MCID: RFR003
MIFTS: 41

Refractive Error

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 15
Refractive Errors 54 42 44 15 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
MeSH 44 D012030
NCIt 50 C87145
SNOMED-CT 67 39021009
ICD10 32 H52.7
UMLS 70 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 42 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance Hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up Presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging Astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea The most common symptom is blurred vision. Other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. NIH: National Eye Institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to anisometropia and cycloplegia, and has symptoms including visual disturbance, aniseikonia and eye manifestations. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is ZNF644 (Zinc Finger Protein 644). The drugs Cyclopentolate and Ephedrine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, endothelial and retina.

Wikipedia : 73 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately on the... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 217)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anisometropia 31.6 ZNF644 SLC39A5 SCO2
2 cycloplegia 31.5 SCO2 PRSS56
3 myopia 31.3 ZNF644 ZNF469 ZMAT4 SLC39A5 SIX6 SHISA6
4 degenerative myopia 30.1 ZNF644 SHISA6 SCO2 RASGRF1 PRSS56 KCNQ5
5 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 11.6
6 astigmatism 11.4
7 amblyopia 11.2
8 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.2
9 myopia 6 11.2
10 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.2
11 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.2
12 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.2
13 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 11.2
14 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 11.2
15 ocular albinism 11.1
16 myopia 2, autosomal dominant 11.1
17 myopia 3, autosomal dominant 11.1
18 myopia 17, autosomal dominant 11.1
19 myopia 9 11.1
20 myopia 12, autosomal dominant 11.1
21 myopia 14 11.1
22 aniseikonia 11.1
23 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 11.0
24 myopia 18, autosomal recessive 11.0
25 myopia 13, x-linked 11.0
26 myopia 26, x-linked, female-limited 11.0
27 myopia 1, x-linked 11.0
28 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement 11.0
29 myopia 5, autosomal dominant 11.0
30 myopia 7 11.0
31 myopia 8 11.0
32 myopia 10 11.0
33 myopia 11, autosomal dominant 11.0
34 corneal dystrophy, congenital stromal 11.0
35 myopia 16, autosomal dominant 11.0
36 myopia 15, autosomal dominant 11.0
37 myopia 19, autosomal dominant 11.0
38 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 11.0
39 myopia 27 11.0
40 microphthalmia 11.0
41 suppression amblyopia 10.8
42 strabismus 10.7
43 mechanical strabismus 10.7
44 cataract 10.7
45 farsightedness 10.7
46 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.7
47 presbyopia 10.6
48 eye disease 10.6
49 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 10.5
50 retinal detachment 10.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


visual disturbance; aniseikonia; eye manifestations

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 113)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4 512-15-2 2905
2
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
3
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
4
Tropicamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1508-75-4 5593
5
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
6
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
7
Propoxycaine Approved Phase 4 86-43-1
8 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
9 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
10 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
11 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
12 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
13 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
14 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
15 Cardiotonic Agents Phase 4
16 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4
17 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
18 Mitomycins Phase 4
19 Alkylating Agents Phase 4
20 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
21 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
22 Anesthetics Phase 4
23 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
24 Proxymetacaine Phase 4
25
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 56-81-5 753
26 Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Phase 2, Phase 3
29 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
30 Cathartics Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Laxatives Phase 2, Phase 3
32
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 59-30-3 6037
33
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 83-88-5 493570
34 Vitamins Phase 2
35 Nutrients Phase 2
36 Vitamin B9 Phase 2
37 Trace Elements Phase 2
38 Micronutrients Phase 2
39 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 2
40 Vitamin B Complex Phase 2
41 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2
42 Folate Phase 2
43 Vitamin B2 Phase 2
44 Mydriatics Phase 1, Phase 2
45
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 60142-96-3 3446
46
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 148553-50-8 5486971
47 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 1
48 Anticonvulsants Phase 1
49 Analgesics Phase 1
50 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 279)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A New More Efficient Cycloplegia Scheme Unknown status NCT02177539 Phase 4 Cyclopentolate;Cyclopentolate+tropicamide+phenylephrine
2 Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILE Unknown status NCT03001401 Phase 4
3 The Impact of Short Term Wearing Time on In Vivo and Ex Vivo Wettability Completed NCT00349063 Phase 4 Soft contact lens multipurpose disinfection regimen
4 Clinical Trial of Interventions for Visual Loss in Nursing Home Residents Completed NCT00348621 Phase 4
5 Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular Surface: A Laser In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study Completed NCT01250925 Phase 4 ReNu MultiPlus® MultiPurpose Solution;OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH®;Clear Care®
6 Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin C. Completed NCT00599950 Phase 4 Mitomycin C and Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
7 Efficacy and Safety of Anesthetic Impregnated Bandage Soft Contact Lens (BSCL) in Pain Management After Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK). Recruiting NCT04283331 Phase 4 Proparacaine Ophthalmic
8 Effects of Optical Blur on Performance and Comfort of Computer Users Unknown status NCT00318045 Phase 3
9 A Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System With vibeX Rapid (Riboflavin Ophthalmic Solution) for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes Having Keratoconus and Post LASIK Ectasia Unknown status NCT02638376 Phase 3
10 Vision In Preschoolers Study (VIP Study) Unknown status NCT00038753 Phase 3
11 Intrastromal Correction of Ametropia by a Femtosecond Laser Unknown status NCT00928122 Phase 3
12 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Wavefront-Guided LASIK Correction of Myopic Refractive Errors With the iDesign Advanced Wavescan Studio™ System and Star S4IR™ Excimer Laser Completed NCT01663363 Phase 3
13 Effects of Different Add Powers on the Comfort and Productivity of Computer Users With Fixed or Free Head Movement Completed NCT00317525 Phase 3
14 Evaluation of Trifocal Diffractive Intraocular Lens After Cataract Extraction With Phacoemulsification Completed NCT04465279 Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Contact Lenses With New UV-blocker Manufactured With Different Techniques Completed NCT03475875 Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Evaluation of the Performance of Non-molded Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT00371787 Phase 3
17 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of the Presbyopic LASIK Algorithm Completed NCT01322919 Phase 3
18 Safety and Acceptability of Using a Rewetting Drop With Contact Lens Wear Completed NCT00691197 Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Randomized Clinical Trial of Bifocal Lenses Versus Computer-specific Progressive Addition Lenses on Symptoms and Performance on a Computer Terminated NCT00585026 Phase 3
20 Mechanical Versus Alcohol-Assisted Epithelial Debridement During Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Confocal Microscopic Clinical Trial Completed NCT00918697 Phase 2
21 Evaluation of Progression of Myopia in Children Treated With Vitamin B2 and Outdoor Sunlight Exposure Recruiting NCT03552016 Phase 2 Oral Riboflavin
22 Enhancement of Emmetropization in Hyperopic Infants Terminated NCT00574717 Phase 1, Phase 2
23 The Effect of Gabapentin (Neurentin) and Pregabalin (Lyrica) in Pain Reduction After Photorefractive Keratectomy Unknown status NCT01122004 Phase 1 Pregabalin;Pregabalin
24 Does Undercorrection of Myopia Retard Myopia Progression Among Kindergarten Withdrawn NCT00348166 Phase 1 cyclopentolate
25 Microincision Cataract Surgery Combined With 23-gauge Vitrectomy Versus Smallincision Cataract Surgery Combined With 23-gauge Vitrectomy Unknown status NCT01198483
26 Comparison of a Smartphone Based Self Refraction Tool With Conventional Refraction Error Estimation Methods Unknown status NCT03419351
27 A 180 Day, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Clinical Performance of SynergEyes A2 Hybrid Contact Lenses for Daily Wear Use in the Correction of Refractive Error With or Without Astigmatism in Non-diseased Eyes Unknown status NCT01058629
28 The Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study Unknown status NCT00000169
29 Piggyback Sulcoflex Toric IOL for Correcting Refractive Error Following Corneal Transplantation Unknown status NCT01718184
30 Prescription of Full Optical Correction in Refractive Errors to Treat Esotropia in Children up to 3 Years Old Unknown status NCT02404324
31 Direct Comparison of SVOne Obtained Refraction to Subjective Manifest Refraction Unknown status NCT03222661
32 International Multicenter Study on Small Incision Lenticule Extraction(SMILE) Surgery Unknown status NCT02844556
33 Shanghai Eye Study for Older People Unknown status NCT03455478
34 Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of HI-BRITE Large Diameter Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens (Hexafocon b) Test When Worn on a Daily Wear Basis in the Correction of Myopia/Hyperopia/Astigmatism/Presbyopia/ and Irregular Cornea. Unknown status NCT02812316
35 Development of a New Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) Measure for Refractive Surgery Patients as Part of the National Dataset in Refractive Surgery Unknown status NCT03655743
36 Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Educational Intervention to Promote Spectacle Use Among Secondary School Children in Islamabad, Pakistan Unknown status NCT03670303
37 A Comparative Study of Measurement Repeatability for Two Aberrometers Unknown status NCT02687022
38 Comparative Analysis of the Visual Performance in Patients With Stable Keratoconus After Implantation of the Toric Implantable Collamer Lens (TICL). Unknown status NCT02833649
39 Comparison of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Methods After Corneal Laser Refractive Surgery in Axial and Refractive Ammertropia Unknown status NCT01979172
40 Evaluation of the Feasibility of Correcting Refractive Error From a Limited Inventory of Ready-made Spectacles: Wearer Retention, Vision Function, Quality of Life and Cost Completed NCT00657670
41 Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia Treatment Study Completed NCT00305955
42 A Comparison of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses. Completed NCT00727558
43 Peripheral Refraction and Aberration in Myopic Progression and Myopic Control Completed NCT00978679
44 A Prospective Comparison of Alcon LADARVision Wavefront-guided LASIK Enhancement and Conventional LASIK Enhancement for the Correction of Residual Refractive Errors Following LASIK Procedures Completed NCT00413881
45 High Myopia - Partial Reduction Orthokeratology Study Completed NCT00977236
46 Orthokeratology for Myopic Control in Chinese Children - a Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT00962208
47 Changes in Refractive Error in Patients With Both Partially Refractive Esotropia and Amblyopia Completed NCT04429659
48 Longitudinal Changes in Refractive Error After Primary IOL Implantation Among Children With Unilateral and Bilateral Congenital Cataract Completed NCT04441268
49 First-Sight Refractive Error Correction in the Developing World Completed NCT01598818
50 Proof of Concept Study for First-Sight Refractive Error Correction:Direct Comparison to Manifest Refraction and Autorefraction Results Completed NCT01342393

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

40
Eye, Endothelial, Retina, Cortex, Bone Marrow, Ovary, Prostate

Publications for Refractive Error

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50) (show all 9951)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Prevalence of refractive errors and visual impairment in school children in Enugu South-East Nigeria. 61 42
33723112 2021
2
Validation of visual acuity applications for teleophthalmology during COVID-19. 61 42
33380619 2021
3
Comparison of Outcomes of Vision and Eye Screening of Children of Four Orphanages and School Children of Riyadh. 61 42
33488014 2020
4
Novel mutations in the small leucine-rich repeat protein/proteoglycan (SLRP) genes in high myopia. 54 61
17117407 2007
5
Novel mutations in the NRL gene and associated clinical findings in patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa. 61 54
11879142 2002
6
CLEAR - Contact lens optics. 61
33775378 2021
7
Controlled blood sugar improves the eye's accommodative ability in type-1 diabetes. 61
32616866 2021
8
Population-based Assessment of Vision Impairment in the Elderly Population in Telangana State in India - Policy Implications for Eye Health Programmes. 61
32746673 2021
9
Tolerance to Residual Refractive Errors After Trifocal and Trifocal Toric Intraocular Lens Implantation. 61
33323876 2021
10
A longitudinal study of the effect of ocular biometrics measures on myopia onset. 61
33201354 2021
11
CLEAR - Orthokeratology. 61
33775379 2021
12
CLEAR - Medical use of contact lenses. 61
33775381 2021
13
Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity: a review on current understanding. 61
33514899 2021
14
CLEAR - Contact lens complications. 61
33775382 2021
15
Six-Year Incidence and Causes of Low Vision and Blindness in a Rural Chinese Adult Population: The Handan Eye Study. 61
32744100 2021
16
Influence of refractive status and age on corneal higher-order aberration. 61
33517073 2021
17
Increased Incidence of Ophthalmologic Findings in Children With Concurrent Isolated Nonsyndromic Metopic Suture Abnormalities and Deformational Cranial Vault Asymmetry. 61
32929979 2021
18
Vision Needs of Children Who Failed School-based Vision Screening with and without Eyeglasses. 61
32752905 2021
19
Refractive Error and Retinopathy Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study. 61
32941962 2021
20
Psychiatric morbidity of patients with keratoconus: A cross-sectional study. 61
33611072 2021
21
CLEAR - Contact lens technologies of the future. 61
33775384 2021
22
Ocular biometric features of pediatric patients with fibroblast growth factor receptor-related syndromic craniosynostosis. 61
33731768 2021
23
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DOME-SHAPED MACULA AND POSTERIOR STAPHYLOMA IN HIGHLY MYOPIC EYES INVESTIGATED BY ULTRA-WIDEFIELD OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY. 61
33600136 2021
24
Two-year add-on effect of using low concentration atropine in poor responders of orthokeratology in myopic children. 61
33707188 2021
25
A cross-sectional analysis of refractive error prevalence and associated factors among elementary school children in Hawassa, Ethiopia. 61
33752506 2021
26
Item banks for measurement of refractive error-specific quality of life. 61
33650713 2021
27
Refractive error. Still the heart of optometry. 61
33609305 2021
28
Impact of corneal parameters, refractive error and age on density and morphology of the subbasal nerve plexus fibers in healthy adults. 61
33727601 2021
29
Effects of refractive power on quantification using ultra-widefield retinal imaging. 61
33743646 2021
30
Optimal Dataset Sizes for Constant Optimization in Published Theoretical Optical Formulae. 61
33667143 2021
31
Status of eye health among tribal school children in South India. 61
33595468 2021
32
Comparison of refractive outcomes using Scheimpflug Holladay equivalent keratometry or IOLMaster 700 keratometry for IOL power calculation. 61
33733281 2021
33
Responsibility for Funding Refractive Correction in Publicly Funded Health Care Systems: An Ethical Analysis. 61
33367979 2021
34
Spectacle non-tolerance in clinical practice - a systematic review with meta-analysis. 61
33751648 2021
35
Comparative Analysis of Two Clinical Diagnostic Methods of the Corneoscleral Geometry. 61
33769993 2021
36
Corneal biomechanical properties after soft contact lens wear measured on a dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer: A before and after study. 61
33618908 2021
37
Spontaneous eye blink activity during slitlamp-based assessments. 61
33249616 2021
38
[Ocular trauma in the Pediatric Emergency Departments, characteristics and risk factors of immediate sequelae]. 61
32912750 2021
39
Refractive blur affects judgement of pedestrian walking direction at night. 61
33772849 2021
40
Unintended changes in ocular biometric parameters during a 6-month follow-up period after FS-LASIK and SMILE. 61
33741072 2021
41
Cosmetic Contact Lens-Related Corneal infections in Asia. 61
33727002 2021
42
Effect of defocus combined with rotation on the optical performance of trifocal toric IOLs. 61
33706567 2021
43
Visual outcomes in hyperopic myopic and emmetropic patients with customized aspheric ablation (Q factor) and micro-monovision. 61
33725268 2021
44
A Bibliometric and Citation Network Analysis of Myopia Genetics. 61
33801043 2021
45
Myopia, or near-sightedness, is associated with delayed melatonin circadian timing and lower melatonin output in young adult humans. 61
33030546 2021
46
Rural-urban differences in myopia prevalence among myopes presenting to Bhutanese retinal clinical services: a 3-year national study. 61
32803328 2021
47
The development of and recovery from form-deprivation myopia in infant rhesus monkeys reared under reduced ambient lighting. 61
33799131 2021
48
Impact of ocular magnification on retinal and choriocapillaris blood flow quantification in myopia with swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography. 61
33654668 2021
49
Progression of myopia in children and teenagers: a nationwide longitudinal study. 61
33712479 2021
50
Refractive error, axial length, environmental and hereditary factors associated with myopia in Swedish children. 61
33689658 2021

Variations for Refractive Error

Expression for Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for Refractive Error

GO Terms for Refractive Error

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 eye development GO:0001654 8.8 SLC39A5 SIX6 SCO2

Sources for Refractive Error

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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