Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 15
Refractive Errors 55 43 44 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
ICD10 33 H52.7
MeSH 44 D012030
NCIt 50 C87145
UMLS 73 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 43 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance Hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up Presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging Astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea The most common symptom is blurred vision. Other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. NIH: National Eye Institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to amblyopia and fundus dystrophy, and has symptoms including aniseikonia, eye manifestations and visual disturbance. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is TUBB3 (Tubulin Beta 3 Class III). The drugs Hyaluronic acid and Ranibizumab have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related phenotype is nervous system.

Wikipedia : 76 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 106)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 amblyopia 31.7 MFRP TUBB3
2 fundus dystrophy 29.4 MFRP MMP2 RDH5
3 myopia 28.9 GJD2 KCNQ5 LRPAP1 MFRP MMP2 P4HA2
4 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 12.4
5 astigmatism 11.4
6 presbyopia 11.3
7 esotropia 11.3
8 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.1
9 myopia 6 11.1
10 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.1
11 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.1
12 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.1
13 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 11.1
14 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 11.1
15 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.9
16 myopia 2, autosomal dominant 10.9
17 myopia 18, autosomal recessive 10.9
18 myopia 13, x-linked 10.9
19 myopia 26, x-linked, female-limited 10.9
20 myopia 1, x-linked 10.9
21 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement 10.9
22 myopia 3, autosomal dominant 10.9
23 myopia 17, autosomal dominant 10.9
24 myopia 5, autosomal dominant 10.9
25 myopia 7 10.9
26 myopia 8 10.9
27 myopia 9 10.9
28 myopia 10 10.9
29 myopia 11, autosomal dominant 10.9
30 myopia 12, autosomal dominant 10.9
31 myopia 14 10.9
32 ewing sarcoma 10.9
33 myopia 16, autosomal dominant 10.9
34 myopia 15, autosomal dominant 10.9
35 myopia 19, autosomal dominant 10.9
36 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 10.9
37 corneal disease 10.9
38 ametropic amblyopia 10.9
39 aging 10.6
40 rare isolated myopia 10.6 LRPAP1 SCO2
41 degenerative myopia 10.6 GJD2 ZNF644
42 strabismus 10.5
43 cataract 10.5
44 retinitis 10.4
45 keratoconus 10.2
46 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 10.2
47 ptosis 10.2
48 anisometropia 10.2
49 accommodative esotropia 10.2
50 congenital ptosis 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


aniseikonia, eye manifestations, visual disturbance

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractive Error:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.32 ZIC2 BMP2 GJD2 KCNQ5 LRPAP1 MFRP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 228)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 9004-61-9 53477741
2
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 347396-82-1 459903
3
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 299-42-3 9294
4
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 90-82-4 7028
5
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
6
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
7
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
8
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
9
Tropicamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 1508-75-4 5593
10
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 512-15-2 2905
11
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 52365-63-6 3105
12
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
13
Nepafenac Approved, Investigational Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
14
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 216974-75-3
15 cadexomer iodine Phase 4
16
Echothiophate Iodide Phase 4 6736-03-4 10547
17 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 1,Not Applicable
18 Alkylating Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Cathartics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
20 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
22 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
23 Micronutrients Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
24 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
26 Mitomycins Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
27 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
28 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
29 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
30 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
31 Mydriatics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
32 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
33 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
34 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
35 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
36 Trace Elements Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
37 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
38 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
39 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
40 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
41 Parasympatholytics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
42 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
43 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
44 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
45 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
46 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
47 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
48 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
49 Vitamins Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
50 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 710)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A New More Efficient Cycloplegia Scheme Unknown status NCT02177539 Phase 4 Cyclopentolate;Cyclopentolate+tropicamide+phenylephrine
2 Clinical Evaluation of Toric Intraocular Lens Made by Aurolab Unknown status NCT01396616 Phase 4
3 Echothiophate Iodide for the Prevention of Progression of Myopia Unknown status NCT02544529 Phase 4 Echothiophate Iodide 0.03% Ophthalmic Solution;Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (0.5%)
4 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of a New High Repetition Rate Excimer Laser Using LASIK for the Correction of Ammetropia and Presbyopia Unknown status NCT02112968 Phase 4
5 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser Using LASIK Unknown status NCT02071576 Phase 4
6 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser in Asian Eyes Using LASIK Unknown status NCT01977807 Phase 4
7 Prospective Investigation of SUPRACOR Visual Outcomes of Presbyopic Hyperopic Patients With and Without Astigmatism Unknown status NCT01628146 Phase 4
8 Multi Laser Platform Comparison Study for LASIK Unknown status NCT00770094 Phase 4
9 Study of Myopia Prevention in Children With Low Concentration of Atropine Unknown status NCT00541177 Phase 4 atropine;tropicamide
10 Effect of Posterior Corneal Toricity on Refractive Outcome of Pseudophakia Unknown status NCT01554761 Phase 4
11 Ranibizumab for Myopic Neovascularization Unknown status NCT01246089 Phase 4 ranibizumab injection
12 Comparative Study of Two Marketed Spherical Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT01582789 Phase 4
13 Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular Surface Completed NCT01250925 Phase 4 ReNu MultiPlus® MultiPurpose Solution;OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH®;Clear Care®
14 Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin C Completed NCT00599950 Phase 4 Mitomycin C and Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
15 Effect of Orthokeratology Versus Spectacles on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children: A Crossover Trial Completed NCT02186184 Phase 4
16 A Study of Interventions to Reduce Disability From Visual Loss in Nursing Home Residents Completed NCT00348621 Phase 4
17 Clinical Evaluation of HPT Treated Rigid Contact Lenses Made From Roflufocon D Completed NCT02553681 Phase 4
18 Evaluation of CooperVision Avaira Toric (Enfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens When Compared to Acuvue Advance Toric Soft Contact Lens Completed NCT01706770 Phase 4
19 Ocular Responses to Short and Long-term Lens Wear Completed NCT00722891 Phase 4
20 Contact Lens Wettability Completed NCT00349063 Phase 4 Soft contact lens multipurpose disinfection regimen
21 Clinical Performance of Habitual Hydrogel vs. Silicone Hydrogel Toric Contact Lenses Completed NCT02142361 Phase 4
22 Clinical Performance of Biofinity Toric Versus Air Optix for Astigmatism Completed NCT01965288 Phase 4
23 Prospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Femtosecond Laser-assisted Refractive Astigmatic Keratotomy. Completed NCT01885780 Phase 4
24 Evaluation of the Post-LASIK Flap Thickness of the FS200 Femtosecond Laser Flap Completed NCT01693939 Phase 4
25 Clinical Evaluation of Biofinity Multifocal Compared With Air Optix Aqua Multifocal and With PureVision Multifocal Completed NCT01591499 Phase 4
26 Presbyopic Supracor Treatment for Near Myopic/Hyperopic Pseudophakic Eyes Completed NCT01387360 Phase 4
27 Intrastromal Corneal Ring for High Astigmatism on Postkeratoplasty Completed NCT01018797 Phase 4
28 Daily Wear Corneal Infiltrative Event Study Completed NCT00937105 Phase 4
29 Contralateral Comparison of Three Excimer Laser Systems in Performing LASIK Completed NCT00821236 Phase 4
30 Ten-year Follow-up of Laser in Situ Keratomileusis in Patients 8 to 15 Years Old Completed NCT00800774 Phase 4
31 Evaluation of the Prophylactic Use of Mitomycin C 0.02% to Inhibit Haze Formation After Photorefractive Keratectomy for High Myopia: 15 x 30 Seconds Completed NCT00564213 Phase 4 PRK and a single intraoperative topical application of mitomycin C 0.02% for 15 seconds
32 Corneal and Conjunctival Sensitivity and Staining Study Completed NCT00455455 Phase 4 Optifree RepleniSH Multipurpose Disinfecting Solution;ReNu Multiplus Multipurpose Solution
33 A Comparison of PRK and LASIK for Correction of Myopia Completed NCT00404105 Phase 4
34 Comparison of Acular LS Versus Nevanac for Pain Control in Eyes Undergoing PRK Completed NCT00347204 Phase 4 ketorolac (Acular LS);Nepafenac (Nevanac)
35 Randomized Comparison of the Abbott WHITESTAR Signature System With Ellips Tranversal Ultrasound vs. the Alcon Infiniti With the Ozil Torsional Handpiece in Phacoemulsification: A Contralaterally-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01279031 Phase 4
36 Three Intraocular Lenses Designed to Improve Distance, Intermediate and Near Vision Following Lens Extraction Completed NCT01225952 Phase 4
37 A Comparison of Visual Function After Bilateral Implantation of Presbyopia-correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT01166971 Phase 4
38 Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT00963560 Phase 4
39 Use of Toric Intraocular Lens to Neutralize Keratometric Astigmatism Completed NCT00925886 Phase 4
40 Safety and Effectiveness of the Akreos Toric Intraocular Lens. Completed NCT00825513 Phase 4
41 Comparison of Toric IOL Implantation and Opposite Clear Corneal Incision During Cataract Surgery to Correct Corneal Astigmatism Completed NCT01763151 Phase 4
42 Bevacizumab Intravitreal for Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization Completed NCT00797992 Phase 4 Injection
43 Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILE Recruiting NCT03001401 Phase 4
44 A Prospective, Contralateral, Eye to Eye Comparison of SMILE Surgery to LASIK Surgery Recruiting NCT03067077 Phase 4
45 Comparison of Outcomes With Multifocal Intraocular Lenses Recruiting NCT02678962 Phase 4
46 A Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay Under Flap or Within Pocket Recruiting NCT03376412 Phase 4
47 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay With Mitomycin C Recruiting NCT03242317 Phase 4 Mitomycin C
48 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in Presbyopic Patients With Treatments to Optimize the Ocular Surface Before Implantation Recruiting NCT03126877 Phase 4 Mitomycin C
49 Efficacy and Safety of MiSight ® Contact Lenses in Reducing the Progression of Childhood Myopia. Active, not recruiting NCT01917110 Phase 4
50 High Resolution Wavefront-guided vs. Wavefront Optimized LASIK Active, not recruiting NCT02565537 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

41
Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Testes, Bone, Brain, Prostate

Publications for Refractive Error

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50) (show all 718)
# Title Authors Year
1
High refractive error due to two intraocular lenses managed with tropicamide. ( 29537105 )
2018
2
Uncorrected and corrected refractive error experiences of Nepalese adults: a qualitative study. ( 28985110 )
2018
3
Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. ( 29447172 )
2018
4
Refractive error magnitude and variability: Relation to age. ( 29567041 )
2018
5
Prevalence and topographical characteristics of keratoconus in patients with refractive errors in the Egyptian delta. ( 29938312 )
2018
6
Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for treatment of myopic refractive error: Findings from 12-month prospective study using an epithelium-off protocol. ( 29778107 )
2018
7
Optical correction of refractive error for preventing and treating eye symptoms in computer users. ( 29633784 )
2018
8
Amblyopia, Strabismus and Refractive Errors in Congenital Ptosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29844360 )
2018
9
Correlation of subfoveal choroidal thickness with axial length, refractive error, and age in adult highly myopic eyes. ( 29843668 )
2018
10
Seasonal variation of refractive error change among young schoolchildren in a population-based cohort study in Taipei. ( 29793927 )
2018
11
Assessing the inclusion of primary school children in vision screening for refractive error program of India. ( 29941735 )
2018
12
The effects of partial and full correction of refractive errors on sensorial and motor outcomes in children with refractive accommodative esotropia. ( 29549487 )
2018
13
Commentary on: "Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening". ( 29941734 )
2018
14
Association of low birth weight with myopic refractive error and lower visual acuity in adulthood: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). ( 29545415 )
2018
15
The ipRGC-Driven Pupil Response with Light Exposure, Refractive Error, and Sleep. ( 29561501 )
2018
16
Performance of Photoscreener in Detection of Refractive Error in All Age Groups and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Children in a Tribal District of Odisha: The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) # 3. ( 29881649 )
2018
17
Risk factors for refractive error after cataract surgery: Analysis of 282a88811 cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for cataract and refractive surgery. ( 29685779 )
2018
18
Effect of distance vision and refractive error on the spontaneous eye blink activity in human subjects in primary eye gaze. ( 29627298 )
2018
19
Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error. ( 29808027 )
2018
20
Correlation between dry eye and refractive error in Saudi young adults using noninvasive Keratograph 4. ( 29676308 )
2018
21
Prevalence of refractive error, presbyopia, and unmet need of spectacle coverage in a northern district of Bangladesh: Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error study. ( 28976783 )
2018
22
The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss. ( 29359110 )
2018
23
The Video Head Impulse Test and the Influence of Daily Use of Spectacles to Correct a Refractive Error. ( 29599742 )
2018
24
Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening. ( 29941733 )
2018
25
Constructing Item Banks for Measuring Quality of Life in Refractive Error. ( 29957741 )
2018
26
Longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure and association with systemic factors and refractive error: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study. ( 29444785 )
2018
27
Refractive error is associated with intracranial volume. ( 29317746 )
2018
28
Optical 'dampening' of the refractive error to axial length ratio: implications for outcome measures in myopia control studies. ( 29691929 )
2018
29
Lens magnification affects the estimates of refractive error obtained using eccentric infrared photorefraction. ( 29877334 )
2018
30
Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 1. Impacts of refractive error and interartery angle. ( 29247496 )
2017
31
Development of Refractive Errors-What Can We Learn From Inherited Retinal Dystrophies? ( 28751151 )
2017
32
The difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. ( 28503812 )
2017
33
Associations between Optic Nerve Head-Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity. ( 28729947 )
2017
34
Refractive error in Chinese with type 2 diabetes and its association with glycaemic control. ( 28975669 )
2017
35
Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay. ( 28393041 )
2017
36
Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. ( 28520882 )
2017
37
Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review. ( 29095758 )
2017
38
Ocular biometry and determinants of refractive error in a founder population of European ancestry. ( 28569566 )
2017
39
Treatment coverage rates for refractive error in the National Eye Health survey. ( 28407009 )
2017
40
Comparison of noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction in categorizing refractive error data in children. ( 29110438 )
2017
41
Refractive error, through the lens of the patient. ( 28991415 )
2017
42
Student-led screening of school children for refractive error correction. ( 28937870 )
2017
43
Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations. ( 28262507 )
2017
44
Effect of simulated refractive error on adult visual acuity for paediatric tests. ( 28656671 )
2017
45
Refractive error and vision correction in a general sports-playing population. ( 29124780 )
2017
46
Response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome. ( 29066355 )
2017
47
Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process? ( 28423020 )
2017
48
Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study. ( 28586461 )
2017
49
Refractive Error in a Sample of Black High School Children in South Africa. ( 29120975 )
2017
50
Correlation of Corneal Biomechanical Stiffness With Refractive Error and Ocular Biometry in a Pediatric Population. ( 28731878 )
2017

Variations for Refractive Error

Expression for Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for Refractive Error

GO Terms for Refractive Error

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 visual perception GO:0007601 8.92 GJD2 MFRP RDH5 ZIC2

Molecular functions related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinol dehydrogenase activity GO:0004745 8.62 BMP2 RDH5

Sources for Refractive Error

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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