Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Categories: Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

Name: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy 57 12 58 54 44 15 17 70
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome 73 53
Algodystrophy 58 54
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 58
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes 70
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 58
Algodystrophic Syndrome 70


Orphanet epidemiological data:

complex regional pain syndrome
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Netherlands); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: normal life expectancy;
complex regional pain syndrome type 1
Age of onset: All ages;


Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1811
OMIM® 57 604335
ICD9CM 34 337.2
MeSH 44 D012019
NCIt 50 C85042
SNOMED-CT 67 203492008
ICD10 32 G90.5
MESH via Orphanet 45 D020918
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 G90.5 G90.6
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0034931 C0458219 C1527353
UMLS 70 C0034931 C0458219 C1527353

Summaries for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

NINDS : 53 Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition marked by severe, prolonged chronic pain (lasting more than six months) that may be constant. Symptoms vary in intensity and duration.  Some people describe it as a burning sensation, a "pins and needles" sensation, or as if an arm or leg is being squeezed.  The pain may spread to the entire arm or leg, even though the injury may have been only to a finger or toe.  Common symptoms include dramatic changes in the color and temperature of the skin over the affected limb or body part, accompanied by intense burning pain, increased sensitivity in the affected area, skin sensitivity, abnormal sweating, and abnormal movement in the affected limb.  In most instances the condition is triggered by a clear history of trauma or injury. CRPS also affects the immune system -- the disorder is more common in individuals with other inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as asthma.  Limited data also suggests that CRPS may also be influenced by genetics.

MalaCards based summary : Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, is related to complex regional pain syndrome and algoneurodystrophy, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and back pain. An important gene associated with Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy is CALCA (Calcitonin Related Polypeptide Alpha), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Endothelin Pathways. The drugs Bupivacaine and Lidocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, spinal cord and skin, and related phenotypes are dry skin and involuntary movements

Wikipedia : 73 Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), describes an... more...

More information from OMIM: 604335

Related Diseases for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Diseases related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 410)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 complex regional pain syndrome 32.5 TAC1 NPY CALCA ADRB2
2 algoneurodystrophy 32.5 TAC1 KNG1 CALCA
3 causalgia 31.2 TRPV1 TAC1 RPIA P2RX3 CALCA
4 radiculopathy 30.4 TAC1 LAPTM4A
5 fibromyalgia 30.4 NPY CALCA ADRB2
6 mononeuropathy 30.4 TRPV1 TAC1
7 degenerative disc disease 30.0 TRPV1 NPY CALCA
8 nerve compression syndrome 30.0 TRPV1 TAC1
9 migraine with aura 29.8 TAC1 P2RX3 CALCA
10 autonomic nervous system disease 29.8 TRPV1 TAC1 NPY CALCA
11 constipation 29.7 TRPV1 TAC1 NPY CALCA
12 pain agnosia 29.3 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 KNG1 CALCA
13 myofascial pain syndrome 29.2 TRPV1 TAC1 LAPTM4A KNG1 CALCA
14 peripheral nervous system disease 29.1 TRPV1 TAC1 NPY KNG1 CALCA
15 cystitis 29.1 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 KNG1
16 somatoform disorder 29.1 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 LAPTM4A CALCA
17 hypertension, essential 29.0 TAC1 NPY KNG1 CALCA ADRB2
18 paine syndrome 28.9 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 LAPTM4A KNG1 CALCA
19 agnosia 28.8 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 KNG1 CALCA
20 interstitial cystitis 28.8 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 KNG1 ADRB2
21 migraine with or without aura 1 27.9 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 NPY LAPTM4A KNG1
22 autonomic dysfunction 11.3
23 dysautonomia 11.2
24 thoracic outlet syndrome 11.2
25 neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type iii 11.2
26 hemiplegia 10.5
27 dystonia 10.5
28 chronic pain 10.5
29 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 10.5
30 temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome 10.4
31 tremor 10.4
32 neuropathy 10.4
33 spinal cord injury 10.4
34 cytokine deficiency 10.4
35 autoimmune disease 10.4
36 cyanosis, transient neonatal 10.3
37 bone resorption disease 10.3
38 osteomalacia 10.3
39 conversion disorder 10.3
40 herpes zoster 10.3
41 allergic disease 10.3
42 postherpetic neuralgia 10.3
43 osteoporosis 10.3
44 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 8 10.3
45 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 15 10.3
46 focal dystonia 10.3
47 quadriplegia 10.3
48 leprosy 2 10.3 NPY CALCA
49 carbamazepine allergy 10.3 TAC1 CALCA
50 taylor's syndrome 10.3 TAC1 CALCA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

Diseases related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Human phenotypes related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

58 (show all 12)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 dry skin 58 Frequent (79-30%)
2 involuntary movements 58 Frequent (79-30%)
3 erythema 58 Frequent (79-30%)
4 sensory impairment 58 Frequent (79-30%)
5 pedal edema 58 Frequent (79-30%)
6 slow-growing nails 58 Frequent (79-30%)
7 limb pain 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
8 allodynia 58 Frequent (79-30%)
9 edema of the upper limbs 58 Frequent (79-30%)
10 trophic changes related to pain 58 Frequent (79-30%)
11 hyperalgesia 58 Frequent (79-30%)
12 abnormality of hair growth 58 Frequent (79-30%)

Clinical features from OMIM®:

604335 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

seizures; tremor; back pain; headache; syncope; pain; chronic pain; sciatica; vertigo/dizziness; sleeplessness; neuralgia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.28 ADRB2 CD36 GABRA3 KNG1 LAPTM4A NPY

Drugs & Therapeutics for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Drugs for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 124)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
5 Anesthetics Phase 4
6 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
8 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
9 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
10 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
11 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
12 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
13 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
14 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
15 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
16 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
17 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
18 potassium phosphate Phase 4
19 glucocorticoids Phase 4
20 Triamcinolone diacetate Phase 4
21 Triamcinolone hexacetonide Phase 4
22 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
23 triamcinolone acetonide Phase 4
Levobupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 27262-47-1 92253
Zoledronic Acid Approved Phase 3 118072-93-8 68740
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 3 84057-95-4 71273 175805
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 93-14-1 3516
Phenylpropanolamine Approved, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 3 14838-15-4 26934
Hydrocodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 3 125-29-1 5284569
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 437-38-7 3345
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 10024-97-2 948
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-81-7 5785 54670067
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Phase 3 105827-78-9 86418
34 Immunoglobulins Phase 3
35 Antibodies Phase 3
36 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 3
37 gamma-Globulins Phase 3
38 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 3
39 Diphosphonates Phase 3
40 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 3
41 Antitussive Agents Phase 3
42 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 3
43 Anesthetics, General Phase 3
44 Nutrients Phase 3
45 Micronutrients Phase 3
46 Trace Elements Phase 3
47 Vitamins Phase 3
48 Antioxidants Phase 3
49 Protective Agents Phase 3
50 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 136)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prophylactic Administration of Vitamin C in Wrist Fractures; a Randomized Placebo Controlled Multicentre Dose-Finding Study of the Incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Completed NCT00296868 Phase 4 ascorbic acid (vitamin C) versus placebo
2 Restore Claims Characterization Study Completed NCT00200122 Phase 4
3 Single Blinded, Randomized Control Trial of High Frequency Stimulation in Subjects With Precision® Spinal Cord Stimulator System to Assess Efficacy and Preferability in Back and Extremity Pain Relief Completed NCT02265848 Phase 4
4 Assessing the Tolerability of Suprascapular and Median Nerve Blocks for the Treatment of Shoulder-hand Syndrome - a Feasibility Study Completed NCT03291197 Phase 4 Suprascapular and median nerve blocks
5 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study Of Lidocaine Patch 5% Alone, Gabapentin Alone, And Lidocaine Patch 5% And Gabapentin In Combination For The Relief Of Pain In Patients With Diverse Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Conditions Completed NCT00904202 Phase 4 Placebo Capsules + Placebo Patch;Placebo capsules + Lidoderm®;Gabapentin + Placebo;Gabapentin + Lidoderm®;Gabapentin 300 mg capsules 1800 mg/day + placebo patch;Gabapentin 1800 mg/day + Lidoderm patch
6 Peripheral Nerve Injections for the Treatment of Upper Extremity Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Feasibility Study for a Proposed Randomized Design Not yet recruiting NCT04744675 Phase 4 Triamcinolone Acetonide 40mg/mL;Saline Injection
7 Prospective, Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Study to Investigate the Effect of Intravenous Immunoglobulins on Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS, M. Sudeck) Unknown status NCT00949065 Phase 3
8 An Analysis of Photoplethysmographic Signal in Diagnostic Lumbar Sympathetic Block for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Unknown status NCT01134289 Phase 3
9 CREATE-1 Study: CRPS Treatment Evaluation 1 Study. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of AXS-02 (Oral Zoledronate) Administered Orally to Subjects With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) Unknown status NCT02504008 Phase 3 AXS-02 (oral zoledronate);Placebo
10 Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial: Thoracic Sympathetic Block for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I of the Upper Limb Unknown status NCT01612364 Phase 3
11 Surgical Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II (CRPS II) by Regional Subcutaneous Venous Sympathectomy Unknown status NCT01392599 Phase 3
12 Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine Combined With Rehabilitation Therapy for Post-stroke Shoulder-hand Syndrome in Community Hospital: a Multicenter,Randomized,Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02011854 Phase 2, Phase 3
13 A 12-Month, Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Long-Term Safety of Hydrocodone Bitartrate Extended-Release Tablets (CEP-33237) at 15 to 90 mg Every 12 Hours in Patients Who Require Opioid Treatment for an Extended Period of Time Completed NCT01223365 Phase 3 Hydrocodone ER
14 A 12-Week Open-Label Study With 3 Within-Patient Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Periods to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of OraVescent Fentanyl Citrate Treatment for the Management of Breakthrough Pain in Opioid-Tolerant Patients With Noncancer-Related Chronic Pain Completed NCT00343733 Phase 3 OraVescent Fentanyl
15 Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Lenalidamide in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type1 Completed NCT00166452 Phase 3 Lenalidamide
16 Open-label Safety Trial of Intravenous Neridronic Acid in Subjects With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Completed NCT02972359 Phase 3 Neridronic acid
17 A Randomized, Double-blind Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Neridronic Acid in Subjects With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) Completed NCT02402530 Phase 2, Phase 3 Placebo;Neridronic acid 62.5 mg
18 Pain Exposure Physical Therapy Or Conservative Therapy for Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Completed NCT00817128 Phase 2, Phase 3
19 A Verification Study of JNS020QD in Patients With Post-herpetic Neuralgia, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) or Postoperative Pain Syndrome Completed NCT01008553 Phase 3 Fentanyl;Placebo
20 Role of Vitamin C at 6 Months on Incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I in Upper Limb Surgery Recruiting NCT02390505 Phase 3 Vitamin C;Placebo
21 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Nitrous Oxide for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Enrolling by invitation NCT03879538 Phase 3 Nitrous Oxide;Oxygen
22 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Mixture of Ketamine / Lidocaine Administered by Mesotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS1). A Monocentric Randomized and Controlled Clinical Study Not yet recruiting NCT04650074 Phase 2, Phase 3 LIDOCAINE 20 mg;LIDOCAINE 20 mg + KETAMINE 20 mg;LIDOCAINE 20 mg + KETAMINE 40 mg
23 Placebo-controlled Efficacy and Safety Trial of Intravenous Neridronic Acid in Subjects With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Terminated NCT03560986 Phase 3 Neridronic acid 100 mg;Placebo
24 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Neridronic Acid in Subjects With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Terminated NCT03530345 Phase 3 Neridronic acid 100 mg;Placebo
25 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Effects on Pain Perception Withdrawn NCT00349050 Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Low Dose Administration of Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol for the Prevention of Hyperalgesia and Chronic Pain in Patients With Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) of the Upper Limb Unknown status NCT00377468 Phase 2 Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
27 Phase 2 Study - The Use of a Single 5 mg Dose of Zoledronic Acid in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patient. Unknown status NCT01788176 Phase 2 Zoledronic acid;Placebo
28 Clonidine Versus Adenosine to Treat Neuropathic Pain Completed NCT00349921 Phase 2 clonidine;adenosine;placebo;placebo
29 A Multicenter, Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Preliminary Safety and Efficacy of CC-5013 in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Completed NCT00067743 Phase 2 Lenalidomide
30 Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Outpatient Intravenous Ketamine for the Treatment of CRPS Completed NCT00579085 Phase 2 Ketamine
31 A Phase 2a, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of TAK-935 as an Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Subjects With Chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Completed NCT03990649 Phase 2 TAK-935;TAK-935 Placebo
32 CCRC: The Analgesic Effect of Vaporized Cannabis on Neuropathic Pain Completed NCT01037088 Phase 1, Phase 2 Mild dose cannabis;Low dose cannabis;Cannabis
33 A Randomized, Cross-over, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Single-center, Phase II Study of Cetuximab in Patients With Treatment-refractory, Non-malignant Severe Chronic Neuropathic Pain Completed NCT02490436 Phase 2 Cetuximab;Placebo
34 A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial on Perioperative Pregabalin to Reduce Late-onset Complex Regional Pain Syndrome After Total Knee Arthroplasty Completed NCT00558753 Phase 2 pregabalin;Placebo
35 Impact of Colchicine and Low-dose Naltrexone on COVID-19 Disease Progression and Clinical Course in Hospitalized Patients Enrolling by invitation NCT04756128 Phase 2 Colchicine 0.6 mg;Naltrexone
36 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Lenalidomide in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 Terminated NCT00109772 Phase 2 lenalidomide;Placebo
37 A Single Centre. Parallel-Group, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial on Ethosuximide for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Terminated NCT00689585 Phase 2 Placebo;Ethosuximide
38 Neurotropin for Acute Dental Pain and for Chronic Neuropathic Pain Terminated NCT00006289 Phase 2 Placebo;Neurotropin
39 Randomized Controlled Trial of Subanesthetic Intravenous Ketamine Infusion in Conjunction With Continuous Epidural Infusion for Treatment of Refractory Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Terminated NCT02094352 Phase 2 Ketamine Infusion + Epidural Infusion;Control Group + Epidural infusion;Ketamine Booster Infusion;Control Group Booster Infusion
40 Use of Autologous Adult Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), and Fibromyalgia Withdrawn NCT02987855 Phase 1, Phase 2
41 Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain. Terminated NCT02321566 Phase 1
42 Identifying Markers of Trajectory in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Unknown status NCT03838107
43 Effects of Proprioceptive Stimulation Under Visual Feedback in Patient With CRPS: An Exploratory Study Unknown status NCT02395211
44 "Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Injection in Reducing Limb Pain in Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome" Unknown status NCT03616262 Early Phase 1 Botox + Lidocaine;Lidocaine alone
45 Comparison of the Efficacy of the Ultrasound With Fluoroscopy in Guidance of Lumbar Sympathetic Block: A Prospective Randomized Open-label Trial Unknown status NCT02737527 10 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine injection for LSB
46 Effects of Repetitive Electric Sensory Stimulation on Sensorimotor Performance and Pain Intensity in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Unknown status NCT01915329
47 The Effect of Vitamin c on Preventing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type I) Following Ankle Fracture, Prospective Double Blind Study Unknown status NCT01338129 placebo
48 Comparison of Gait Parameters Between Floor and Sponge Surfaces and Special Shoes in Individuals With Difficulties in Weight-bearing Unknown status NCT02742376
49 Comparison of Two Measures of Tactile Acuity in CRPS Type I Patients , Patients With a Neuropathy of the Median Nerve and Healthy Controls. Unknown status NCT01888783
50 Effects of Pennsaid on Clinical Neuropathic Pain Completed NCT01508676 Pennsaid;Placebo (2.3% DMSO solution)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: reflex sympathetic dystrophy

Genetic Tests for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Anatomical Context for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

Bone, Spinal Cord, Skin, Cortex, Dorsal Root Ganglion, Bone Marrow, Breast

Publications for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Articles related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy:

(show top 50) (show all 1647)
# Title Authors PMID Year
HLA-DQ1 associated with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. 57 61
10522900 1999
Could calcitonin be a useful therapeutic agent for trigeminal neuralgia? 54 61
18343043 2008
[What is the place of diphosphonates in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome I?]. 54 61
15833263 2005
Complex regional pain syndrome after thromboendarterectomy: which type is it? 54 61
12192276 2002
Calcitonin in reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome and other painful conditions. 61 54
12008165 2002
Treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS type 1): a research synthesis of 21 randomized clinical trials. 54 61
11397610 2001
Calcitonin treatment in reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a preliminary study. 54 61
9015909 1996
Plasma neuropeptide Y in the symptomatic limb of patients with causalgic pain. 61 54
7994163 1994
[Calcitonin as medication in pain?]. 54 61
8433948 1993
The effect of adding calcitonin to physical treatment on reflex sympathetic dystrophy. 54 61
1589234 1992
Prospective randomized study of the vitamin C effect on pain and complex pain regional syndrome after total knee arthroplasty. 61
33438072 2021
Anesthetic Management of a Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Patient With Ketamine. 61
33393601 2020
Extensor Retinaculum Flap and Fibular Periosteum Ligamentoplasty After Failed Surgery for Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability. 61
32755269 2020
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Caused by an Axillary Lipoma. 61
33510987 2020
Direct Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A 30-Year Review. 61
33098229 2020
Injury mechanisms of ankle fractures with dislocation and analysis of differences on functional outcome. 61
32946097 2020
Outcome after the surgical treatment of the Dubberley type B distal humeral capitellar and trochlear fractures with a buttress plate. 61
32554364 2020
[Zheng's massage combined with electroacupuncture in the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome of the wrist]. 61
32573159 2020
The role of trauma mechanism, fracture pattern and fixation technique on clinical outcomes and epiphyseal growth arrest in the surgical treatment of distal tibial epiphysiolysis. 61
32436969 2020
Economic evaluations of physiotherapy interventions for neurological disorders: a systematic review. 61
30616401 2020
A Paradigm Shift in Managing Acute and Chronic Boutonniere Deformity: Anatomic Rationale and Early Clinical Results for the Relative Motion Concept Permitting Immediate Active Motion and Hand Use. 61
32028337 2020
Cervicogenic exophthalmos: Possible etiology and pathogenesis. 61
32047780 2020
Peripheral Neuropathic Pain and Pain Related to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome with and without Fixed Dystonia - Efficient Therapeutic Approach with Local Anesthetics. 61
32099453 2020
Associations of PTSD, chronic pain, and their comorbidity on cannabis use disorder: Results from an American nationally representative study. 61
31356731 2019
[Calcitonin as an analgesic agent: review of mechanisms of action and clinical applications]. 61
31810524 2019
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy of the Right Hand following an Acute Traumatic Injury. 61
31608198 2019
Electroacupuncture for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy after Stroke: A Meta-Analysis. 61
30826129 2019
Ozone Therapy for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Review and Case Report. 61
31062104 2019
Complex regional pain syndrome - False hopes and miscommunications. 61
30639650 2019
Posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain are associated with opioid use disorder: Results from a 2012-2013 American nationally representative survey. 61
29775955 2018
Approach to the Patient with Disproportionate Pain. 61
29799372 2018
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: What the Dermatologist Should Know. 61
29742184 2018
Living With Chronic Pain. 61
29669658 2018
How a Simple Ankle Sprain Turned Into Neuropathic Pain: Complex Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Versus Erythromelalgia. 61
29121832 2018
Operative versus nonoperative treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures: A meta-analysis of current evidence base. 61
29245290 2017
Outcomes Following Isolated Posterior Interosseous Nerve Neurectomy: A Systematic Review. 61
28720049 2017
[Reflex sympathetic dystrophy involving the ankle and the foot in a particular pathological pregnancy: Exceptional association]. 61
28919273 2017
Bone SPECT/CT Localizes Increased Bone Metabolism and Subsequent Bone Resorption in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. 61
28806248 2017
Efficacy of vitamin C in preventing complex regional pain syndrome after wrist fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
28274883 2017
A Comprehensive Outcome-Specific Review of the Use of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. 61
27739179 2017
Quantitative determination of methamphetamine in oral fluid by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 61
27022165 2017
[Spinal cord stimulation in 62 patients: Retrospective evaluation]. 61
28467566 2017
Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Pain Syndrome in ABO-Incompatible Living Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report. 61
28104127 2017
The Unexpected Hand Patient. 61
28536645 2017
Putative Physiopathological Explanation for the "Sock Sign" in Bone Scans. 61
27187731 2016
Successful Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome with Pseudoaneurysm Excision and Median Nerve Neurolysis. 61
27318309 2016
Late Spontaneous Migration of a Dorsal Column Stimulator Paddle Lead. 61
27672531 2016
Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis by using proximal humeral locking plate. 61
27519965 2016
Complex regional pain syndrome and dysautonomia in a 14-year-old girl responsive to therapeutic plasma exchange. 61
26011726 2016
Steroid atrophy scarring treated with fat grafting in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome: A case report. 61
26735938 2016

Variations for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Expression for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.

Pathways for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

GO Terms for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Cellular components related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 receptor complex GO:0043235 9.33 P2RX3 CD36 ADRB2
2 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.26 TRPV1 P2RX3 GABRA3 CALCA
3 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 8.92 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 CALCA

Biological processes related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.98 TAC1 NPY KNG1 CALCA ADRB2
2 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.83 TRPV1 TAC1 KNG1 CALCA
3 blood coagulation GO:0007596 9.74 P2RX3 KNG1 CD36
4 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.73 TAC1 P2RX3 NPY GABRA3
5 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.69 TAC1 NPY CALCA
6 sensory perception of taste GO:0050909 9.62 P2RX3 CD36
7 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.61 TRPV1 CD36
8 receptor internalization GO:0031623 9.61 CD36 CALCA
9 activation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007190 9.6 CALCA ADRB2
10 response to cold GO:0009409 9.59 P2RX3 ADRB2
11 feeding behavior GO:0007631 9.58 NPY CALCA
12 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.58 TAC1 NPY CALCA
13 vasodilation GO:0042311 9.56 KNG1 CALCA
14 cellular response to ATP GO:0071318 9.55 TRPV1 P2RX3
15 detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain GO:0050965 9.54 TRPV1 CALCA
16 behavioral response to pain GO:0048266 9.49 TRPV1 P2RX3
17 negative regulation of heart rate GO:0010459 9.48 TRPV1 TAC1
18 diet induced thermogenesis GO:0002024 9.46 TRPV1 ADRB2
19 response to heat GO:0009408 9.43 TRPV1 P2RX3 CALCA
20 urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction GO:0014832 9.37 TRPV1 P2RX3
21 cellular response to nerve growth factor stimulus GO:1990090 9.33 TRPV1 TAC1 CALCA
22 negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction GO:0045986 9.32 CALCA ADRB2
23 response to pain GO:0048265 9.13 TRPV1 TAC1 CALCA
24 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0007204 9.02 TRPV1 TAC1 KNG1 CD36 CALCA

Molecular functions related to Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ion channel activity GO:0005216 9.13 TRPV1 P2RX3 GABRA3
2 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.1 TRPV1 TOR1B RPIA P2RX3 CALCA ADRB2

Sources for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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