MCID: RFR010
MIFTS: 49

Refractory Anemia

Categories: Blood diseases, Cancer diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Refractory Anemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractory Anemia:

Name: Refractory Anemia 58 17
Refractory Anemia, Without Ringed Sideroblasts, Without Excess Blasts 70
Refractory Anemias 70
Anemia Refractory 54

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
refractory anemia
Age of onset: Adult;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare haematological diseases


External Ids:

MESH via Orphanet 45 D000753
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 D46.7
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0002893
Orphanet 58 ORPHA98826
UMLS 70 C0002893 C2981142

Summaries for Refractory Anemia

MalaCards based summary : Refractory Anemia, also known as refractory anemia, without ringed sideroblasts, without excess blasts, is related to autosomal recessive pyridoxine-refractory sideroblastic anemia 2 and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. An important gene associated with Refractory Anemia is TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are NF-kappaB Signaling and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The drugs Dopamine and Magnesium citrate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone marrow, myeloid and bone, and related phenotypes are fatigue and macrocytic anemia

Related Diseases for Refractory Anemia

Diseases related to Refractory Anemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 246)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 autosomal recessive pyridoxine-refractory sideroblastic anemia 2 32.5 TET2 SF3B1
2 refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia 30.4 TET2 SF3B1 ASXL1
3 deficiency anemia 30.3 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3
4 myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm 30.1 TET2 JAK2 ASXL1
5 acute erythroid leukemia 30.0 JAK2 EPO
6 hemoglobinuria 29.9 EPO CSF3
7 myeloid leukemia 29.9 TET2 RUNX1 JAK2 CSF3
8 myelodysplastic syndrome 29.8 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO
9 retinitis pigmentosa and erythrocytic microcytosis 29.7 EPO CSF3
10 childhood acute myeloid leukemia 29.6 TET2 ASXL1
11 neutropenia 29.6 MPL EPO CSF3
12 pancytopenia 29.6 RUNX1 MPL EPO CSF3
13 splenomegaly 29.6 MPL JAK2 EPO
14 neutrophilia, hereditary 29.5 JAK2 CSF3
15 acute megakaryocytic leukemia 29.3 RUNX1 MPL JAK2
16 leukemia 29.3 TET2 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 ASXL1
17 polycythemia 29.3 TET2 MPL JAK2 EPO
18 acute leukemia 29.2 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3
19 thrombocytosis 29.2 TET2 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
20 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 29.1 MPL EPO CSF3
21 myeloma, multiple 29.0 TET2 JAK2 CSF3
22 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 28.9 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 CSF3
23 aplastic anemia 28.9 TET2 RUNX1 MPL EPO CSF3 ASXL1
24 thrombocytopenia 28.9 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3
25 diamond-blackfan anemia 28.7 MPL JAK2 EPO
26 essential thrombocythemia 28.7 TET2 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
27 polycythemia vera 28.4 TET2 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
28 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 28.4 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 CSF3
29 leukemia, acute myeloid 28.4 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO
30 myeloproliferative neoplasm 28.4 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO
31 leukemia, chronic myeloid 28.3 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3
32 myelofibrosis 28.3 TET2 RUNX1 MPL JAK2 EPO CSF3
33 myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts 11.5
34 refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation 11.3
35 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 2 11.3
36 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 1 11.2
37 chromosome 5q deletion syndrome 11.0
38 ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia 11.0
39 pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 2 10.4
40 hemosiderosis 10.3
41 chromosomal triplication 10.3
42 rare hereditary hemochromatosis 10.2
43 hemochromatosis, type 1 10.2
44 sideroblastic anemia 10.2
45 aregenerative anemia 10.2
46 systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic neoplasm 10.2 TET2 ASXL1
47 hemolytic anemia 10.2
48 macrocytic anemia 10.1
49 indolent systemic mastocytosis 10.1 TET2 ASXL1
50 vasculitis 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractory Anemia:



Diseases related to Refractory Anemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractory Anemia

Human phenotypes related to Refractory Anemia:

58 31 (show all 14)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 fatigue 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012378
2 macrocytic anemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001972
3 single lineage myelodysplasia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012150
4 erythroid hypoplasia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012133
5 dyspnea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002094
6 bone marrow hypocellularity 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0005528
7 normocytic anemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001897
8 abnormal cardiac ventricular function 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030872
9 normochromic anemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001895
10 thrombocytopenia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001873
11 neutropenia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001875
12 abnormal bleeding 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001892
13 myelodysplasia 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
14 anemia of inadequate production 58 Very frequent (99-80%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractory Anemia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.92 ASXL1 CSF3 EPO JAK2 MPL RUNX1
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.86 ASXL1 CSF3 EPO JAK2 MPL RUNX1
3 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.55 ASXL1 EPO JAK2 RUNX1 TET2
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.5 ASXL1 EPO JAK2 MPL RUNX1 SF3B1
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 8.92 ASXL1 JAK2 RUNX1 TET2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractory Anemia

Drugs for Refractory Anemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 210)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
2
Magnesium citrate Approved Phase 3 3344-18-1
3
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 364-62-5 4168
4
Carboplatin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 41575-94-4 10339178 498142 38904
5
tannic acid Approved Phase 3 1401-55-4
6
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
7
Thioguanine Approved Phase 3 154-42-7 2723601
8
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-23-7 5754
9
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-03-3
10
Aldesleukin Approved Phase 3 85898-30-2, 110942-02-4
11
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
12
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 1177-87-3
13
Ivosidenib Approved, Investigational Phase 3 1448347-49-6 71657455
14
Decitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 2353-33-5 451668
15
Cytarabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 147-94-4 6253
16
nivolumab Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 946414-94-4
17
midostaurin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 120685-11-2 9829523 104937
18
Coal tar Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 8007-45-2
19
Daunorubicin Approved Phase 3 20830-81-3 30323
20
Idarubicin Approved Phase 3 58957-92-9 42890
21
Aspartic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 56-84-8 5960
22
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 56-40-6 750
23
tipifarnib Investigational Phase 3 192185-72-1 159324
24 Staurosporine Experimental Phase 2, Phase 3 62996-74-1
25 Senna Phase 3
26 Sennoside A&B Phase 3
27 Dopamine Agents Phase 3
28 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 3
29 Antiemetics Phase 3
30 glucocorticoids Phase 3
31 Hormones Phase 3
32 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
33 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3
34 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3
35 Analgesics Phase 3
36 Epoetin alfa Phase 3 113427-24-0
37
asparaginase Phase 3
38 Hydrocortisone-17-butyrate Phase 3
39 Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate Phase 3
40 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate Phase 3
41 Hematinics Phase 3
42 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 3
43 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 3
44 Interleukin-2 Phase 3
45 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 3
46 N-Methylaspartate Phase 3
47 BB 1101 Phase 3
48 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
49 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 158)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Intravenous Low-Dose Decitabine Versus Supportive Care in Elderly Patients With Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) (>10% Blasts or High-Risk Cytogenetics), Secondary MDS or Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) Who Are Not Eligible for Intensive Therapy: An EORTC-German MDS Study Group Randomized Phase III Study Unknown status NCT00043134 Phase 3 decitabine
2 Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT) Versus a Second Intensive Consolidation Course After a Common Induction and Consolidation Course in Patients With Bad Prognosis Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Secondary (SAML) to MDS of More Acute Than 6 Months Duration Unknown status NCT00002926 Phase 3 cytarabine;etoposide;idarubicin
3 Protocol for the Treatment of Adults Aged </= 60 Years With De Novo Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia or Secondary AML or RAEB-T (AML 01/99 Trial) Unknown status NCT00209833 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cytarabine;Idarubicin;Etoposide;Fludarabine;G-CSF;Daunorubicine
4 A Randomised Study of the Optimal Bowel Preparation for Routine Capsule Endoscopy Using Citramag and Senna or Metoclopramide Unknown status NCT00275184 Phase 3 Senna;Citramag powder;Metoclopramide
5 Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) and Cyclosporine (CSA) to Treat Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). A Randomized Trial Comparing ATG + CSA With Best Supportive Care Completed NCT00004208 Phase 3 ATG + CSA
6 Allogeneic Blood or Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancy and Aplastic Anemia Completed NCT00003816 Phase 2, Phase 3 busulfan;carboplatin;cyclophosphamide;etoposide;fludarabine phosphate;melphalan;thiotepa
7 The Unrelated Donor Marrow Transplantation Trial Completed NCT00003187 Phase 2, Phase 3 cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;cytarabine;methotrexate;methylprednisolone
8 A Randomized Multicentre Study Comparing G-CSF Mobilized Peripheral Blood and G-CSF Stimulated Bone Marrow in Patients Undergoing Matched Sibling Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies Completed NCT00438958 Phase 3
9 Treatment of Children With Down Syndrome (DS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder (TMD): A Phase III Group-Wide Study Completed NCT00003593 Phase 3 asparaginase;cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;methotrexate;therapeutic hydrocortisone;thioguanine
10 Phase III Evaluation of EPO With or Without G-CSF Versus Supportive Therapy Alone in the Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00003138 Phase 3
11 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind, Trial of the Administration of the MDR Modulator, Zosuquidar Trihydrochloride (LY335979), During Conventional Induction and Post-Remission Therapy in Patients Greater Than 60 Years of Age With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation or High-Risk Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts Completed NCT00046930 Phase 3 cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;zosuquidar trihydrochloride;Placebo
12 Randomised Induction and Post Induction Therapy in Older Patients (≥61 Years of Age) With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts (RAEB, RAEB-t) Completed NCT00121303 Phase 3 cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;gemtuzumab ozogamicin
13 A PHASE III STUDY IN CHILDREN WITH UNTREATED ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA (AML) OR MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME (MDS) Completed NCT00002798 Phase 3 asparaginase;daunorubicin hydrochloride;fludarabine phosphate;therapeutic hydrocortisone;cytarabine;idarubicin;dexamethasone;thioguanine;etoposide;methotrexate;cyclophosphamide;busulfan
14 Phase IIIB, Open-label, Multi-Center Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Rigosertib Administered as 72-hour Continuous Intravenous Infusions in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts Progressing On or After Azacitidine or Decitabine Completed NCT01928537 Phase 3 rigosertib sodium
15 A Phase III Randomized Study of Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitor R115777 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Patients in Second or Subsequent Remission or in Remission After Primary Induction Failure or Patients Over Age 60 in First Remission Completed NCT00093470 Phase 3 Tipifarnib
16 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study of Ivosidenib or Enasidenib in Combination With Induction Therapy and Consolidation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts-2, With an IDH1 or IDH2 Mutation, Respectively, Eligible for Intensive Chemotherapy. Recruiting NCT03839771 Phase 3 AG-120;Placebo for AG-120;AG-221;Placebo for AG-221
17 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized, Study of Gilteritinib Versus Midostaurin in Combination With Induction and Consolidation Therapy Followed by One-year Maintenance in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) or Myelodysplastic Syndromes With Excess Blasts-2 (MDS-EB2) With FLT3 Mutations Eligible for Intensive Chemotherapy (HOVON 156 AML / AMLSG 28-18) Recruiting NCT04027309 Phase 3 Gilteritinib;Midostaurin
18 A Phase III, International, Randomized, Controlled Study of Rigosertib Versus Physician's Choice of Treatment in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome After Failure of a Hypomethylating Agent Active, not recruiting NCT02562443 Phase 3 rigosertib;Any approved or standard-of-care therapy;best supportive care (BSC);best supportive care (BSC)
19 A Randomized Phase II/III Trial of "Novel Therapeutics" Versus Azacitidine in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), Age 60 or Older LEAP: Less-Intense AML Platform Trial Active, not recruiting NCT03092674 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azacitidine;Cytarabine;Decitabine;Midostaurin
20 Phase 2/3 Study of Romiplostim(AMG531) in Subjects With Aplastic Anemia Refractory to or Ineligible for Immunosuppressive Therapy Active, not recruiting NCT02773290 Phase 2, Phase 3
21 A Randomized Multicenter Study of More Intensive Versus Less Intensive Post-Remission Therapy in Elderly Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) or Transformed Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts (RAEB-t). Terminated NCT00363025 Phase 3 Idarubicin versus daunorubicin
22 A Phase II Trial of Ethyol (Amifostine) in Adult Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes Unknown status NCT00003123 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate
23 A Randomized Study Of The Safety And Efficacy Of Two Dose Schedules Of Gemcituzumab Ozogamicin In Patients With Intermediate-2 Or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes Unknown status NCT00022321 Phase 2 gemtuzumab ozogamicin
24 Phase II Multicenter Study of Amifostine in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes at Relatively Low Risk of Developing Acute Leukemia Unknown status NCT00003681 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate
25 Phase 2 Study of Proteinase 3 PR1 Peptide Mixed With Montanide ISA 51 VG Adjuvant and Administered With GM-CSF in Low Risk and Intermediate-1 MDS Unknown status NCT00513578 Phase 2
26 Transplantation of Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood for Patients With Hematological Diseases With Cyclophosphamide/Fludarabine/Total Body Irradiation Myeloablative Preparative Regimen Completed NCT00309842 Phase 2 cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;fludarabine phosphate;mycophenolate mofetil
27 Transplantation of Umbilical Cord Blood From Unrelated Donors in Patients With Hematological Diseases Using a Non-Myeloablative Preparative Regimen Completed NCT00365287 Phase 1, Phase 2 anti-thymocyte globulin;cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;fludarabine phosphate;mycophenolate mofetil
28 A Phase II Pilot Study of VELCADE in Patients With MDS Completed NCT00262873 Phase 2 bortezomib
29 Randomized Phase II Trial With Infliximab (Remicade) in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome and a Relatively Low Risk of Developing Acute Leukemia Completed NCT00074074 Phase 2
30 A Randomized, Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing The Safety And Efficacy Of Thalidomide (THALOMID) For The Treatment Of Anemia In Red Blood Cell Transfusion-Dependent Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00030550 Phase 2 thalidomide
31 Safety and Efficacy Trial of Bevacizumab: Anti-VEGF Humanized Monoclonal Antibody (NSC 704865) Therapy for Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Completed NCT00022048 Phase 1, Phase 2
32 An Open Label, Prospective, Stratified, Randomized, Controlled, Multi-Center, Phase IIB Study of the Impact of Thymoglobulin Therapy on Transfusion Needs of Patients With Early Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Completed NCT00017550 Phase 2
33 A Phase II Study of Anti-Thymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine for Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Completed NCT00016419 Phase 2 cyclosporine
34 Therapy of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) With Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) and TNFR:Fc Completed NCT00005853 Phase 2
35 Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies: A Treatment Approach Based on Risk of Relapse and Toxicity Completed NCT00005797 Phase 2 busulfan;Cyclophosphamide;VP-16
36 A Phase II Trial of 5-Azacytidine (NSC #102816) and Ethyol (Amifostine) in the Treatment of Adults With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00005598 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate;azacitidine
37 Phase II Study With Decitabine (5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine, DAC) in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00003361 Phase 2 decitabine
38 A Pilot Study of Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Patients With Severe Aplastic Anemia, Inborn Errors in Metabolism, or Inherited Hematologic Stem Cell Disorders Completed NCT00003336 Phase 2 busulfan;cyclophosphamide;melphalan;methylprednisolone
39 Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Using Closely Matched Related and Unrelated Donors Completed NCT00005622 Phase 2 cyclophosphamide
40 Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Non-Myeloablative Preparative Regimen for Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Completed NCT00004145 Phase 2 cyclophosphamide;fludarabine phosphate
41 A Multicenter Study of Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood as an Alternate Source of Stem Cells for Transplantation Completed NCT00003913 Phase 2 busulfan;cyclophosphamide;methylprednisolone
42 A Phase I/II Combination Study of Topotecan, Fludarabine, Cytosine Arabinoside and G-CSF (T-FLAG) Induction Therapy in Patients With Poor Prognosis AML, MDS and Relapsed/Refractory ALL Followed by Maintenance of Either PBSC Transplant or 13 Cis-Retinoic Acid Completed NCT00003619 Phase 1, Phase 2 busulfan;cytarabine;etoposide;fludarabine phosphate;isotretinoin;topotecan hydrochloride
43 Phase II Clinical Evaluation of Bryostatin 1 in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome Completed NCT00003171 Phase 2 bryostatin 1
44 Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplantation With Cyclophosphamide and Total Body Irradiation For Hematologic Malignancies and Bone Marrow Failure States Completed NCT00002809 Phase 2 cyclophosphamide;methotrexate;tacrolimus
45 BUSULFAN AND CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE FOR CYTOREDUCTION OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LEUKEMIAS AND MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES UNDERGOING ALLOGENEIC BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION WHO CANNOT BE TREATED WITH TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION Completed NCT00002502 Phase 2 busulfan;cyclophosphamide;cytarabine
46 Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood As An Alternate Source Of Stem Cells Transplantation Completed NCT00055653 Phase 2 busulfan;cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;fludarabine phosphate;melphalan;methylprednisolone
47 Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies and Disorders Completed NCT00053989 Phase 2 cyclophosphamide;fludarabine phosphate;methylprednisolone;mycophenolate mofetil;tacrolimus
48 A Phase II Study of Reduced Intensity Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant for the Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00045305 Phase 2 Cyclosporine;Methotrexate;Photopheresis;Mycofenolate mofetil;Pentostatin
49 Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell (PBSC) Transplantation for the Treatment of "Less Advanced" Myelodysplasi Completed NCT00024050 Phase 2 busulfan;cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;methotrexate
50 Phase II Study of High-Dose Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation for Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Completed NCT00004896 Phase 2 busulfan;cyclophosphamide

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractory Anemia

Genetic Tests for Refractory Anemia

Anatomical Context for Refractory Anemia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractory Anemia:

40
Bone Marrow, Myeloid, Bone, T Cells, Monocytes, B Cells, Lymph Node

Publications for Refractory Anemia

Articles related to Refractory Anemia:

(show top 50) (show all 2142)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Mutations of JAK2 and TET2, but not CBL are detectable in a high portion of patients with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis. 54 61
19903679 2010
2
Nandrolone decanoate for the treatment of erythropoietin refractory anemia: a case series. 61 54
20043618 2009
3
Zinc deficiency anemia and effects of zinc therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients. 61 54
19527468 2009
4
Effect of intravenous ascorbic acid in hemodialysis patients with anemia and hyperferritinemia. 54 61
18974579 2008
5
Defective erythropoietin production and reticulocyte response in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria-associated anemia. 54 61
19058593 2008
6
Common misconceptions in the diagnosis and management of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. 54 61
18477354 2008
7
Translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) without rearrangement of RUNX1 and RUNX1T1 genes in a patient with refractory anemia with excess of blasts. 54 61
18068542 2008
8
Diagnostic challenges related to myeloid/natural killer cells, a variant of myeloblasts. 61 54
18787634 2008
9
Analysis of FLT3 gene mutations in de novo myelodysplastic syndromes. FLT3 internal tandem duplication detected in a case of refractory anemia. 54 61
18067020 2007
10
Wilms' tumor 1 message and protein expression in bone marrow failure syndrome and acute leukemia. 54 61
17803653 2007
11
Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis harbors JAK2 mutation and shows overlapping myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic features. 54 61
16871284 2006
12
Effect of intravenous ascorbic acid in hemodialysis patients with EPO-hyporesponsive anemia and hyperferritinemia. 54 61
16564942 2006
13
Aclarubicin and low-dose Cytosine arabinoside in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in treating acute myeloid leukemia patients with relapsed or refractory disease and myelodysplastic syndrome: a multicenter study of 112 Chinese patients. 54 61
16105759 2005
14
Flow cytometric evaluation of circulating CD34+ cell counts and apoptotic rate in children with acquired aplastic anemia and myelodysplasia. 61 54
15850838 2005
15
Hypochromic red blood cells in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: effects of treatment with hemopoietic growth factors. 54 61
15590394 2004
16
Treatment of chronic skin ulcers in individuals with anemia of chronic disease using recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO): a review of four cases. 61 54
15509883 2004
17
Successful treatment of refractory anemia with a combination regimen containing recombinant human erythropoietin, low-dose methylprednisolone and nandrolone. 54 61
15149150 2004
18
High incidence of somatic mutations in the AML1/RUNX1 gene in myelodysplastic syndrome and low blast percentage myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia. 54 61
14615365 2004
19
Soluble transferrin receptor and its ratio to erythroblasts in bone marrow may be a new diagnostic tool to distinguish between aplastic and refractory anemia. 61 54
15034234 2004
20
Effect of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome on EPO hyporesponsiveness in maintenance hemodialysis patients. 61 54
14520627 2003
21
[Wilms' tumor-1 gene expression in myelodysplastic syndrome and its changes in the process of myelodysplastic syndrome transforming into acute leukemia]. 61 54
12971856 2003
22
Significant correlation between the degree of WT1 expression and the International Prognostic Scoring System Score in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
12743153 2003
23
Amifostine plus erythropoietin in a patient with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. 54 61
12707729 2003
24
Approach to anemia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
12901143 2003
25
Mitochondrial ferritin expression in erythroid cells from patients with sideroblastic anemia. 61 54
12406866 2003
26
Effect of azacytidine in the release of leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin m, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-11 by mononuclear cells of patients with refractory anemia. 61 54
12543079 2002
27
Long-term follow-up of patients with aplastic anemia and refractory anemia responding to combination therapy with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin. 61 54
12416735 2002
28
Recombinant human erythropoietin in combined treatment with granulocyte- or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
12242514 2002
29
Humoral immune responses against Wilms tumor gene WT1 product in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. 61 54
11964293 2002
30
Erythropoietin receptor in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. 61 54
11999556 2002
31
Erythropoietin-dependent transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute monoblastic leukemia. 61 54
11719396 2001
32
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor inhibits Fas-triggered apoptosis in bone marrow cells isolated from patients with refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. 54 61
11368434 2001
33
Decreased amount of mpl and reduced expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and glycoprotein Ib on platelets from patients with refractory anemia: analysis by a non-isotopic quantitative ligand binding assay and immunofluorescence. 61 54
11380604 2001
34
Thrombopoietin and myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
11039665 2000
35
Treatment with low-dose cytosine arabinoside followed by administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor prolongs the survival of patients with RAEB, RAEB-T, or leukemic phase myelodysplastic syndrome: a pilot study. 61 54
10905057 2000
36
Low-dose cytarabine and aclarubicin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CAG regimen) for previously treated patients with relapsed or primary resistant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and previously untreated elderly patients with AML, secondary AML, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation. 54 61
10846828 2000
37
Effect of thrombopoietin on proliferation of blasts from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
10742383 2000
38
Treatment of anemia in low risk myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus recombinant human erythropoietin. 61 54
10400415 1999
39
WT1 and GATA1 expression in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia. 54 61
10360378 1999
40
Randomized phase II study of fludarabine + cytosine arabinoside + idarubicin +/- all-trans retinoic acid +/- granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in poor prognosis newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. 61 54
10194425 1999
41
The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a good marker for diagnosis of disease progression of myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
10086730 1999
42
Priming with G-CSF effectively enhances low-dose Ara-C-induced in vivo apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. 61 54
10029165 1999
43
Clonality analysis of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts: simultaneous study of clonality and cytochemistry of bone marrow progenitors. 61 54
10049048 1999
44
Treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor plus erythropoietin: results from a randomized phase II study and long-term follow-up of 71 patients. 61 54
9639501 1998
45
Recombinant human erythropoietin for the treatment of refractory anemia in lymphoproliferative disorders: preliminary results. 61 54
9654164 1998
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Sustained improvement in anemia with low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in a patient with hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities. 61 54
9617872 1998
47
Endogenous serum thrombopoietin concentrations in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
9436921 1998
48
Hypermethylation of the p15INK4B gene in myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
9269757 1997
49
[Sequential treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and human recombinant erythropoietin (rH-EPO) in anemia of a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and high blood transfusion requirements)]. 61 54
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Trilineage extramedullary myeloid cell tumor in myelodysplastic syndrome. 54 61
9167610 1997

Variations for Refractory Anemia

Expression for Refractory Anemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractory Anemia.

Pathways for Refractory Anemia

GO Terms for Refractory Anemia

Biological processes related to Refractory Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 9.78 TET2 RUNX1 CSF3 ASXL1
2 chromatin organization GO:0006325 9.54 TET2 JAK2 ASXL1
3 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.46 JAK2 EPO
4 hemopoiesis GO:0030097 9.43 RUNX1 ASXL1
5 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.43 MPL JAK2 CSF3
6 negative regulation of neuron death GO:1901215 9.4 EPO CSF3
7 erythrocyte differentiation GO:0030218 9.32 JAK2 EPO
8 positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction GO:0046579 9.16 JAK2 EPO
9 myeloid cell differentiation GO:0030099 8.96 TET2 RUNX1
10 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 8.8 JAK2 EPO CSF3

Sources for Refractory Anemia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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