Aliases & Classifications for Raynaud Phenomenon

MalaCards integrated aliases for Raynaud Phenomenon:

Name: Raynaud Phenomenon 25 71
Raynaud Disease 25 71
Raynaud's 25 62
Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon 71
Raynaud's Phenomenon 25
Raynauds Phenomenon 54
Raynaud's Syndrome 25
Raynaud's Disease 25

External Ids:

UMLS 71 C0034734 C0034735 C1282916

Summaries for Raynaud Phenomenon

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Raynaud phenomenon is a condition in which the body's normal response to cold or emotional stress is exaggerated, resulting in abnormal spasms (vasospasms) in small blood vessels called arterioles. The disorder mainly affects the fingers but can also involve the ears, nose, nipples, knees, or toes. The vasospasms reduce blood circulation, leading to discomfort and skin color changes. Raynaud phenomenon is episodic, meaning that it comes and goes. A typical episode lasts about 15 minutes after the cold exposure or stressor has ended and involves mild discomfort such as numbness or a feeling of "pins and needles." The affected areas usually turn white or blue when exposed to cold or when emotional stress occurs, and then turn red when re-warmed or when the stress eases. Raynaud phenomenon is categorized as primary when there is no underlying disorder that accounts for the exaggerated response of the blood vessels. It is called secondary when it is associated with another condition. Secondary Raynaud phenomenon is often associated with autoimmune disorders, which occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. Autoimmune disorders with which Raynaud phenomenon can be associated include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren syndrome. Primary Raynaud phenomenon is much more common and usually less severe than secondary Raynaud phenomenon. In severe cases of secondary Raynaud phenomenon, sores on the pads of the fingers or tissue death (necrosis) can occur. Primary Raynaud phenomenon often begins between the ages of 15 and 25, while secondary Raynaud phenomenon usually starts after age 30. Some people with Raynaud phenomenon alone later go on to develop another associated condition; regardless of which comes first, these cases are classified as secondary Raynaud phenomenon.

MalaCards based summary : Raynaud Phenomenon, also known as raynaud disease, is related to raynaud disease and purpura, and has symptoms including fatigue, fever and edema. An important gene associated with Raynaud Phenomenon is ADRA2C (Adrenoceptor Alpha 2C), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+. The drugs Bleomycin and Bosentan have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, testes and lung.

PubMed Health : 62 About raynaud's: Raynaud's is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to different parts of your body. Raynaud's sometimes is called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. The disorder is marked by brief episodes of vasospasm (VA-so-spazm), which is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynaud's, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynaud's, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.

Related Diseases for Raynaud Phenomenon

Diseases related to Raynaud Phenomenon via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 486)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 raynaud disease 32.6 PDE5A EDN1 ADRA2C
2 purpura 30.1 VWF THBD APOH
3 purpura fulminans 30.1 THBD APOH
4 vasculitis 30.1 VWF THBD APOH
5 antiphospholipid syndrome 29.9 VWF THBD APOH
6 hepatopulmonary syndrome 29.8 VWF EDN1
7 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 29.8 THBD APOH
8 collagen disease 29.7 VWF THBD APOH
9 homocysteinemia 29.7 VWF THBD APOH
10 peripheral artery disease 29.7 VWF THBD EDN1
11 peripheral vascular disease 29.7 VWF THBD HTR2A
12 limb ischemia 29.7 VWF EDN1
13 atherosclerosis susceptibility 29.7 VWF THBD EDN1
14 limited scleroderma 29.7 PDE5A EDN1
15 intermittent claudication 29.5 VWF HTR2A APOH
16 disseminated intravascular coagulation 29.5 VWF THBD
17 hemolytic anemia 29.5 VWF THBD APOH
18 hemolytic-uremic syndrome 29.4 VWF THBD
19 malignant hypertension 29.4 VWF THBD EDN1
20 acute myocardial infarction 29.4 VWF THBD EDN1
21 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 29.4 VWF THBD APOH
22 impotence 29.4 PDE5A EDN1
23 thrombosis 29.3 VWF THBD APOH
24 eclampsia 29.3 THBD EDN1 APOH
25 thrombocytopenia 29.2 VWF THBD EDN1 APOH
26 vascular disease 29.2 VWF THBD HTR2A EDN1 APOH
27 migraine with or without aura 1 29.2 PDE5A HTR2A EDN1 APOH
28 coronary artery vasospasm 29.2 HTR2A EDN1 ADRA2C
29 hellp syndrome 28.9 VWF THBD EDN1 APOH
30 pulmonary embolism 28.8 VWF THBD PDE5A APOH
31 pulmonary hypertension 28.8 VWF THBD PDE5A HTR2A EDN1
32 congestive heart failure 28.7 PDE5A EDN1 ADRA2C
33 diabetes mellitus 28.5 VWF THBD PDE5A EDN1
34 pre-eclampsia 27.9 VWF THBD PDE5A EDN1 APOH
35 hypertension, essential 27.3 VWF THBD PDE5A HTR2A EDN1 ADRA2C
36 systemic scleroderma 12.0
37 crest syndrome 12.0
38 undifferentiated connective tissue disease 11.9
39 antisynthetase syndrome 11.7
40 angiopathy, hereditary, with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps 11.6
41 vasculopathy, retinal, with cerebral leukodystrophy 11.4
42 linear scleroderma 11.4
43 reynolds syndrome 11.4
44 moyamoya disease 6 with or without achalasia 11.4
45 waldenstroem's macroglobulinemia 11.4
46 sting-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy 11.4
47 simple cryoglobulinemia 11.1
48 scleroderma, familial progressive 10.8
49 connective tissue disease 10.6
50 lupus erythematosus 10.3

Comorbidity relations with Raynaud Phenomenon via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Deficiency Anemia Esophagitis
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Peripheral Vascular Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Scleroderma

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Raynaud Phenomenon:

Diseases related to Raynaud Phenomenon

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Raynaud Phenomenon

UMLS symptoms related to Raynaud Phenomenon:

fatigue, fever, edema, pruritus, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, angina pectoris, constipation, headache, syncope, diarrhea, pain, chronic pain, sciatica, halitosis, icterus, coughing, vertigo/dizziness, symptoms, dyspepsia, heartburn, gastrointestinal gas, pelvic pain, cold intolerance, joint or joint related complaint

Drugs & Therapeutics for Raynaud Phenomenon

PubMed Health treatment related to Raynaud Phenomenon: 62

Primary Raynaud 's (Raynaud's disease) and secondary Raynaud's (Raynaud's phenomenon) have no cure. However, treatments can reduce the number and severity of Raynaud's attacks. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and, rarely, surgery . Most people who have primary Raynaud 's can manage the condition with lifestyle changes. People who have secondary Raynaud's may need medicines in addition to lifestyle changes. Rarely, they may need surgery or shots . If you have Raynaud 's and develop sores on your fingers , toes, or other parts of your body, see your doctor right away. Timely treatment can help prevent permanent damage to these areas.

Drugs for Raynaud Phenomenon (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 203)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Bleomycin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 11056-06-7 5360373
Bosentan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 147536-97-8 104865
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Sotalol Approved Phase 4 3930-20-9, 959-24-0 5253
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
BCG vaccine Investigational Phase 4
8 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 4
9 insulin Phase 4
10 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
11 Vaccines Phase 4
12 Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
13 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
14 Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors Phase 4
15 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4
16 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4
17 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
18 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
19 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
20 Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination Phase 4
21 Analgesics Phase 4
22 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
23 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
24 Antipyretics Phase 4
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
26 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
27 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
28 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
29 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
30 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
31 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4
32 Sympatholytics Phase 4
33 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 4
34 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
35 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
36 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
37 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
38 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
39 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
Tadalafil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 171596-29-5 110635
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 68-04-2
Amlodipine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 88150-42-9 2162
Udenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 268203-93-6 6918523
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 27203-92-5 33741
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 437-38-7 3345
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 3 59467-70-8 4192
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 15307-86-5 3033
Ephedrine Approved Phase 3 299-42-3 9294

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 134)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Efficacy of Intra-lesional Bleomycin Versus Intra-lesional Purified Protein Derivative in Treatment of Palmoplantar Warts Unknown status NCT03477448 Phase 4 Bleomycin;Purified Protein Derivative
2 Safety and Efficacy of Pletal (Cilostazol) for the Treatment of Juvenile Primary and Secondary Raynaud’s Phenomenon Completed NCT00048776 Phase 4 Pletal
3 Safety and Efficacy of Pletal(Cilostazol) for the Treatment of Juvenile Primary and Secondary Raynaud’s Phenomenon Completed NCT00048763 Phase 4 Pletal
4 The Clinical Efficacy And Subclinical Effects on Arterial STIFFNESS of Bosentan Therapy Added to Usual Care in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis With Digital Ulcers Completed NCT02480335 Phase 4 bosentan
5 Open-label, Randomized, Controlled, With Blind Assessor, Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Rheosorbilact®, Solution for Infusion ("Yuria-Pharm"), in Comparison With Ringer's Lactate,Solution for Infusion, in a Complex Therapy of Pneumonia. Completed NCT03824457 Phase 4 Rheosorbilact®;Ringer lactate
6 Open-label, Randomized, Controlled, With Blind Assessor, Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Rheosorbilact®, Solution for Infusion, in Comparison With Ringer's Lactate,Solution for Infusion, in a Complex Therapy of Peritonitis. Completed NCT03771170 Phase 4 Rheosorbilact®;Ringer lactate
7 Open-label, Randomized, Controlled, With Blind Assessor, Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Rheosorbilact®, Solution for Infusion, in Comparison With Ringer's Lactate, Solution for Infusion, in a Complex Therapy of Sepsis. Completed NCT03764085 Phase 4 Rheosorbilact®;Ringer lactate
8 Anesthetic Ointment vs Local Injectable Anesthetic in Trans-radial Cardiac Catheterization: The RAOLA Study Recruiting NCT03072394 Phase 4 Local anesthetic;local anaesthetic injection
9 Open-label, Randomized, Controlled, With Blind Assessor, Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Rheosorbilact®, Solution for Infusion ("Yuria-Pharm"), in Comparison With Ringer's Lactate,Solution for Infusion, in a Complex Therapy of Burns Recruiting NCT04152096 Phase 4 Rheosorbilact®;Ringer lactate
10 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Acetylsalicylic Acid on Markers of Vascular Dysfunction in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis Recruiting NCT03558854 Phase 4 Acetylsalicylic acid;Placebo oral capsule
11 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized, Open Label Trial to Determine if a Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Locus Modulates Differential Response to Antiarrhythmic Drugs Not yet recruiting NCT02347111 Phase 4 Flecainide;Sotalol
12 The Effect of Abobotulinum Toxin A on the Symptoms of Raynaud's Phenomenon, a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial Terminated NCT03639766 Phase 4 AbobotulinumtoxinA
13 A Study of a Topical Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, and Matching Vehicle in the Treatment and Prevention of Raynaud's Phenomenon Unknown status NCT00577304 Phase 3 Nitroglycerin;Topical AmphiMatrix
14 A Study of a Topical Formulation of Nitroglycerin, Vascana® (MQX-503), and Matching Vehicle in the Treatment and Prevention of Symptoms Associated With Raynaud's Phenomenon Unknown status NCT00934427 Phase 3 0.9% nitroglycerin in TAM cream;vehicle cream
15 Phase III "in-Life" Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, and Matching Placebo Gel in the Treatment and Prevention of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00266669 Phase 3 Topical organogel with nitroglycerin
16 Efficacy and Safety of "as Required" Sildenafil for Patients With Moderate to Severe Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Completed NCT02050360 Phase 2, Phase 3 Sildenafil 40 mg;Sildenafil 80 mg;Placebo
17 Phase III "In-Life" Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, and Matching Placebo Gel in the Treatment and Prevention of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00419419 Phase 3 Topical AmphiMatrix with nitroglycerin (MQX-503)
18 Randomised Control Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon in Scleroderma Completed NCT00626665 Phase 3 Tadalafil
19 Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Iloprost for Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT00004786 Phase 3 iloprost
20 Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Cross-over Study to Investigate the Effects of the Phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitor Vardenafil on Periphery Blood Flow and Clinical Symptoms of Patients With Raynaud's Syndrome Completed NCT01291199 Phase 2, Phase 3 vardenafil;Placebo
21 A Randomized Control Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Raynaud's Phenomenon in Scleroderma: A Double Blind, Parallel Group, Multicentric Study Completed NCT01117298 Phase 3 Tadalafil;Placebo
22 Raynaud's Treatment Study (RTS) Completed NCT00000530 Phase 3 nifedipine
23 A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of St.John's Wort(a Natural Health Product) in the Treatment on Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00351117 Phase 3 St. John's Wort;Lactose
24 Efficacy, Tolerability and Biology of a Rho-kinase Inhibitor (Fasudil) in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00498615 Phase 3 Fasudil
25 Phase III Laboratory Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the Treatment of Raynaud’s Phenomenon Completed NCT00253331 Phase 2, Phase 3 topical organogel with nitroglycerin
26 A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin In Treating Scleroderma-Associated Raynaud's Syndrome Completed NCT02165111 Phase 3 Onabotulinumtoxin A;sterile saline solution
27 Comparison of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor and Calcium Channel Inhibitor for the Treatment of Secondary Raynaud Phenomenon, Double Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial Completed NCT01280266 Phase 2, Phase 3 Udenafil or Amlodipine
28 Effect of Sildenafil on the Microcirculatory Blood Flow and on the Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT01347008 Phase 3 Sildenafil citrate;Placebo (Sugar pill)
29 A Double Blind Randomized Control Trial of Tadalafil in Interstitial Lung Disease of Scleroderma Completed NCT01553981 Phase 3 Tadalafil;Placebo
30 Effects of Addition of Systemic Tramadol or Adjunct Tramadol to Lidocaine Used for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Hand Surgery Completed NCT02658721 Phase 3 Lidocaine;lidocaine+adjunct tramadol;lidocaine+systemic tramadol;Fentanyl;Atropine;Midazolam;Diclofenac sodium;Ephedrine;Ondansetron
31 High Dose Cyclophosphamide for Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) Completed NCT00501995 Phase 3 IV Cyclophosphamide
32 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Iloprost in Subjects With Systemic Sclerosis Experiencing Symptomatic Digital Ischemic Episodes (AURORA Study) Recruiting NCT04040322 Phase 3 Placebo IV infusion;Iloprost Injection, for intravenous use
33 Terlipressin Alone Versus the Standard Therapy With Catecholamines for Hepatic Patients With Septic Shock- Prospective Single Center Randomized Controlled Study. Recruiting NCT03608514 Phase 2, Phase 3 Experimental
34 Topical Nitroglycerin To Prevent Radial Artery Occlusion After Transradial Access: NTP-RAO Trial Recruiting NCT02413268 Phase 3 Nitroglycerin
35 Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group, Study to Assess Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A in Adult Subjects With Raynaud Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Active, not recruiting NCT03717961 Phase 3 BOTOX® solution;Placebo group
36 Chemical Sympathectomy Following Peripheral Nerve Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine Terminated NCT02374320 Phase 2, Phase 3 liposomal bupivacaine
37 Safety and Efficacy Study of Pl-vegf165 to Treat Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon Caused by Systemic Scleroderma Unknown status NCT02356809 Phase 1, Phase 2 Neovasculgen
38 A Phase II, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study to Investigate Pharmacokinetics (PK), Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Factor XIII Treatment in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis Unknown status NCT02551042 Phase 2 Fibrogammin®P, coagulation factor XIII concentrate (Human);0.9% sodium chloride
39 A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Safety and Tolerability of AIMSPRO in Established Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis Unknown status NCT00769028 Phase 2 Hyperimmune caprine serum;Albumin
40 A Phase 2a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of the Acute Peripheral Vascular Effects, Safety and Tolerability of Alprostadil Topical Cream in Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis (SSc, Scleroderma) Completed NCT02228850 Phase 2 Alprostadil
41 A Phase 2a Randomized Double-blinded, Placebo And Active Controlled Two Cohort Two Doses Cross-over Multi-center Clinical Study To Assess Efficacy Of A Once Daily Administration Of A Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitor (Pf-00489791) For The Treatment Of Vasospasm In Primary And Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT01090492 Phase 2 PF-00489791;PF-00489791;PF-00489791;PF-00489791;PF-00489791;PF-00489791;PF-00489791;PF-00489791
42 Phase II Dose Response Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00480753 Phase 2 Nitroglycerin
43 Phase II Dose Response Study of a Topical Gel Formulation of Nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the Treatment of Raynaud's Phenomenon Completed NCT00378521 Phase 2 MQX-503
44 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Pilot Study Evaluating Intravenous Iloprost in Subjects With Symptomatic Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT03867097 Phase 2 Placebo IV infusion;Iloprost Injection, for intravenous use
45 A 28-Day Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial and 5-Year Prospective Outcomes Study: A Two-Part Study of BOTOX® Therapy for Ischemic Digits Completed NCT01309802 Phase 2 onabotulinum toxin type-A
46 A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Group, Exploratory Phase 2 Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Selexipag in Adult Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon Secondary to Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT02260557 Phase 2 Selexipag;Placebo
47 Single Dose, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Single Center, Randomized Cross-over Study to Investigate Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetic Properties of BAY63-2521 After Oral Dosing in 20 Patients With Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Completed NCT01926847 Phase 2 Riociguat (Adempas, BAY63-2521);Placebo
48 A Double-blinded Crossover Study of Topical Formulation of Nitroglycerine, Vascana®, Versus Matching Vehicle in the Subjective and Physiologic Responses to Controlled Cold Challenge in Subjects With Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) Secondary to Connective Tissue Disease Completed NCT02688270 Phase 2 Vascana (0.9% nitroglycerin cream);Vehicle (placebo)
49 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Pilot Study to Examine the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacodynamic Profile of Repeat Oral Doses of SLx-2101 Once Daily for up to 14 Days in Subjects With Secondary Raynaud's Disease. Completed NCT00528242 Phase 2 SLx-2101;Placebo
50 Phase II Study of Recombinant Relaxin for Progressive Systemic Sclerosis Completed NCT00004380 Phase 2 relaxin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Raynaud Phenomenon

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Isoxsuprine Hydrochloride
Papaverine Hydrochloride
Prazosin hydrochloride
Tolazoline Hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Raynaud Phenomenon

Anatomical Context for Raynaud Phenomenon

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Raynaud Phenomenon:

Skin, Testes, Lung, Endothelial, Heart, Bone, Breast

Publications for Raynaud Phenomenon

Articles related to Raynaud Phenomenon:

(show top 50) (show all 6644)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Secondary Sjogren's syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus defines a distinct disease subset. 61 54
20360189 2010
[A clinical study of femoral head osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.]. 54 61
20079323 2009
Potential biomarkers for detecting pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis. 54 61
19116719 2009
No effects of bosentan on microvasculature in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. 54 61
19350343 2009
Plasma adrenomedullin and endothelin-1 levels are reduced and Raynaud's phenomenon improved by daily tadalafil administration in male patients with systemic sclerosis. 61 54
19321043 2009
Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: nonerectogenic beneficial uses. 54 61
18761597 2008
Comprehensive investigation of novel serum markers of pulmonary fibrosis associated with systemic sclerosis and dermato/polymyositis. 54 61
18578962 2008
Endothelin-1 does not change the function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells grown from patients with systemic sclerosis. 54 61
18991099 2008
[Endothelin-1 in systemic sclerosis]. 54 61
17603692 2007
Endothelin-1, platelets and Raynaud's phenomenon. 54 61
17164754 2006
Clinical manifestations and vascular events in patients with lupus erythematosus anticardiolipin antibodies and raynaud's phenomenon. 61 54
17550096 2006
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in Raynaud's phenomenon. 61 54
16835313 2006
The role of endothelin-1 and selected cytokines in the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic connective tissue diseases. 61 54
16763543 2006
Antisynthetase syndrome associated with sarcoidosis. 61 54
17043379 2006
Anti-lactoferrin antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: isotypes and clinical correlates. 61 54
15592902 2005
Cooling-induced contraction and protein tyrosine kinase activity of isolated arterioles in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. 54 61
15695304 2005
Efficacy and tolerability of a selective alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor blocker in recovery from cold-induced vasospasm in scleroderma patients: a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. 54 61
15593189 2004
Severe ADAMTS13 deficiency in adult idiopathic thrombotic microangiopathies defines a subset of patients characterized by various autoimmune manifestations, lower platelet count, and mild renal involvement. 54 61
15232311 2004
Raynaud's phenomenon and antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: is there an association? 54 61
12972482 2003
Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine and endothelin 1 levels in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: implications for vascular dysfunction and progression of disease. 54 61
12847693 2003
Brachial endothelial function is impaired in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. 61 54
11842823 2002
[Evidence-based therapy of systemic sclerosis]. 54 61
11826742 2001
Effect of temperature and modulators of protein tyrosine kinase activity on the reactivity of isolated venules in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. 54 61
11669167 2001
[Endothelin-1 in pathogenesis of Raynaud's syndrome]. 61 54
11503255 2001
Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with intravenous prostaglandin E1alpha-cyclodextrin improves endothelial cell injury in systemic sclerosis. 61 54
11327251 2001
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies, Raynaud's phenomenon with digital ischemia, and non small cell carcinoma of the lung. 61 54
11469530 2001
Digital vascular responses and serum endothelin-1 concentrations in primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. 54 61
11053063 2000
Evaluation of vascular injury with proinflammatory cytokines, thrombomodulin and fibronectin in patients with primary fibromyalgia. 61 54
11201985 2000
Homocysteine concentration in primary and systemic sclerosis associated Raynaud's phenomenon. 61 54
11093443 2000
Changes in plasma serotonin concentration and acceleration plethysmograms in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon after long-term treatment with a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 54 61
11092268 2000
Thrombosis in patients with connective tissue diseases treated with specific cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors. A report of four cases. 61 54
10943882 2000
Measurement of soluble adhesion molecules in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and in Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to connective tissue diseases. 54 61
11043500 2000
Losartan therapy for Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma: clinical and biochemical findings in a fifteen-week, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial. 54 61
10616013 1999
[Cardiac disorders associated with progressive systemic sclerosis]. 54 61
9914957 1998
Whole-body cooling increases plasma endothelin-1 levels in women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. 61 54
9784937 1998
Headache in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled study. 61 54
9566671 1998
Mucocutaneous disease in Arabs with systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical expression and relevance to autoantibodies. 54 61
9863895 1998
Cutaneous localization of endothelin-1 in patients with systemic sclerosis: immunoelectron microscopic study. 61 54
9169324 1997
Circulating endothelin-1 levels in patients with "a frigore" vascular acrosyndromes. 61 54
9063031 1996
Endothelin-1 and cold provocation in health, primary Raynaud's phenomenon, and progressive systemic sclerosis. 61 54
8901448 1996
Calcitonin gene-related peptide, endothelin-1, the cutaneous microvasculature and Raynaud's phenomenon. 54 61
8731660 1996
Von Willebrand factor, thrombomodulin, thromboxane, beta-thromboglobulin and markers of fibrinolysis in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis. 61 54
8712862 1996
Fibrinolysis and coagulation abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus. Relationship with Raynaud's phenomenon, disease activity, inflammatory indices, anticardiolipin antibodies and corticosteroid therapy. 61 54
7724997 1995
Increased endothelin-1 production in fibroblasts derived from patients with systemic sclerosis. 61 54
7944634 1994
[Systemic sclerosis after a long-term follow-up]. 54 61
7936353 1994
Localization of endothelin-1 and its binding sites in scleroderma skin. 61 54
7525957 1994
Anticentromere autoantibodies. Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant fusion protein CENP-B as antigen. 61 54
8129780 1994
Tissue-type plasminogen activator and von Willebrand factor plasma levels as markers of endothelial involvement in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. 54 61
1459797 1992
[A case of Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) associated with mixed connective tissue disease]. 54 61
1411796 1992
Effect of total-body cold exposure on plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, endothelin-1 and thrombomodulin in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with or without Raynaud's phenomenon. 61 54
1337960 1992

Variations for Raynaud Phenomenon

Expression for Raynaud Phenomenon

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Raynaud Phenomenon.

Pathways for Raynaud Phenomenon

Pathways related to Raynaud Phenomenon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways

GO Terms for Raynaud Phenomenon

Cellular components related to Raynaud Phenomenon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 8.96 HTR2A ADRA2C
2 Weibel-Palade body GO:0033093 8.62 VWF EDN1

Biological processes related to Raynaud Phenomenon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.52 HTR2A EDN1
2 hemostasis GO:0007599 9.51 VWF THBD
3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014065 9.49 HTR2A EDN1
4 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.48 EDN1 ADRA2C
5 positive regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0045907 9.46 HTR2A ADRA2C
6 positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy GO:0010613 9.43 PDE5A EDN1
7 regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0019229 9.4 EDN1 ADRA2C
8 blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway GO:0007597 9.37 VWF APOH
9 negative regulation of fibrinolysis GO:0051918 9.32 THBD APOH
10 artery smooth muscle contraction GO:0014824 9.26 HTR2A EDN1
11 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process GO:0034392 9.16 EDN1 APOH
12 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043406 9.13 PDE5A HTR2A EDN1
13 negative regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030195 8.8 THBD EDN1 APOH

Molecular functions related to Raynaud Phenomenon according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 8.92 VWF HTR2A APOH ADRA2C

Sources for Raynaud Phenomenon

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....