Reading Disorder

Categories: Mental diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Reading Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Reading Disorder:

Name: Reading Disorder 11 14
Developmental Reading Disorder 71 75
Specific Reading Disorder 71 31
Dyslexia 71
Reading 16


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:13365
ICD9CM 34 315.09
ICD10 31 F81.0
UMLS 71 C0037789 C0154631 C0476254 more

Summaries for Reading Disorder

Disease Ontology: 11 A learning disability involing difficulty reading resulting primarily from neurological factors which affect any part of the reading process.

MalaCards based summary: Reading Disorder, also known as developmental reading disorder, is related to dyslexia 2 and periventricular nodular heterotopia, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Reading Disorder is KIAA0319 (KIAA0319). The drugs Levodopa and Prednisolone phosphate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and breast.

Wikipedia: 75 Dyslexia, also known until the 1960s as word blindness, is a disorder characterized by reading below the... more...

Related Diseases for Reading Disorder

Diseases related to Reading Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1034)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 2 32.5 KIAA0319 DCDC2
2 periventricular nodular heterotopia 31.8 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2
3 auditory agnosia 31.7 FOXP2 CNTNAP2
4 dysgraphia 30.8 DNAAF4 DCDC2 CEBPD
6 stuttering 30.7 KIAA0319 FOXP2 CNTNAP2 CEBPD ATP2C2
7 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 30.6 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2 CNTNAP2 CELF4
8 developmental coordination disorder 30.2 FOXP2 CNTNAP2 CELF4 CEBPD ATP2C2
9 dyslexia 30.1 TDP2 ROBO1 NRSN1 MRPL19 KIAA0319L KIAA0319
10 writing disorder 30.1 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2
11 amusia 30.1 FOXP2 DCDC2
12 articulation disorder 30.0 KIAA0319 FOXP2 CNTNAP2 CELF4 CEBPD
13 dyscalculia 29.9 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2 CFAP47 CCDC136
14 speech disorder 29.8 ROBO1 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 CNTNAP2 CMIP
15 pervasive developmental disorder 29.8 FOXP2 CNTNAP2 CELF4
16 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 29.7 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2 CNTNAP2 CMIP
17 echolalia 29.7 FOXP2 CNTNAP2 CEBPD
18 specific language impairment 29.7 TDP2 ROBO1 MRPL19 KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2
19 speech and communication disorders 29.5 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2 CNTNAP2 CMIP
20 specific developmental disorder 29.5 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2 CNTNAP2 CFAP47
21 polymicrogyria, bilateral perisylvian, x-linked 29.4 FOXP2 CNTNAP2
22 learning disability 28.8 TDP2 ROBO1 NRSN1 MRPL19 KIAA0319L KIAA0319
23 epilepsy, reading 11.4
24 hyperlexia 11.3
25 dyslexia 1 11.3
26 alexia 11.2
27 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 11.1
28 farsightedness 11.1
29 presbyopia 11.1
30 hypertension, essential 11.1
31 myopia 11.0
32 vitelliform macular dystrophy 11.0
33 retinoschisis 1, x-linked, juvenile 11.0
34 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 11.0
35 gerstmann syndrome 11.0
36 cataract 10.9
37 alzheimer disease, familial, 1 10.9
38 reflex epilepsy 10.9
39 retinitis pigmentosa 10.9
40 stargardt disease 10.9
41 retinal disease 10.9
42 motion sickness 10.9
43 cone-rod dystrophy 2 10.9
44 adrenoleukodystrophy 10.9
45 leber hereditary optic neuropathy, modifier of 10.9
46 macular dystrophy, vitelliform, 3 10.9
47 chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, distal 10.9
48 color blindness 10.9
49 macular dystrophy, retinal, 1, north carolina type 10.8
50 retinal detachment 10.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Reading Disorder:

Diseases related to Reading Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Reading Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Reading Disorder:


GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.13 ACOT13 ATP2C2 CCDC136 CEBPD CELF4 CFAP47
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.13 ACOT13 ATP2C2 CCDC136 CELF4 CFAP47 DCDC2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Reading Disorder

Drugs for Reading Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 90)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7, 63-84-3 6047
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3 3680
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 3003 5743
Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 4894 5755
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5 1875
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 4159 6741
Atomoxetine Approved Phase 4 82248-59-7, 83015-26-3 54841
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
Dextroamphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 51-64-9, 300-62-9 5826 3007
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4 347396-82-1
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7 4897
16 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
17 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
18 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
19 Hormones Phase 4
20 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
21 glucocorticoids Phase 4
22 BB 1101 Phase 4
23 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4 584547
25 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
26 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
27 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
28 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
29 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
30 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
31 Adderall Phase 4
32 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
33 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Phase 4
35 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4
Metamfetamine Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn Phase 3 537-46-2 10836
37 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Phase 3
38 Olive Phase 3
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
40 L 647318 Phase 2
41 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
42 Antimetabolites Phase 2
43 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
44 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
45 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
46 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
47 Radiopharmaceuticals Phase 2
48 Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi Phase 2
49 Deoxyglucose Phase 2
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 224)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory (LL_001, Project on Dyslexia) Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 A Randomized, Controlled, Masked (Reading Center) Prospective Study of the Effectiveness and Safety of the Ocular Therapeutix Dextenza (Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert) 0.4 mg for the Treatment of Post-operative Inflammation and Pain in Patients Who Have Undergone PhotoREfractive Keratectomy (PRK) Unknown status NCT04396990 Phase 4 Dextenza 0.4Mg Ophthalmic Insert;Topical Prednisolone
3 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Child Outpatients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Reading Disorder, or Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder. Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
4 Neurophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Comorbid Dyslexia: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Measures of Brain Activation During Attention and Reading Tasks Pre- and Post-Atomoxetine Treatment Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
5 Open-Label Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Child and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
6 A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents With ADHD and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
7 Reading ICARD: Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
8 Web-based Smoking Cessation Intervention: Transition From Inpatient to Outpatient Completed NCT01277250 Phase 4
9 The Effects of Vyvanse(TM) on Brain Hemodynamics and Reading Completed NCT00733356 Phase 4 Vyvanse
10 Evaluation of ReAding Speed, Contrast Sensitivity, and Work Productivity in Working Individuals With Diabetic Macular Edema Following Treatment With Intravitreal Ranibizumab Completed NCT02107131 Phase 4 Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.3mg
11 Project Magnify - A Comparison of Two Strategies (Large Print Versus Optical Aids) for Helping Visually Impaired Students Improve Reading Abilities Completed NCT00366392 Phase 4
12 The Contribution of a Speech Perception Intervention to the Prevention of Phonological Awareness Deficits in Children With Speech Sound Disorders Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
13 Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial - Attention and Reading Trial (CITT-ART) Unknown status NCT02207517 Phase 3
14 Early Interventions for Children With Reading Problems Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
15 A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Effectiveness of Base-in Prism Reading Glasses Vs. Placebo Reading Glasses for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children Completed NCT00347581 Phase 3
16 Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for ADHD. A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents Completed NCT01219309 Phase 3
17 An Open Label, Multi-center, Phase 3 Study With Corresponding Blinded Image Reading to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of a Single Intravenous Injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Body Weight of Gadobutrol 1.0 Molar (Gadovist®) in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Referred for Contrast-enhanced Breast MRI Completed NCT01067976 Phase 3 Gadobutrol (Gadavist, Gadovist, BAY86-4875)
18 An Open Label, Multi-center, Phase 3 Study With Corresponding Blinded Image Reading to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of a Single Intravenous Injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Body Weight of Gadobutrol 1.0 Molar (Gadovist®) in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Referred for Contrast-enhanced Breast MRI Completed NCT01104584 Phase 3 Gadobutrol (Gadavist, Gadovist, BAY86-4875)
19 Multicenter, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy (by Blinded Reading) of Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) After a Single Intravenous Injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadobutrol in Subjects With Known or Suspected Vascular Disease of the Supra-aortic Vessels Completed NCT01344447 Phase 3 Gadobutrol (Gadovist, BAY86-4875)
20 Multicenter, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy (by Blinded Reading) of Gadobutrol-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) After a Single Injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of Gadobutrol in Subjects With Known or Suspected Renal Artery Disease Completed NCT01344460 Phase 3 Gadobutrol (Gadovist, BAY86-4875)
21 The Effect of Washback on Reading Comprehension Terminated NCT01642316 Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Computerized Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
23 Implementation of a Multimodal Program Including Yoga and Meditation as Well as Play Therapy for ADHD and Dyslexia in a Public School in Najibabad, India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
24 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
25 A Randomized Trial Of Reading Preoperatively To Day Surgery Children To Reduce Anxiety and Pain Completed NCT00338325 Phase 2
26 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
27 A Prospective, Open-label, Multicenter Study With Blinded Over-reading Characterizing the Efficacy and Safety of 99mTc-EC-DG in the Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Active, not recruiting NCT01899833 Phase 2
28 Development of a Behavioral Intervention With Socially Assistive Robots to Enhance Magnification Device Use for Reading Recruiting NCT04190134 Phase 1
29 Increasing Health Equity Through In-The-Moment Reading Assistance for Adults With Diabetes Served at Community Health Centers Not yet recruiting NCT05337306 Phase 1
30 Deep Reading as a Contemplative Practice for Women With Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: An Exporatory Pilot Study. Terminated NCT02181595 Phase 1
31 Evaluation of a Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
32 Effects of Music Education on Domain of Reading and Cognitive Abilities in Children With Reading Difficulties: a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01388881
33 The Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: The Rhythmic Reading Training Compared With Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation and Action Video Games Unknown status NCT02791841
34 Speech and Short-term Memory Functions in Dyslexia: a Combined MEG and EEG Study Unknown status NCT02622360
35 Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Unknown status NCT03199092
36 Remediation in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
37 Relationships Between Proprioception, Motor Control and Reading in Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT03364010
38 University of Washington Reading & Dyslexia Research Program Unknown status NCT03945097
39 Neuronal Markers of Grapheme-phoneme Training Response for Prediction of Successful Reading Acquisition in Children at Familial Risk for Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696
40 The Influence of Visual Information on Postural Control Among Children With and Without Dyslexia Unknown status NCT05072418
41 Sensitivity of the Search for a Heterophory-Vertical-Labile (HV-Labile) for Ambulatory Screening for Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Unknown status NCT04122820
42 Remotely Controlled Intervention for Developmental Reading and Spelling Disorders Unknown status NCT04382482
43 Assessing the Generalizability of the Tachidino Protocol for Intervention on Reading and Spelling Disorders to Different Clinical Contexts Unknown status NCT04384718
44 Combining A Rhythmic Intervention With tDCS to Improve Reading Skills in Dyslexic Adults Unknown status NCT03119402
45 Remédiation Orthophonique couplée à Une Prise en Charge Proprioceptive de la Dyslexie. Etude Comparative randomisée Unknown status NCT03448237
46 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Unknown status NCT02482350
47 Evidence-Based Interventions to Enhance Outcomes Among Struggling Readers Unknown status NCT04059939
48 Reading; Through the Eyes of a University Student. A Double-masked, Randomised Control Trial to Assess the Effect of Precision Tinted Spectacle Filters on Visual Stress Symptoms Within the University Student Population Unknown status NCT04318106
49 Knowledge Accessibility and Availability in Forming Knowledge to Text Inferences Among Middle Grade Readers Unknown status NCT03782012
50 Sit Together and Read (STAR) to Improve Reading Skills for Children and Parenting Self-Efficacy for Caregivers: A Pilot Study of Children Affected by Parental Opioid Use and Their Kinship Caregivers Unknown status NCT04027257

Search NIH Clinical Center for Reading Disorder

Genetic Tests for Reading Disorder

Anatomical Context for Reading Disorder

Organs/tissues related to Reading Disorder:

MalaCards : Eye, Brain, Breast, Cortex, Skin, Bone, Temporal Lobe

Publications for Reading Disorder

Articles related to Reading Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 30065)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Artificial Intelligence Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy: Subgroup Comparison of the EyeArt System with Ophthalmologists' Dilated Examinations. 62
36345378 2023
The effect of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation on memory recall in reading: A pilot study. 62
36265760 2023
Phonological and orthographic parafoveal processing during silent reading in Russian children and adults. 62
36356558 2023
Recollection contributes to children's reading comprehension: Using the process dissociation procedure in a working memory updating task. 62
36179531 2023
Modeling task effects in human reading with neural network-based attention. 62
36208565 2023
Are Reading Interventions Effective for At-Risk Readers with ADHD? A Meta-Analysis. 62
36278436 2023
A tape-reading molecular ratchet. 62
36261530 2022
Impact of different cover letter information and incentives on Veterans' emotional responses to an unsolicited mailed survey about military traumas: a randomized, 3x2x2 factorial trial. 62
36456912 2022
Primary progressive aphasia: ReADing the clinical GRANularity. 62
35710752 2022
Reading Darwin during the New Zealand wars: Science, religion, politics and race, 1835-1900. 62
36182665 2022
Intraocular lens power calculation in patients with irregular astigmatism. 62
35776172 2022
Multi-res: An interface for improving reading without central vision. 62
36219889 2022
High-Accuracy Nodal Staging of Head and Neck Cancer With USPIO-Enhanced MRI: A New Reading Algorithm Based on Node-to-Node Matched Histopathology. 62
35776432 2022
Expanding horizons of cross-linguistic research on reading: The Multilingual Eye-movement Corpus (MECO). 62
35112286 2022
Intraoperative localization and preservation of reading in ventral occipitotemporal cortex. 62
35395633 2022
Stroke disconnectome decodes reading networks. 62
36192557 2022
Using deep learning to safely exclude lesions with only ultrafast breast MRI to shorten acquisition and reading time. 62
35614363 2022
Assessing oral reading fluency within and across grade levels: Development of equated test forms. 62
35169988 2022
Developing codes from the interview: reading versus listening. 62
36453436 2022
Letter to the Editor: Editorial: Should Orthopaedic Residents Be Required to Do Research, or Would Critical Reading Programs Be a Better Use of Their Time? 62
36455229 2022
Roadmap to EEGs: video-based e-learning modules addressing clinical EEG reading 62
36266988 2022
The relationship between reading abilities and the left occipitotemporal sulcus: A dual perspective study. 62
36260960 2022
Analysis of nested alternate open reading frames and their encoded proteins. 62
36267124 2022
Reading for practical wisdom. 62
36424144 2022
Effects of Unilateral Hearing Loss on Speech-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses and Reading: A Preliminary Study. 62
36455151 2022
Reading Information Stored in Synthetic Macromolecules. 62
36454647 2022
Preoperative Reading Efficiency as a Predictor of Adult Cochlear Implant Outcomes. 62
36351224 2022
Rapid phylogenetic analysis using open reading frame content patterns acquired by Oxford nanopore sequencing. 62
36073316 2022
Expository discourse skills of students with reading comprehension difficulties. 62
35469535 2022
The Global Reading Room: Drainage of a Pelvic Lymphocele. 62
35319904 2022
Modulation of auditory temporal processing, speech in noise perception, auditory-verbal memory, and reading efficiency by anodal tDCS in children with dyslexia. 62
36410540 2022
Visual word form area hyperexcitability associated with focal epileptiform activity in a case of reading epilepsy 62
36193020 2022
Reading and erasing of the phosphonium analogue of trimethyllysine by epigenetic proteins. 62
36071790 2022
Supporting Reading Aloud Beginning Prenatally and in Early Infancy: A Randomized Trial in Brazil. 62
36103251 2022
Sex differences in theory of mind: The on-average female advantage on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. 62
35946586 2022
Possible strategies for use of artificial intelligence in screen-reading of mammograms, based on retrospective data from 122,969 screening examinations. 62
35704111 2022
Effects of visual span on Chinese reading performance in normal peripheral vision. 62
36108416 2022
The role of working memory updating, inhibition, fluid intelligence, and reading comprehension in explaining differences between consistent and inconsistent arithmetic word-problem-solving performance. 62
35901670 2022
The Nine Cancer Frames: A Tool to Facilitate Critical Reading of Cancer-Related Information. 62
34279845 2022
The Global Reading Room: Workup of Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy. 62
35583426 2022
The role of need for cognition (NfC) in the effect of language modalities on integrated writing performance. 62
35274742 2022
Readability of Cochlear Implant Brochures: A Potential Factor in Parent Decision Making. 62
36054847 2022
Grade 3 school performance among children born preterm: a population-based cohort study. 62
36456174 2022
Readability and quality of online information for patients pertaining to revision knee arthroplasty: An objective analysis. 62
35034835 2022
Deep Audio-Visual Speech Recognition. 62
30582526 2022
Quality of internet information to aid patient decision making in locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer. 62
35033455 2022
Long-Term Averaged Spectrum Descriptors of Dysarthria in Patients With Parkinson's Disease Treated With Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation. 62
36472939 2022
Emergency whole-body CT scans in pediatric patients with trauma: patterns of injuries, yield of dual-phase scanning, and influence of second read on detection of injuries. 62
35687137 2022
Health literacy characteristics of over-the-counter rapid antigen COVID-19 test materials. 62
35987673 2022
20-20-20 Rule: Are These Numbers Justified? 62
36473088 2022

Variations for Reading Disorder

Expression for Reading Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Reading Disorder.

Pathways for Reading Disorder

GO Terms for Reading Disorder

Cellular components related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell projection GO:0042995 9.23 ROBO1 NRSN1 DOCK4 DNAAF4 DIP2A DCDC2

Biological processes related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.56 ROBO1 NRSN1 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DIP2A DCDC2
2 neuron migration GO:0001764 9.23 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2

Sources for Reading Disorder

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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