Aliases & Classifications for Reading Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Reading Disorder:

Name: Reading Disorder 12 15
Developmental Reading Disorder 73
Specific Reading Disorder 73
Dyslexia 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13365
ICD9CM 35 315.09
ICD10 33 F81.0

Summaries for Reading Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A learning disability involing difficulty reading resulting primarily from neurological factors which affect any part of the reading process.

MalaCards based summary : Reading Disorder, also known as developmental reading disorder, is related to dyslexia and alexia, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Reading Disorder is SLITRK2 (SLIT And NTRK Like Family Member 2). The drugs Dopamine and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and cortex, and related phenotype is nervous system.

Related Diseases for Reading Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Reading Disorder:



Diseases related to Reading Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Reading Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Reading Disorder:


aprosodia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Reading Disorder:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.23 CNTNAP2 DCDC2 DNAAF4 ELP1 KIAA0319 PSEN1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Reading Disorder

Drugs for Reading Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
3
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
4
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
5
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
6 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
7 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
10 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
11 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
12 Protective Agents Phase 4
13 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
14 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
15 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
16 adderall Phase 4
17 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
18 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
19 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
20 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
21 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
22 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
23
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
24 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
25 Antimetabolites Phase 2
26 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
27 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
28 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
29 L 647318 Phase 2
30 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
31
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
32
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
33
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
34
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
35 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Not Applicable
36 Epinephryl borate

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
3 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
5 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
6 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
7 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Interventions for Reading Disabilities in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534 Not Applicable
14 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835 Not Applicable
15 Prediction and Intervention in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696 Not Applicable
16 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881 Not Applicable
17 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
18 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices in Adults Unknown status NCT02127931 Not Applicable
19 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices Unknown status NCT01711372 Not Applicable
20 Sensory and Connectivity Abnormalities in Autism and Language Disorders Unknown status NCT00956579
21 Endophenotype Characterization of a Family Psychiatric Disorder Unknown status NCT02843997 Not Applicable
22 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873 Not Applicable
23 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786 Not Applicable
24 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
25 Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739 Not Applicable
26 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults Completed NCT01930500 Not Applicable
27 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
28 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF-1 Completed NCT00624234 Not Applicable
29 Functional MRI Study in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729 Not Applicable
30 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412 Not Applicable
31 Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967 Not Applicable
32 Functional Imaging and Reading Deficit in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02422732 Not Applicable
33 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies Completed NCT02872870
34 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805 Not Applicable
35 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268 Not Applicable
36 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619 Not Applicable
37 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Completed NCT01599546
38 Dyslexia, Motor Control and Proprioception Recruiting NCT03364010 Not Applicable
39 Effects of the Combination of RRT With tDCS on Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402 Not Applicable
40 Comparison of Interventions for Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02791841 Not Applicable
41 Improving Response to Intervention in Students With or at Risk of Reading Disabilities Recruiting NCT03261661 Not Applicable
42 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223 Not Applicable
43 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
44 Characterization of Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds Recruiting NCT02574299 Not Applicable
45 Maturation of Auditory Processing in Children With Dyslexia Compared to Average-reading Children Active, not recruiting NCT02345876
46 Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Active, not recruiting NCT03199092 Not Applicable
47 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Active, not recruiting NCT02482350 Not Applicable
48 The Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study Active, not recruiting NCT02607384 Not Applicable
49 Speech and Short-term Memory Functions in Dyslexia: a Combined MEG and EEG Study Enrolling by invitation NCT02622360
50 Orthophonic and / or Proprioceptive Treatment of Developmental Dyslexia. Enrolling by invitation NCT03448237 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Reading Disorder

Genetic Tests for Reading Disorder

Anatomical Context for Reading Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Reading Disorder:

41
Brain, Eye, Cortex, Amygdala

Publications for Reading Disorder

Articles related to Reading Disorder:

(show all 45)
# Title Authors Year
1
Beyond genes: A systematic review of environmental risk factors in specific reading disorder. ( 29566979 )
2018
2
Amygdala sub-regional functional connectivity predicts anxiety in children with reading disorder. ( 29143475 )
2017
3
Neurobiological Bases of Reading Disorder Part II: The Importance of Developmental Considerations in Typical and Atypical Reading. ( 29276529 )
2017
4
Possible roles for fronto-striatal circuits in reading disorder. ( 27826071 )
2017
5
Neurobiological bases of reading disorder Part I: Etiological investigations. ( 28785303 )
2017
6
Comorbidity of Arithmetic and Reading Disorder: Basic Number Processing and Calculation in Children With Learning Impairments. ( 26772796 )
2016
7
Descriptive epidemiology of prenatal and perinatal risk factors in a Chinese population with reading disorder. ( 27819320 )
2016
8
Lifelong Reading Disorder and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Implications for Diagnosis. ( 26639959 )
2015
9
Effectiveness of EEG-Biofeedback on Attentiveness, Working Memory and Quantitative Electroencephalography on Reading Disorder. ( 24644508 )
2013
10
Language Impairments in Children With ADHD and in Children With Reading Disorder. ( 23074303 )
2012
11
Commentary: translating quantitative genetics into molecular genetics: decoupling reading disorder and ADHD - reflections on Greven et al. and Rosenberg et al. (2012). ( 22260725 )
2012
12
The co-occurrence of reading disorder and ADHD: epidemiology, treatment, psychosocial impact, and economic burden. ( 21757683 )
2012
13
Tourette syndrome and reading disorder in a boy with left parietofrontal tract disruption. ( 22019420 )
2011
14
Patient characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use for children with ADHD with and without a co-occurring reading disorder: A retrospective cohort study. ( 22145783 )
2011
15
Processing speed and working memory performance in those with both ADHD and a reading disorder compared with those with ADHD alone. ( 21613301 )
2011
16
The influence of working memory load on response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or reading disorder. ( 21432708 )
2011
17
Error monitoring in children with ADHD or reading disorder: An event-related potential study. ( 20097256 )
2010
18
Working memory, response inhibition, and within-subject variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or reading disorder. ( 19813130 )
2010
19
Evidence for specificity of ERP abnormalities during response inhibition in ADHD children: a comparison with reading disorder children without ADHD. ( 19850394 )
2010
20
Amblyopic dyslexia: a little investigated reading disorder. ( 20401806 )
2010
21
Reading disorders in primary progressive aphasia: a behavioral and neuroimaging study. ( 19428421 )
2009
22
Differential effects of atomoxetine on executive functioning and lexical decision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder. ( 20035588 )
2009
23
Detection of simulated ADHD and reading disorder using symptom validity measures. ( 18534813 )
2008
24
Expressive versus receptive language skills in specific reading disorder. ( 18415729 )
2008
25
Mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by duration deviations in children with reading disorder, attention deficit or both. ( 18440662 )
2008
26
Children with reading disorder show modality independent brain abnormalities during semantic tasks. ( 17010394 )
2007
27
Error-related event-related potentials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, reading disorder, and math disorder. ( 17257731 )
2007
28
The relationship between attention, executive functions and reading domain abilities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder: a comparative study. ( 17501726 )
2007
29
Maternal stress in nonverbal learning disorder: a comparison with reading disorder. ( 16724792 )
2006
30
Meta-analysis of the nonword reading deficit in specific reading disorder. ( 17009769 )
2006
31
Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence of auditory processing deficits in children with reading disorder. ( 16564738 )
2006
32
A stimulus-centered reading disorder for words and numbers: Is it neglect dyslexia? ( 16393754 )
2005
33
JAMA patient page. Reading disorder. ( 15113824 )
2004
34
Spatial-frequency- and contrast-dependent visible persistence and reading disorder: no evidence for a basic perceptual deficit. ( 15206008 )
2004
35
Alexia and related reading disorders. ( 12916491 )
2003
36
Varieties of developmental reading disorder: genetic and environmental influences. ( 9927524 )
1999
37
Executive functioning deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are independent of oppositional defiant or reading disorder. ( 10504814 )
1999
38
Language and memory in children with combined complex-partial epilepsy and reading disorder. ( 8323126 )
1993
39
Developmental reading disorder: predictors of outcome in adolescents who received early diagnosis and treatment. ( 1469107 )
1992
40
A comparison of 13-year-old boys with attention deficit and/or reading disorder on neuropsychological measures. ( 2926022 )
1989
41
Language mechanisms and reading disorder: a modular approach. ( 3791919 )
1986
42
EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of a 10-year-old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. ( 6882815 )
1983
43
Helping the youngster with a reading disorder. Exploring one problem common to education, psychology, and mental health: summary of a conference. ( 5552374 )
1971
44
Problems in relating visual function to reading disorder. ( 5267181 )
1970
45
Linear dyslexia. A new form of reading disorder. ( 14424629 )
1959

Variations for Reading Disorder

Expression for Reading Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Reading Disorder.

Pathways for Reading Disorder

GO Terms for Reading Disorder

Cellular components related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 aggresome GO:0016235 9.16 PSEN1 TDP2
2 cell projection GO:0042995 9.02 CNTNAP2 DCDC2 DOCK4 RIPOR2 ROBO1
3 stereocilium GO:0032420 8.96 DOCK4 RIPOR2

Biological processes related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.56 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 ROBO1
2 cerebral cortex development GO:0021987 9.33 CNTNAP2 FOXP2 PSEN1
3 vocal learning GO:0042297 8.96 CNTNAP2 FOXP2
4 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.92 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 PSEN1

Molecular functions related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.5 CNTNAP2 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 DOCK4 ELP1

Sources for Reading Disorder

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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