MCID: RFR003
MIFTS: 43

Refractive Error

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 15
Refractive Errors 54 42 43 15 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
MeSH 43 D012030
NCIt 49 C87145
SNOMED-CT 67 39021009
ICD10 32 H52.7
UMLS 71 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 42 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance Hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up Presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging Astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea The most common symptom is blurred vision. Other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. NIH: National Eye Institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to microphthalmia and myopia, and has symptoms including visual disturbance, aniseikonia and eye manifestations. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is ZNF644 (Zinc Finger Protein 644). The drugs Cyclopentolate and Bevacizumab have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, testes and endothelial, and related phenotypes are Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) and Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2)

Wikipedia : 74 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately on the... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 215)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 microphthalmia 32.0 SIX6 RDH5 PRSS56 ARR3
2 myopia 31.9 ZNF644 ZNF469 ZMAT4 SLC39A5 SIX6 SHISA6
3 degenerative myopia 30.2 ZNF644 SHISA6 SCO2 RASGRF1 PRSS56 KCNQ5
4 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 12.9
5 astigmatism 11.9
6 myopia 6 11.7
7 amblyopia 11.7
8 presbyopia 11.6
9 eye disease 11.6
10 esotropia 11.6
11 ametropic amblyopia 11.6
12 corneal disease 11.6
13 myopia 5, autosomal dominant 11.6
14 myopia 9 11.6
15 myopia 2, autosomal dominant 11.6
16 aniseikonia 11.6
17 myopia 3, autosomal dominant 11.6
18 myopia 17, autosomal dominant 11.6
19 myopia 7 11.6
20 myopia 12, autosomal dominant 11.6
21 myopia 14 11.6
22 myopia 15, autosomal dominant 11.6
23 myopia 19, autosomal dominant 11.6
24 ocular albinism 11.6
25 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.4
26 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.4
27 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.4
28 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.4
29 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 11.4
30 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 11.4
31 joint laxity, short stature, and myopia 11.3
32 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 11.2
33 myopia 18, autosomal recessive 11.2
34 myopia 13, x-linked 11.2
35 myopia 26, x-linked, female-limited 11.2
36 myopia 1, x-linked 11.2
37 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement 11.2
38 myopia 8 11.2
39 myopia 10 11.2
40 myopia 11, autosomal dominant 11.2
41 corneal dystrophy, congenital stromal 11.2
42 myopia 16, autosomal dominant 11.2
43 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 11.2
44 myopia 27 11.2
45 anisometropia 10.9
46 suppression amblyopia 10.9
47 strabismus 10.9
48 mechanical strabismus 10.9
49 cycloplegia 10.8
50 farsightedness 10.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


visual disturbance, aniseikonia, eye manifestations

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-105 9.28 SLC39A5
2 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-107 9.28 MMP2 SLC39A5
3 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-110 9.28 SIX6
4 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-165 9.28 MMP2
5 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-198 9.28 MMP2
6 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-207 9.28 SLC39A5
7 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-81 9.28 MMP2
8 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-98 9.28 SIX6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 171)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4 512-15-2 2905
2
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 216974-75-3
3
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
4
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
5
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
6
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
7
Tropicamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1508-75-4 5593
8
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 66635-83-4, 74103-06-3 3826
9
Nepafenac Approved, Investigational Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
10
Hydrocodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 125-29-1 5284569
11
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
12
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
13
Codeine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-57-3 5284371
14
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
15 Propoxycaine Approved Phase 4 86-43-1
16 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4
17 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 4
18 Mitomycins Phase 4
19 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
20 Cardiotonic Agents Phase 4
21 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4
22 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
23 Analgesics Phase 4
24 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
25 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 4
26 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
27 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
28 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
29 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
30 Acetaminophen, hydrocodone drug combination Phase 4
31 Narcotics Phase 4
32 Antitussive Agents Phase 4
33 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
34 Antipyretics Phase 4
35 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 4
36 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
37 Anesthetics Phase 4
38 Proxymetacaine Phase 4
39 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
40
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 56-81-5 753
41
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59-66-5 1986
42
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 15687-27-1 3672
43
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 22204-53-1 1302 156391
44
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-78-2 2244
45
Fluorometholone Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 426-13-1 9878
46
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-28-2 5757
47
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
48
Norgestimate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 35189-28-7 6540478
49
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 3 28014-46-2
50
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 3 57-63-6 5991

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 401)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A New More Efficient Cycloplegia Scheme Unknown status NCT02177539 Phase 4 Cyclopentolate;Cyclopentolate+tropicamide+phenylephrine
2 Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILE Unknown status NCT03001401 Phase 4
3 Comparative Study of the Safety and Effectiveness Between Off-Label Subconjunctival Bevacizumab and Mitomycin C in Glaucoma Filtering Surgery. Unknown status NCT00468429 Phase 4 Subconjunctival Bevacizumab
4 Comparative Study of Two Marketed Spherical Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT01582789 Phase 4
5 Clinical Trial of Interventions for Visual Loss in Nursing Home Residents Completed NCT00348621 Phase 4
6 The Impact of Short Term Wearing Time on In Vivo and Ex Vivo Wettability Completed NCT00349063 Phase 4 Soft contact lens multipurpose disinfection regimen
7 Clinical Evaluation of Hydra-PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) Treatment (HPT) Treated Rigid Contact Lenses Made From Roflufocon D Completed NCT02553681 Phase 4
8 Evaluation of CooperVision Avaira Toric (Enfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens (Test) When Compared to Acuvue Advance Toric (Galyfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens (Control) Completed NCT01706770 Phase 4
9 Effect of Orthokeratology on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children Completed NCT02186184 Phase 4
10 Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular Surface: A Laser In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study Completed NCT01250925 Phase 4 ReNu MultiPlus® MultiPurpose Solution;OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH®;Clear Care®
11 Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin C. Completed NCT00599950 Phase 4 Mitomycin C and Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
12 Comparison of Ketorolac Tromethamine 0.4% and Nepafenac 0.1% for the Prevention of Cystoid Macular Edema After Phacoemulsification: Prospective Randomized Double-masked Study Completed NCT02084576 Phase 4 Nepafenac;Ketorolac
13 Efficacy, Tolerability and Comfort of GenTeal and GenTeal Gel, (0.3% Hypromellose) in the Pre- and Post- Operative Treatment of Patients Undergoing LASIK Surgery Completed NCT00598689 Phase 4 0.3% hypromellose
14 Post-operative Pain Control After Photorefractive Keratectomy Comparing Acetaminophen/Codeine vs Acetaminophen/Oxycodone Completed NCT04399122 Phase 4 acetaminophen/codeine vs acetaminophen/oxycodone
15 Spherical Aberration and Contrast Sensitivity in Eyes Implanted With Aspheric and Spherical Intraocular Lenses: Clinical Comparative Study Completed NCT00576485 Phase 4
16 Efficacy and Safety of Anesthetic Impregnated Bandage Soft Contact Lens (BSCL) in Pain Management After Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK). Not yet recruiting NCT04283331 Phase 4 Proparacaine Ophthalmic
17 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in Presbyopes Implanted in Corneal Pockets With a Delayed or Non-Delayed Approach Suspended NCT03326869 Phase 4
18 Vision In Preschoolers Study (VIP Study) Unknown status NCT00038753 Phase 3
19 Effects of Optical Blur on Performance and Comfort of Computer Users Unknown status NCT00318045 Phase 3
20 iDesign Aberrometer for the Refractive Treatment of Early Keratoconus Unknown status NCT02613780 Phase 3
21 Intrastromal Correction of Ametropia by a Femtosecond Laser Unknown status NCT00928122 Phase 3
22 A Randomised, Double-Masked Study to Compare The Safety and Efficacy of Bilateral 0.5%, 0.1% & 0.01% Atropine Treatment In Controlling Progression of Myopia In Children Unknown status NCT00371124 Phase 2, Phase 3 Atropine Eye drops
23 A Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System With vibeX Rapid (Riboflavin Ophthalmic Solution) for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes Having Keratoconus and Post LASIK Ectasia Unknown status NCT02638376 Phase 3
24 A Prospective Study To Evaluate The Safety And Effectiveness Of The SUPRACOR Presbyopic Treatment Algorithm For Myopia And Myopic Astigmatism Using LASIK Unknown status NCT01404884 Phase 3
25 Prospective, Non-randomized, Unmasked, Multicenter Clinical Investigation of the Presbia Flexivue Microlens™ for the Improvement of Near Vision in Emmetropic Presbyopes Unknown status NCT02110472 Phase 3
26 Effects of Different Add Powers on the Comfort and Productivity of Computer Users With Fixed or Free Head Movement Completed NCT00317525 Phase 3
27 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Wavefront-Guided LASIK Correction of Myopic Refractive Errors With the iDesign Advanced Wavescan Studio™ System and Star S4IR™ Excimer Laser Completed NCT01663363 Phase 3
28 Evaluation of the Performance of Non-molded Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT00371787 Phase 3
29 An Open-Labeled, Multi-Center, Randomized Investigation of the VISA (Comfilcon A) Silicone Hydrogel Soft (Hydrophilic) Contact Lens for Use in a 7 Day Extended Wear Regimen Completed NCT00597467 Phase 3
30 Safety and Acceptability of Using a Rewetting Drop With Contact Lens Wear Completed NCT00691197 Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Contact Lenses With New UV-blocker Manufactured With Different Techniques Completed NCT03475875 Phase 2, Phase 3
32 Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 (COMET2): A Randomized Trial of the Effect of Progressive Addition Lenses Versus Single Vision Lenses on Low Myopia Associated With Large Accommodative Lags and Near Esophoria in Children Completed NCT00320593 Phase 3
33 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of the Presbyopic LASIK Algorithm Completed NCT01322919 Phase 3
34 Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy (PERK) Study Completed NCT00000129 Phase 3
35 The Berkeley Orthokeratology Study Completed NCT00000123 Phase 3
36 The Prism Adaptation Study (PAS) Completed NCT00000121 Phase 3
37 Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) Completed NCT00000113 Phase 3
38 A Randomized Study of Codeine Plus Paracetamol Versus Placebo for PRK Post-operative Pain Completed NCT02625753 Phase 3 Codeine;paracetamol;placebo
39 A Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study of Weight-Reduction and/or Low Sodium Diet Plus Acetazolamide vs Diet Plus Placebo in Subjects With Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension With Mild Visual Loss Completed NCT01003639 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acetazolamide;Placebo
40 Artisan Aphakia Lens for the Correction of Aphakia in Adults Recruiting NCT01547429 Phase 3
41 Effects of Corneal Anatomical Match Between Donor and Recipient During DALK Surgery on Final Visual and Refractive Outcomes in Patients With KCN: a Clinical Trial Recruiting NCT04130334 Phase 2, Phase 3
42 The Use of Intraoperative Mitomycin-C During Photorefractive Keratectomy and Its Effect on Postoperative Topical Steroid Requirements Recruiting NCT02030990 Phase 2, Phase 3 Mitomycin-C;Fluorometholone 1% topical ocular steroid
43 Randomized Clinical Trial of Bifocal Lenses Versus Computer-specific Progressive Addition Lenses on Symptoms and Performance on a Computer Terminated NCT00585026 Phase 3
44 Use of Intracameral Moxifloxacin for the Prevention of Acute Endophthalmitis Following Cataract Surgery: a Controlled and Randomized Clinical Trial Terminated NCT02770729 Phase 3 Moxifloxacin;No injection of moxifloxacin
45 Corneal Epithelium Repair and Therapy Using Autologous Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation Unknown status NCT02148016 Phase 1, Phase 2 Levofloxacin;Betamethasone;Limbal stem cells (LSCs)
46 Functional Effects of Epigallocatechingallate on Retinal Function in Glaucoma Unknown status NCT00476138 Phase 1, Phase 2 Epigallocatechin-gallate
47 Mechanical Versus Alcohol-Assisted Epithelial Debridement During Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Confocal Microscopic Clinical Trial Completed NCT00918697 Phase 2
48 Evaluation of Progression of Myopia in Children Treated With Vitamin B2 and Outdoor Sunlight Exposure Recruiting NCT03552016 Phase 2 Oral Riboflavin
49 Role of Pupil Centroid Shift Compensation on Lower and Higher Order Aberrations During Photorefractive Keratectomy: An Eye-to-Eye Study Recruiting NCT03844178 Phase 2 installation of Tetracaine 1%
50 Low-dose Atropine Eye Drops to Reduce Progression of Myopia in Children: a Multi-centre Placebo Controlled Randomised Trial in the United Kingdom Recruiting NCT03690089 Phase 2 Atropine Sulfate

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

40
Eye, Testes, Endothelial, Retina, Brain, Cortex, Heart

Publications for Refractive Error

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50) (show all 9452)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
An effectiveness study of a wearable device (Clouclip) intervention in unhealthy visual behaviors among school-age children: A pilot study. 42
31914011 2020
2
The myopic shift associated with hyperbaric oxygen administration is reduced when using a mask delivery system compared to a hood - a randomised controlled trial. 42
31828742 2019
3
Sherpas, Coca Leaves, and Planes: High Altitude and Airplane Headache Review with a Case of Post-LASIK Myopic Shift. 42
31781974 2019
4
Novel mutations in the small leucine-rich repeat protein/proteoglycan (SLRP) genes in high myopia. 61 54
17117407 2007
5
Novel mutations in the NRL gene and associated clinical findings in patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa. 61 54
11879142 2002
6
Myopic regression and recurrent Salzmann nodule degeneration after laser in situ keratomileusis in Ehlers Danlos Syndrome. 61
32426553 2020
7
Population Based Assessment of Prevalence and Causes of Vision Impairment in the North-eastern State of Tripura, India - The Tripura Eye Survey. 61
32149548 2020
8
Refractive approaches to visual rehabilitation in patients with keratoconus. 61
32487813 2020
9
Oculoplastic considerations for refractive procedures. 61
32487809 2020
10
Non-additive (dominance) effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia. 61
32227305 2020
11
Low-dose (0.01%) atropine eye-drops to reduce progression of myopia in children: a multicentre placebo-controlled randomised trial in the UK (CHAMP-UK)-study protocol. 61
31653669 2020
12
Evaluation of myopic cornea lenticules. A histochemical and clinical correlation. 61
32439395 2020
13
Abnormal Red Reflex: Etiologies in a Pediatric Ophthalmology Population. 61
32503396 2020
14
Ophthalmological assessment of crizotinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. 61
32460197 2020
15
Correlations between clinical measures and symptoms: Report 1: Stereoacuity with accommodative, vergence measures, and symptoms. 61
32475793 2020
16
Optimizing outcomes for keratoplasty in ectatic corneal disease. 61
32412957 2020
17
Accuracy of the Hand-held Wavefront Aberrometer in Measurement of Refractive Error. 61
32495531 2020
18
Outcomes of toric intraocular lens implantation after femtosecond laser and traditional cataract surgery. 61
32519369 2020
19
Optomap ultrawide field imaging for detecting peripheral retinal lesions in 1725 high myopic eyes before implantable collamer lens surgery. 61
32510801 2020
20
Data on protein changes of chick vitreous during normal eye growth using data-independent acquisition (SWATH-MS). 61
32373688 2020
21
Progression of myopic maculopathy in a Caucasian cohort of highly myopic patients with long follow-up: a multistate analysis. 61
32564136 2020
22
Lhasa childhood eye study: the rationale, methodology, and baseline data of a 5 year follow-up of school-based cohort study in the Tibetan plateau region of Southwest China. 61
32571250 2020
23
Effect of age and refractive error on quick contrast sensitivity function in Chinese adults: a pilot study. 61
32518399 2020
24
Difference in myopia progression between dominant and non-dominant eye in patients with intermittent exotropia. 61
32307585 2020
25
Redistribution of the corneal epithelium after overnight wear of orthokeratology contact lenses for myopia reduction. 61
32127287 2020
26
The diversified defocus profile of the near-work environment and myopia development. 61
32519412 2020
27
Myopia progression over a 4-year period after laser-assisted refractive surgery in patients in their 20s and 30s. 61
32519218 2020
28
Outcome of sutured scleral fixated intraocular lens in Marfan syndrome in pediatric eyes. 61
32107694 2020
29
Ophthalmologic Findings in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - A Cohort Study From Childhood to Adulthood. 61
31926885 2020
30
Pneumatic retinopexy preceded by drainage of subretinal fluid for the treatment of severe bullous retinal detachment. 61
32573121 2020
31
Implantation of Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses Staged After Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty in Patients With Fuchs Dystrophy. 61
31842037 2020
32
Comparison of Corneal Wavefront-optimized and Wavefront-guided Alcohol-assisted Photorefractive Keratectomy Using Schwind Amaris 750S Laser for Myopia. 61
32495529 2020
33
Customized Wavefront-Optimized Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy for a Retained Lenticule Fragment After Primary SMILE. 61
32521027 2020
34
The rare phenomenon of Marcus-Gunn jaw winking without ptosis: Report of 14 cases and review of the literature. 61
32461447 2020
35
Pterygium in adults from the Brazilian Amazon Region: prevalence, visual status and refractive errors. 61
31533928 2020
36
The prevalence of refractive errors in the Middle East: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32107693 2020
37
Biometric and refractive errors evaluation in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. 61
32515611 2020
38
Long-Term Refractive Outcome of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction in Very High Myopia. 61
32118668 2020
39
Prevention and Management of Refractive Prediction Errors Following Cataract Surgery. 61
32541369 2020
40
Intracorneal ring segments followed by toric pseudoaccomodating IOL for treatment of patients with corneal ectasia and cataract. 61
32368687 2020
41
Icare versus Goldmann in a randomised middle-aged population: The influence of central corneal thickness and refractive errors. 61
32517497 2020
42
The Effects of Consumer-grade Virtual Reality Headsets on Adult Visual Function. 61
32569490 2020
43
Repeatability and Validity of Peripheral Refraction with Two Different Autorefractors. 61
32511165 2020
44
Ciliary muscle dimensions by swept-source optical coherence tomography and correlation study in a large population. 61
31773907 2020
45
Clinical profile of pterygium in patients seeking eye care in India: electronic medical records-driven big data analytics report III. 61
32096104 2020
46
Refractive characteristics of keratoconus eyes with corneal Vogt's striae: A contralateral eye study. 61
32507616 2020
47
Changes in the 3D Corneal Structure and Morphogeometric Properties in Keratoconus after Corneal Collagen Crosslinking. 61
32545294 2020
48
Electroretinograms of eyes with Stickler syndrome. 61
31781920 2020
49
The Effect of Cyclopentolate on Ocular Biometric Components. 61
32511166 2020
50
In vivo measures of anterior scleral resistance in humans with rebound tonometry. 61
32495401 2020

Variations for Refractive Error

Expression for Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for Refractive Error

GO Terms for Refractive Error

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 visual perception GO:0007601 9.26 SIX6 RDH5 GJD2 ARR3
2 eye development GO:0001654 8.8 SLC39A5 SIX6 SCO2

Sources for Refractive Error

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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