MCID: RFR003
MIFTS: 43

Refractive Error

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 15
Refractive Errors 54 42 43 15 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
MeSH 43 D012030
NCIt 49 C87145
SNOMED-CT 67 39021009
ICD10 32 H52.7
UMLS 71 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 42 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance Hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up Presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging Astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea The most common symptom is blurred vision. Other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. NIH: National Eye Institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to microphthalmia and myopia, and has symptoms including visual disturbance, aniseikonia and eye manifestations. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is ZNF644 (Zinc Finger Protein 644). The drugs Cyclopentolate and Bevacizumab have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, testes and endothelial, and related phenotypes are Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) and Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2)

Wikipedia : 74 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately on the... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 215, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 microphthalmia 32.0 SIX6 RDH5 PRSS56 ARR3
2 myopia 31.9 ZNF644 ZNF469 ZMAT4 SLC39A5 SIX6 SHISA6
3 degenerative myopia 30.2 ZNF644 SHISA6 SCO2 RASGRF1 PRSS56 KCNQ5
4 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 12.9
5 astigmatism 11.9
6 myopia 6 11.7
7 amblyopia 11.7
8 presbyopia 11.6
9 eye disease 11.6
10 esotropia 11.6
11 ametropic amblyopia 11.6
12 corneal disease 11.6
13 myopia 5, autosomal dominant 11.6
14 myopia 9 11.6
15 myopia 2, autosomal dominant 11.6
16 aniseikonia 11.6
17 myopia 3, autosomal dominant 11.6
18 myopia 17, autosomal dominant 11.6
19 myopia 7 11.6
20 myopia 12, autosomal dominant 11.6
21 myopia 14 11.6
22 myopia 15, autosomal dominant 11.6
23 myopia 19, autosomal dominant 11.6
24 ocular albinism 11.6
25 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.4
26 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.4
27 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.4
28 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.4
29 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 11.4
30 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 11.4
31 joint laxity, short stature, and myopia 11.3
32 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 11.2
33 myopia 18, autosomal recessive 11.2
34 myopia 13, x-linked 11.2
35 myopia 26, x-linked, female-limited 11.2
36 myopia 1, x-linked 11.2
37 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement 11.2
38 myopia 8 11.2
39 myopia 10 11.2
40 myopia 11, autosomal dominant 11.2
41 corneal dystrophy, congenital stromal 11.2
42 myopia 16, autosomal dominant 11.2
43 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 11.2
44 myopia 27 11.2
45 anisometropia 10.9
46 suppression amblyopia 10.9
47 strabismus 10.9
48 mechanical strabismus 10.9
49 cycloplegia 10.8
50 farsightedness 10.8
51 cataract 10.8
52 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.8
53 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 10.6
54 monocular esotropia 10.6
55 keratoconus 10.5
56 exotropia 10.5
57 alternating exotropia 10.5
58 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 10.5
59 pathologic nystagmus 10.5
60 rare isolated myopia 10.5 SCO2 LRPAP1
61 mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 1 10.5 SCO2 PRIMPOL
62 retinal detachment 10.5
63 deafness and myopia 10.5 ZNF644 SLC39A5 PRSS56
64 ocular motor apraxia 10.4
65 intraocular pressure quantitative trait locus 10.4
66 ptosis 10.4
67 mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 11 10.4 RDH5 PRIMPOL
68 down syndrome 10.4
69 accommodative esotropia 10.4
70 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 10.4
71 albinism 10.3
72 congenital ptosis 10.3
73 headache 10.3
74 isolated microphthalmia 10.3 SIX6 PRSS56
75 cerebral palsy 10.3
76 ocular hypertension 10.3
77 retinitis pigmentosa 10.2
78 neuroretinitis 10.2
79 retinitis 10.2
80 open-angle glaucoma 10.2
81 irregular astigmatism 10.2
82 macular holes 10.2
83 keratitis, hereditary 10.2
84 trachoma 10.2
85 optic nerve disease 10.2
86 conjunctivitis 10.2
87 mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 2 10.2 SCO2 PRIMPOL
88 fundus dystrophy 10.1 ZNF644 SIX6 SHISA6 RDH5 PRSS56 MMP2
89 hyperopia, high 10.1
90 brown's tendon sheath syndrome 10.1
91 ocular motility disease 10.1
92 primary angle-closure glaucoma 10.1
93 iritis 10.1
94 corneal dystrophy 10.1
95 macular retinal edema 10.1
96 retinal degeneration 10.1
97 learning disability 10.1
98 congenital nystagmus 10.1
99 hypertropia 10.1
100 47,xyy 10.1
101 color vision deficiency 10.1
102 coloboma of macula 10.0
103 glaucoma, primary open angle 10.0
104 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.0
105 migraine with or without aura 1 10.0
106 ocular dominance 10.0
107 optic nerve hypoplasia, bilateral 10.0
108 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type iii 10.0
109 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.0
110 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 10.0
111 oculocutaneous albinism 10.0
112 thalassemia 10.0
113 blepharophimosis 10.0
114 disuse amblyopia 10.0
115 bullous keratopathy 10.0
116 fuchs' endothelial dystrophy 10.0
117 regular astigmatism 10.0
118 retinal vein occlusion 10.0
119 keratopathy 10.0
120 retinal vascular disease 10.0
121 retinal disease 10.0
122 night blindness 10.0
123 neuropathy 10.0
124 neurofibromatosis 10.0
125 diabetes mellitus 10.0
126 exophthalmos 10.0
127 senile cataract 10.0
128 sickle cell disease 10.0
129 cataract-glaucoma 10.0
130 myopic macular degeneration 10.0
131 inflammatory myopathy with abundant macrophages 10.0
132 pik3ca-related overgrowth syndrome 10.0
133 adie pupil 9.9
134 anisocoria 9.9
135 atherosclerosis susceptibility 9.9
136 blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus 9.9
137 hypercarotenemia and vitamin a deficiency, autosomal dominant 9.9
138 epicanthus 9.9
139 corneal dystrophy, fuchs endothelial, 1 9.9
140 hypercholesterolemia, familial, 1 9.9
141 hypertension, essential 9.9
142 lacrimal duct defect 9.9
143 motion sickness 9.9
144 neurofibromatosis, type i 9.9
145 exfoliation syndrome 9.9
146 pseudopapilledema 9.9
147 dowling-degos disease 1 9.9
148 retinoblastoma 9.9
149 ringed hair 9.9
150 schizophrenia 9.9
151 torticollis 9.9
152 albinism, oculocutaneous, type ii 9.9
153 autism 9.9
154 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 9.9
155 laryngoonychocutaneous syndrome 9.9
156 osteogenic sarcoma 9.9
157 fragile x syndrome 9.9
158 retinoschisis 1, x-linked, juvenile 9.9
159 branchiootic syndrome 1 9.9
160 homocysteinemia 9.9
161 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 9.9
162 albinism, oculocutaneous, type ib 9.9
163 resting heart rate, variation in 9.9
164 corneal dystrophy, avellino type 9.9
165 keratoconus 2 9.9
166 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 9.9
167 cataract 22, multiple types 9.9
168 global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies 9.9
169 spastic cerebral palsy 9.9
170 syndromic intellectual disability 9.9
171 isolated ectopia lentis 9.9
172 pinguecula 9.9
173 corneal edema 9.9
174 keratomalacia 9.9
175 accommodative spasm 9.9
176 leukocoria 9.9
177 peripheral retinal degeneration 9.9
178 diabetic cataract 9.9
179 color blindness 9.9
180 tuberous sclerosis 9.9
181 acute closed-angle glaucoma 9.9
182 achromatopsia 9.9
183 lacrimal duct obstruction 9.9
184 corneal ectasia 9.9
185 lymphangioma 9.9
186 keratosis 9.9
187 dysostosis 9.9
188 ectodermal dysplasia 9.9
189 vernal conjunctivitis 9.9
190 hemangioma 9.9
191 conjunctivochalasis 9.9
192 hypotrichosis 9.9
193 familial retinoblastoma 9.9
194 bilateral retinoblastoma 9.9
195 endophthalmitis 9.9
196 brain edema 9.9
197 plexiform neurofibroma 9.9
198 situs inversus 9.9
199 rubella 9.9
200 scotoma 9.9
201 blepharitis 9.9
202 neurofibroma 9.9
203 hypotropia 9.9
204 alopecia areata 9.9
205 alopecia 9.9
206 meibomian cyst 9.9
207 central serous chorioretinopathy 9.9
208 congenital rubella 9.9
209 congenital zika syndrome 9.9
210 orbital lymphangioma 9.9
211 plagiocephaly 9.9
212 brain injury 9.9
213 traumatic brain injury 9.9
214 spasmus nutans 9.9
215 rare lymphatic malformation 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


visual disturbance, aniseikonia, eye manifestations

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (showing 8, show less)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-105 9.28 SLC39A5
2 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-107 9.28 MMP2 SLC39A5
3 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-110 9.28 SIX6
4 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-165 9.28 MMP2
5 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-198 9.28 MMP2
6 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-207 9.28 SLC39A5
7 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-81 9.28 MMP2
8 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-98 9.28 SIX6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(showing 171, show less)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4 512-15-2 2905
2
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 216974-75-3
3
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
4
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
5
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
6
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
7
Tropicamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1508-75-4 5593
8
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 66635-83-4, 74103-06-3 3826
9
Nepafenac Approved, Investigational Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
10
Hydrocodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 125-29-1 5284569
11
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
12
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
13
Codeine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-57-3 5284371
14
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
15 Propoxycaine Approved Phase 4 86-43-1
16 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4
17 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 4
18 Mitomycins Phase 4
19 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
20 Cardiotonic Agents Phase 4
21 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4
22 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
23 Analgesics Phase 4
24 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
25 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 4
26 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
27 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
28 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
29 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
30 Acetaminophen, hydrocodone drug combination Phase 4
31 Narcotics Phase 4
32 Antitussive Agents Phase 4
33 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
34 Antipyretics Phase 4
35 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 4
36 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
37 Anesthetics Phase 4
38 Proxymetacaine Phase 4
39 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
40
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 56-81-5 753
41
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59-66-5 1986
42
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 15687-27-1 3672
43
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 22204-53-1 1302 156391
44
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-78-2 2244
45
Fluorometholone Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 426-13-1 9878
46
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-28-2 5757
47
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
48
Norgestimate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 35189-28-7 6540478
49
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 3 28014-46-2
50
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 3 57-63-6 5991
51
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-30-3 6037
52
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 83-88-5 493570
53 Trace Elements Phase 3
54 Micronutrients Phase 3
55 Vitamins Phase 3
56 Vitamin B Complex Phase 3
57 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
58 Nutrients Phase 3
59 Folate Phase 3
60 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 3
61 Vitamin B9 Phase 3
62 Vitamin B2 Phase 3
63 Anticonvulsants Phase 2, Phase 3
64 Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Phase 2, Phase 3
65 Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
66 Laxatives Phase 2, Phase 3
67 Cathartics Phase 2, Phase 3
68 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
69 Polymethyl Methacrylate Phase 3
70 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
71 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
72 diuretics Phase 2, Phase 3
73 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
74 Alkylating Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
75 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2, Phase 3
76 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
77 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
78 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
79 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Phase 3
80 Contraceptive Agents Phase 3
81 Estradiol 3-benzoate Phase 3
82 Contraceptives, Oral, Combined Phase 3
83 Contraceptives, Oral Phase 3
84 Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination Phase 3
85
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 378-44-9 9782
86
Ethanol Approved Phase 2 64-17-5 702
87
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 51-55-8, 5908-99-6 174174
88
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 7553-56-2 807
89
Tetracaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 94-24-6 5411
90
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 2 25655-41-8
91
Povidone Approved Phase 2 9003-39-8
92
Epigallocatechin Experimental, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 970-74-1 72277
93
Epigallocatechin gallate Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 989-51-5 65064
94 Antioxidants Phase 1, Phase 2
95 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
96 Parasympatholytics Phase 2
97 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
98 Cholinergic Agents Phase 2
99 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 2
100 Mydriatics Phase 2
101 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 2
102 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 2
103 Respiratory System Agents Phase 2
104 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2
105 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 2
106 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 2
107 cadexomer iodine Phase 2
108
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 148553-50-8 5486971
109
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 60142-96-3 3446
110 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 1
111 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 1
112 Calcium, Dietary Phase 1
113 calcium channel blockers Phase 1
114
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 1 7440-70-2 271
115
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved 7722-84-1 784
116
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
117
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
118
Ranibizumab Approved 347396-82-1 459903
119
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
120
Cocaine Approved, Illicit 50-36-2 446220 5760
121
Metronidazole Approved 443-48-1 4173
122
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved 9004-61-9 53477741
123
Chloral hydrate Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved 302-17-0 2707
124
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational 471-34-1
125
Dipivefrin Approved 52365-63-6 3105
126
Methamphetamine Approved, Illicit 537-46-2 10836
127
Dopamine Approved 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
128
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational 100986-85-4 149096
129
Ofloxacin Approved 82419-36-1 4583
130
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 1177-87-3
131
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-02-2 5743
132
Tobramycin Approved, Investigational 32986-56-4 36294 5496
133
Trimethobenzamide Approved, Investigational 138-56-7 5577
134
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985