13
29 purpura 29.7 VWF THBD PF4 CRP APOH ADAMTS13
30 ischemia 29.7 SELE PLAT PIK3C2A PDE5A EDN1
31 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 29.7 VWF THBD PLAT PF4 APOH
32 hydronephrosis 29.6 VWF SELE CRP
33 hepatopulmonary syndrome 29.6 VWF EDN1 CRP
34 uremia 29.6 VWF PF4 CRP
35 intermediate coronary syndrome 29.6 VWF EDN1 CRP
36 migraine with or without aura 1 29.6 VWF PDE5A EDN1 CRP APOH
37 hyperhomocysteinemia 29.6 VWF THBD PLAT CRP APOH
38 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 29.6 VWF THBD SELE APOH ADAMTS13
39 pulmonary edema 29.6 PIK3C2A EDN1 CRP AGTR1
40 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 29.6 PDE5A EDN1 CRP
41 anemia, autoimmune hemolytic 29.6 CRP APOH ADAMTS13
42 hemolytic anemia 29.5 VWF U2AF1 THBD APOH ADAMTS13
43 respiratory failure 29.5 VWF THBD PIK3C2A CRP AGTR1
44 hemiplegia 29.5 PLAT EDN1 CRP
45 coronary thrombosis 29.5 VWF PLAT CRP
46 moyamoya disease 1 29.4 VWF PLAT CRP
47 pulmonary embolism 29.4 VWF THBD PLAT PDE5A CRP APOH
48 myeloproliferative neoplasm 29.4 VWF U2AF1 THBD PF4
49 behcet syndrome 29.4 VWF THBD SELE CRP APOH
50 nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis 29.4 VWF PLAT CRP APOH

Comorbidity relations with Raynaud Disease via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Deficiency Anemia Esophagitis
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Peripheral Vascular Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Scleroderma

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Raynaud Disease:

Diseases related to Raynaud Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Raynaud Disease

Human phenotypes related to Raynaud Disease:

# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 abnormality of the skeletal system 30 HP:0000924
2 raynaud phenomenon 30 HP:0030880

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
intermittent attacks of numb and white fingers

Clinical features from OMIM®:

179600 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

UMLS symptoms related to Raynaud Disease:

nausea and vomiting; constipation; fatigue; fever; angina pectoris; abdominal pain; chest pain; headache; pruritus; syncope; diarrhea; edema; pain; chronic pain; sciatica; halitosis; dyspepsia; icterus; coughing; vertigo/dizziness; heartburn; gastrointestinal gas; symptoms; pelvic pain; cold intolerance; joint or joint related complaint

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Raynaud Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.17 ADAMTS13 ADRA2C AGTR1 APOH CENPB CRP
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.17 ADAMTS13 ADRA2C AGTR1 APOH CENPB CRP

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Raynaud Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.17 ADAMTS13 ADRA2C AGTR1 APOH CRP EDN1
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10 ADRA2C AGTR1 CRP EDN1 PIK3C2A PLAT
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.93 ADAMTS13 AGTR1 CRP PDE5A PIK3C2A PLAT
4 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.73 ADAMTS13 AGTR1 PDE5A PF4 PIK3C2A PLAT
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.5 ADAMTS13 ADRA2C AGTR1 APOH CENPB EDN1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Raynaud Disease

PubMed Health treatment related to Raynaud Disease: 63

Primary Raynaud 's (Raynaud's disease) and secondary Raynaud's (Raynaud's phenomenon) have no cure. However, treatments can reduce the number and severity of Raynaud's attacks. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and, rarely, surgery . Most people who have primary Raynaud 's can manage the condition with lifestyle changes. People who have secondary Raynaud's may need medicines in addition to lifestyle changes. Rarely, they may need surgery or shots . If you have Raynaud 's and develop sores on your fingers , toes, or other parts of your body, see your doctor right away. Timely treatment can help prevent permanent damage to these areas.

Drugs for Raynaud Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 94)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
4 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4
5 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
6 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
7 Protective Agents Phase 4
8 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
9 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4
10 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4
11 Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors Phase 4
12 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
13 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
15 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
16 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
17 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
18 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 55-63-0 4510
Nifedipine Approved Phase 3 21829-25-4 4485
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 68-04-2 23431961
Sildenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 139755-83-2, 171599-83-0 5212 135398744
Tadalafil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 171596-29-5 110635
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 10024-97-2 948
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
Prilocaine Approved Phase 3 721-50-6 4906
Amlodipine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 88150-42-9 2162
Udenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 268203-93-6 6918523 135413547
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 120202-66-6, 113665-84-2 60606
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 77-92-9 311
St. John's Wort Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 84082-80-4
Fasudil Investigational Phase 3 103745-39-7 3547
34 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
35 Hormones Phase 3
36 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 3
37 calcium channel blockers Phase 3
38 Citrate Phase 2, Phase 3
39 Tocolytic Agents Phase 3
40 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
41 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 3
42 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 3
Insulin Phase 3
44 Anticoagulants Phase 3
45 Chelating Agents Phase 3
46 Vardenafil Dihydrochloride Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
49 Anesthetics, Local Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 78)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Safety and Efficacy of Pletal (Cilostazol) for the Treatment of Juvenile Primary and Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00048776 Phase 4 Pletal
2 Safety and Efficacy of Pletal(Cilostazol) for the Treatment of Juvenile Primary and Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00048763 Phase 4 Pletal
3 Double Blind RCT to Evaluate the Effect of Botulinum Toxin in Raynaud Phenomenon Recruiting NCT05125029 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin
4 The Effect of Abobotulinum Toxin A on the Symptoms of Raynaud's Phenomenon, a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial Terminated NCT03639766 Phase 4 AbobotulinumtoxinA
5 A Study of a Topical Formulation of Nitroglycerin, Vascana® (MQX-503), and Matching Vehicle in the Treatment and Prevention of Symptoms Associated With Raynaud's Phenomenon Unknown status NCT00934427 Phase 3 0.9% nitroglycerin in TAM cream;vehicle cream
6 A Study of a Topical Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, and Matching Vehicle in the Treatment and Prevention of Raynaud's Phenomenon Unknown status NCT00577304 Phase 3 Nitroglycerin;Topical AmphiMatrix
7 Phase III Laboratory Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00253331 Phase 2, Phase 3 topical organogel with nitroglycerin
8 Randomised Control Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon in Scleroderma Completed NCT00626665 Phase 3 Tadalafil
9 Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Iloprost for Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT00004786 Phase 3 iloprost
10 Efficacy and Safety of "as Required" Sildenafil for Patients With Moderate to Severe Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Completed NCT02050360 Phase 2, Phase 3 Sildenafil 40 mg;Sildenafil 80 mg;Placebo
11 Efficacy, Tolerability and Biology of a Rho-kinase Inhibitor (Fasudil) in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00498615 Phase 3 Fasudil
12 Phase III "In-Life" Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, and Matching Placebo Gel in the Treatment and Prevention of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00419419 Phase 3 Topical AmphiMatrix with nitroglycerin (MQX-503)
13 Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group, Study to Assess Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A in Adult Subjects With Raynaud Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT03717961 Phase 3 BOTOX® solution;Placebo group
14 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Iloprost in Subjects With Systemic Sclerosis Experiencing Symptomatic Digital Ischemic Episodes (AURORA Study) Completed NCT04040322 Phase 3 Placebo IV infusion;Iloprost Injection, for intravenous use
15 A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of St.John's Wort(a Natural Health Product) in the Treatment on Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00351117 Phase 3 St. John's Wort;Lactose
16 Phase III "in-Life" Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, and Matching Placebo Gel in the Treatment and Prevention of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00266669 Phase 3 Topical organogel with nitroglycerin
17 Raynaud's Treatment Study (RTS) Completed NCT00000530 Phase 3 nifedipine
18 A Randomized Control Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon in Scleroderma: A Double Blind, Parallel Group, Multicentric Study Completed NCT01117298 Phase 3 Tadalafil;Placebo
19 A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin In Treating Scleroderma-Associated Raynaud's Syndrome Completed NCT02165111 Phase 3 Onabotulinumtoxin A;sterile saline solution
20 Effect of Sildenafil on the Microcirculatory Blood Flow and on the Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT01347008 Phase 3 Sildenafil citrate;Placebo (Sugar pill)
21 Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Cross-over Study to Investigate the Effects of the Phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitor Vardenafil on Periphery Blood Flow and Clinical Symptoms of Patients With Raynaud's Syndrome Completed NCT01291199 Phase 2, Phase 3 vardenafil;Placebo
22 Comparison of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor and Calcium Channel Inhibitor for the Treatment of Secondary Raynaud Phenomenon, Double Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial Completed NCT01280266 Phase 2, Phase 3 Udenafil or Amlodipine
23 Phase II/III Double-blind Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial Assessing the Preventive Effect of Clopidogrel on the Systemic Sclerosis Development Risk in Subjects With Specific Dysimmunity and Raynaud Phenomenon Recruiting NCT05098704 Phase 2, Phase 3 clopidogrel treatment;Placebo
24 Chemical Sympathectomy Following Peripheral Nerve Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine Terminated NCT02374320 Phase 2, Phase 3 liposomal bupivacaine
25 Safety and Efficacy Study of Pl-vegf165 to Treat Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon Caused by Systemic Scleroderma Unknown status NCT02356809 Phase 1, Phase 2 Neovasculgen
26 Single Dose, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Single Center, Randomized Cross-over Study to Investigate Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetic Properties of BAY63-2521 After Oral Dosing in 20 Patients With Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Completed NCT01926847 Phase 2 Riociguat (Adempas, BAY63-2521);Placebo
27 Efficacy and Tolerability of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb 761® in Patients With Raynaud´s Phenomenon Completed NCT00251238 Phase 2 Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761
28 Phase II Dose Response Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00378521 Phase 2 MQX-503
29 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Pilot Study Evaluating Intravenous Iloprost in Subjects With Symptomatic Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT03867097 Phase 2 Placebo IV infusion;Iloprost Injection, for intravenous use
30 A Double-blinded Crossover Study of Topical Formulation of Nitroglycerine, Vascana®, Versus Matching Vehicle in the Subjective and Physiologic Responses to Controlled Cold Challenge in Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Secondary to Connective Tissue Disease Completed NCT02688270 Phase 2 Vascana (0.9% nitroglycerin cream);Vehicle Cream (placebo)
31 Phase II Dose Response Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00480753 Phase 2 Nitroglycerin
32 A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Group, Exploratory Phase 2 Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Selexipag in Adult Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT02260557 Phase 2 Selexipag;Placebo
33 A Phase II, Randomized, Multi-center, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Study to Investigate the Safety of GS-248, and Efficacy on Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) and Peripheral Vascular Blood Flow, in Subjects With Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Completed NCT04744207 Phase 2 GS-248;Placebo
34 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Pilot Study to Examine the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacodynamic Profile of Repeat Oral Doses of SLx-2101 Once Daily for up to 14 Days in Subjects With Secondary Raynaud's Disease. Completed NCT00528242 Phase 2 SLx-2101;Placebo
35 A Phase 2, Single-center, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Cold Challenge Study Investigating the Effect of C21 on Cold-induced Vasoconstriction in Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Completed NCT04388176 Phase 2 C21;Placebo
36 A Phase 2a Randomized Double-blinded, Placebo And Active Controlled Two Cohort Two Doses Cross-over Multi-center Clinical Study To Assess Efficacy Of A Once Daily Administration Of A Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitor (Pf-00489791) For The Treatment Of Vasospasm In Primary And Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT01090492 Phase 2 PF-00489791
37 A 28-Day Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial and 5-Year Prospective Outcomes Study: A Two-Part Study of BOTOX® Therapy for Ischemic Digits Completed NCT01309802 Phase 2 onabotulinum toxin type-A
38 A Phase 2a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of the Acute Peripheral Vascular Effects, Safety and Tolerability of Alprostadil Topical Cream in Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis (SSc, Scleroderma) Completed NCT02228850 Phase 2 Alprostadil
39 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of IC351 in Female Patients With Raynaud Phenomenon and Female Sexual Dysfunction Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT00707187 Phase 2 Cialis
40 A Phase 2, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study to Assess the Effect of Oral Temanogrel on Digital Blood Flow in Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Terminated NCT04915950 Phase 2 Temanogrel;Placebo
41 Phase IIa Study of the Efficacy of ORM-12471 for Prevention of Cold-induced Vasospasm: a Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Single Centre Crossover Study in Patients With Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Terminated NCT01315899 Phase 2 ORM-12471 30mg;ORM-12471;placebo
42 MXQ-503 Applied To The Hand Vs. Nitroglycerin Ointment 2%, USP, Applied To The Chest: A Pharmacokinetic Comparison In Normal Subjects Completed NCT00841594 Phase 1 nitroglycerin 0.9 % (MXQ-503);Nitroglycerin ointment 2%, USP
43 A Phase I Trial of the Pharmacodynamic Dose Response to Topical Trinitrate in Patients With Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00700518 Phase 1 placebo cream;Glyceryl Trinitrate
44 Rôle Des Acides Epoxy-eicosatriénoïques et du Monoxyde d'Azote Dans l'hyperhémie Post-occlusive cutanée Digitale et la réponse cutanée au Froid Dans le phénomène de Raynaud Primaire Unknown status NCT02183779 L-NMMA and Fluconazole dermic injection
45 Hit Hard and Early. The Effect of High Dose Methylprednisolone on Nailfold Capillary Changes and Biomarkers in Early SSc: a 12-week Randomised Explorative Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT03059979 Early Phase 1 Methylprednisolone
46 Localized Effects of Photobiomodulation and Exogenous Nitric Oxide on CREST Patients Calcinosis Cutis & Raynaud Phenomenon Unknown status NCT03972566 INOMAX
47 Monocenter, IIT, Open Controlled and Prospectiv Study to Define the Prognostic Influence of Light Rheography Measurement of Patients With Secundary Raynaud Syndrome With Ulcers at Fingertips Throughout the Medicinal Therapy Unknown status NCT01378845 Tracleer;Prostavasin
48 RaynAUT - Thermography and the Autonomic Nervous System in Raynaud's Phenomenon - Investigation of the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients With Raynaud's Phenomenon, Glaucoma, and Autonomic Neuropathy. Completed NCT03094910
49 "Color Doppler Ultrasound Comparison of Topical 10 % Nifedipine Versus 5% Sildenafil in Secondary Raynaud: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study" Completed NCT03027674 Early Phase 1 10% nifedipine cream;5% sildenafil cream
50 Effectiveness of an Intervention Program With Electric Stimulation Therapy in Patients With Raynaud's Phenomenon: a Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT03699436

Search NIH Clinical Center for Raynaud Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Isoxsuprine Hydrochloride
Papaverine Hydrochloride
Prazosin hydrochloride
Tolazoline Hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: raynaud disease

Genetic Tests for Raynaud Disease

Anatomical Context for Raynaud Disease

Organs/tissues related to Raynaud Disease:

MalaCards : Skin, Lung, Heart, Endothelial, Spinal Cord, Smooth Muscle, Salivary Gland

Publications for Raynaud Disease

Articles related to Raynaud Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 7358)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Familial aggregation of primary Raynaud's disease. 62 57
8670329 1996
A prospective study on local cold injuries in northern Sweden. 62 41
36403140 2022
Intravenous iloprost in systemic sclerosis and its effect in cardiopulmonary function: a retrospective observational study. 62 41
36394746 2022
Anti-Phosphatidylethanolamine and Anti-Phosphatidylserine Antibodies-Association with Renal Involvement, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Manifestations, Raynaud Phenomenon and Disease Activity in Polish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. 62 41
36291537 2022
Secondary Sjogren's syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus defines a distinct disease subset. 53 62
20360189 2010
[A clinical study of femoral head osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.]. 53 62
20079323 2009
Potential biomarkers for detecting pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis. 53 62
19116719 2009
No effects of bosentan on microvasculature in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. 53 62
19350343 2009
Plasma adrenomedullin and endothelin-1 levels are reduced and Raynaud's phenomenon improved by daily tadalafil administration in male patients with systemic sclerosis. 53 62
19321043 2009
Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: nonerectogenic beneficial uses. 53 62
18761597 2008
Comprehensive investigation of novel serum markers of pulmonary fibrosis associated with systemic sclerosis and dermato/polymyositis. 53 62
18578962 2008
Endothelin-1 does not change the function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells grown from patients with systemic sclerosis. 53 62
18991099 2008
[Endothelin-1 in systemic sclerosis]. 53 62
17603692 2007
Clinical manifestations and vascular events in patients with lupus erythematosus anticardiolipin antibodies and raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
17550096 2006
Endothelin-1, platelets and Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
17164754 2006
Renin-angiotensin system mediators and Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
17003081 2006
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
16835313 2006
The role of endothelin-1 and selected cytokines in the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic connective tissue diseases. 53 62
16763543 2006
Antisynthetase syndrome associated with sarcoidosis. 53 62
17043379 2006
Headache, Raynaud's syndrome and serotonin receptor agonists in systemic lupus erythematosus. 53 62
17120594 2006
Anti-lactoferrin antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: isotypes and clinical correlates. 53 62
15592902 2005
Cooling-induced contraction and protein tyrosine kinase activity of isolated arterioles in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
15695304 2005
Efficacy and tolerability of a selective alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor blocker in recovery from cold-induced vasospasm in scleroderma patients: a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. 53 62
15593189 2004
Severe ADAMTS13 deficiency in adult idiopathic thrombotic microangiopathies defines a subset of patients characterized by various autoimmune manifestations, lower platelet count, and mild renal involvement. 53 62
15232311 2004
[Differential therapy with calcium antagonists]. 53 62
14689111 2003
Raynaud's phenomenon and antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: is there an association? 53 62
12972482 2003
Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine and endothelin 1 levels in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: implications for vascular dysfunction and progression of disease. 53 62
12847693 2003
Brachial endothelial function is impaired in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. 53 62
11842823 2002
[Evidence-based therapy of systemic sclerosis]. 53 62
11826742 2001
Effect of temperature and modulators of protein tyrosine kinase activity on the reactivity of isolated venules in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
11669167 2001
[Endothelin-1 in pathogenesis of Raynaud's syndrome]. 53 62
11503255 2001
Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with intravenous prostaglandin E1alpha-cyclodextrin improves endothelial cell injury in systemic sclerosis. 53 62
11327251 2001
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies, Raynaud's phenomenon with digital ischemia, and non small cell carcinoma of the lung. 53 62
11469530 2001
Evaluation of vascular injury with proinflammatory cytokines, thrombomodulin and fibronectin in patients with primary fibromyalgia. 53 62
11201985 2000
Homocysteine concentration in primary and systemic sclerosis associated Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
11093443 2000
Digital vascular responses and serum endothelin-1 concentrations in primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
11053063 2000
Changes in plasma serotonin concentration and acceleration plethysmograms in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon after long-term treatment with a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 53 62
11092268 2000
Thrombosis in patients with connective tissue diseases treated with specific cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors. A report of four cases. 53 62
10943882 2000
Measurement of soluble adhesion molecules in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and in Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to connective tissue diseases. 53 62
11043500 2000
Losartan therapy for Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma: clinical and biochemical findings in a fifteen-week, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial. 53 62
10616013 1999
Cardiovascular responses evoked by mild cool stimuli in primary Raynaud's disease: the role of endothelin. 53 62
10334963 1999
[Cardiac disorders associated with progressive systemic sclerosis]. 53 62
9914957 1998
Whole-body cooling increases plasma endothelin-1 levels in women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. 53 62
9784937 1998
Headache in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled study. 53 62
9566671 1998
Cutaneous responses to endothelin-1 and histamine in patients with vibration white finger. 53 62
9457906 1998
Mucocutaneous disease in Arabs with systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical expression and relevance to autoantibodies. 53 62
9863895 1998
Functional studies in small arteries do not support a primary role for endothelin in the pathogenesis of Raynaud's disease. 53 62
9595516 1998
Highlights on endothelins: a review. 53 62
9441724 1997
[Acrosyndromes induced by bleomycin in HIV 1 related Kaposi's disease. 5 cases]. 53 62
9452752 1997
Cutaneous localization of endothelin-1 in patients with systemic sclerosis: immunoelectron microscopic study. 53 62
9169324 1997

Variations for Raynaud Disease

Expression for Raynaud Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Raynaud Disease.

Pathways for Raynaud Disease

GO Terms for Raynaud Disease

Cellular components related to Raynaud Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Weibel-Palade body GO:0033093 8.92 VWF EDN1

Biological processes related to Raynaud Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 blood coagulation GO:0007596 9.87 VWF THBD PLAT ADAMTS13
2 platelet activation GO:0030168 9.76 VWF PF4 ADRA2C ADAMTS13
3 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process GO:0034392 9.73 EDN1 APOH
4 regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0019229 9.73 ADRA2C AGTR1 EDN1
5 cellular response to luteinizing hormone stimulus GO:0071373 9.71 PLAT EDN1
6 hemostasis GO:0007599 9.67 VWF THBD ADAMTS13
7 negative regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030195 9.43 THBD EDN1 APOH
8 negative regulation of fibrinolysis GO:0051918 9.1 THBD PLAT APOH

Sources for Raynaud Disease

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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