MCID: RFR010
MIFTS: 48

Refractory Anemia

Categories: Blood diseases, Cancer diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Refractory Anemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractory Anemia:

Name: Refractory Anemia 58 17
Refractory Anemia, Without Ringed Sideroblasts, Without Excess Blasts 71
Refractory Anemias 71
Anemia Refractory 54

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
refractory anemia
Age of onset: Adult;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare haematological diseases


External Ids:

MESH via Orphanet 44 D000753
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 D46.7
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0002893
Orphanet 58 ORPHA98826
UMLS 71 C0002893 C2981142

Summaries for Refractory Anemia

MalaCards based summary : Refractory Anemia, also known as refractory anemia, without ringed sideroblasts, without excess blasts, is related to autosomal recessive pyridoxine-refractory sideroblastic anemia 2 and anemia, x-linked, with or without neutropenia and/or platelet abnormalities. An important gene associated with Refractory Anemia is TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are NF-kappaB Signaling and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The drugs Iron and Deferasirox have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include myeloid, bone and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are fatigue and macrocytic anemia

Related Diseases for Refractory Anemia

Diseases related to Refractory Anemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 255)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 autosomal recessive pyridoxine-refractory sideroblastic anemia 2 33.4 TET2 SF3B1
2 anemia, x-linked, with or without neutropenia and/or platelet abnormalities 30.9 IL3 EPO CSF3
3 myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm 30.4 TET2 ASXL1
4 refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia 30.3 TET2 SF3B1 ASXL1
5 splenomegaly 29.9 MPL EPO
6 granulocytopenia 29.7 IL3 CSF3
7 childhood acute myeloid leukemia 29.6 TET2 ASXL1
8 myelodysplastic syndrome 29.5 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO
9 neutrophilia, hereditary 29.4 IL3 CSF3
10 hemoglobinuria 29.4 MPL EPO CSF3
11 hemolytic anemia 29.4 IL3 EPO CSF3
12 leukemia 29.3 TET2 RUNX1 MPL ASXL1
13 retinitis pigmentosa and erythrocytic microcytosis 29.3 IL3 EPO CSF3
14 neutropenia 29.2 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3
15 polycythemia 29.1 TET2 MPL IL3 EPO
16 myeloid leukemia 28.8 TET2 RUNX1 IL3 CSF3 ASXL1
17 thrombocytosis 28.8 TET2 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
18 diamond-blackfan anemia 28.7 MPL IL3 EPO
19 myeloma, multiple 28.6 IL3 EPO CSF3
20 aplastic anemia 28.6 TET2 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
21 acute leukemia 28.6 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3
22 pancytopenia 28.5 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3
23 essential thrombocythemia 28.3 TET2 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
24 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 28.3 RUNX1 MPL IL3 CSF3
25 thrombocytopenia 28.3 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3
26 polycythemia vera 28.1 TET2 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
27 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 28.0 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL CSF3 ASXL1
28 myeloproliferative neoplasm 27.8 TET2 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3
29 myelofibrosis 27.4 TET2 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3
30 leukemia, acute myeloid 27.4 TET2 SF3B1 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO
31 leukemia, chronic myeloid 27.2 RUNX1 MPL IL3 EPO CSF3 ASXL1
32 refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation 12.5
33 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 2 12.5
34 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 1 12.4
35 myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts 12.2
36 aregenerative anemia 11.7
37 anemia, sideroblastic, 2, pyridoxine-refractory 11.6
38 chromosome 5q deletion syndrome 11.5
39 anemia, sideroblastic, 3, pyridoxine-refractory 11.3
40 ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia 11.2
41 deficiency anemia 10.9
42 pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 2 10.4
43 hemosiderosis 10.3
44 systemic mastocytosis 10.3 TET2 ASXL1
45 chromosomal triplication 10.3
46 systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic neoplasm 10.3 TET2 ASXL1
47 extracutaneous mastocytoma 10.2 TET2 ASXL1
48 sm-ahnmd 10.2 TET2 ASXL1
49 indolent systemic mastocytosis 10.2 TET2 ASXL1
50 rare hereditary hemochromatosis 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractory Anemia:



Diseases related to Refractory Anemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractory Anemia

Human phenotypes related to Refractory Anemia:

58 31 (show all 14)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 fatigue 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012378
2 macrocytic anemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001972
3 single lineage myelodysplasia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012150
4 erythroid hypoplasia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012133
5 dyspnea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002094
6 bone marrow hypocellularity 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0005528
7 normocytic anemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001897
8 abnormal cardiac ventricular function 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030872
9 normochromic anemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001895
10 thrombocytopenia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001873
11 neutropenia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001875
12 abnormal bleeding 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001892
13 myelodysplasia 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
14 anemia of inadequate production 58 Very frequent (99-80%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractory Anemia:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.5 ASXL1 CSF3 EPO MPL RUNX1 SF3B1
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.17 ASXL1 CSF3 EPO MPL RUNX1 SF3B1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractory Anemia

Drugs for Refractory Anemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 228)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Iron Approved, Experimental Phase 4 15438-31-0, 7439-89-6 27284 23925
2
Deferasirox Approved, Investigational Phase 4 201530-41-8 5493381
3 Chelating Agents Phase 4
4 Iron Chelating Agents Phase 4
5
Magnesium citrate Approved Phase 3 3344-18-1
6
Mercaptopurine Approved Phase 3 50-44-2 667490
7
Aldesleukin Approved Phase 3 85898-30-2, 110942-02-4
8
Arsenic trioxide Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 1327-53-3 518740
9
Busulfan Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 55-98-1 2478
10
Fludarabine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 21679-14-1, 75607-67-9 30751
11
Cytarabine Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 147-94-4, 65-46-3 6253
12
Clofarabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 123318-82-1 119182
13
Darbepoetin alfa Approved, Investigational Phase 3 11096-26-7, 209810-58-2
14
Deferoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 70-51-9 2973
15
Deferiprone Approved Phase 3 30652-11-0 2972
16
Melphalan Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 148-82-3 460612 4053
17
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-03-3
18
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-23-7 5754
19
Thioguanine Approved Phase 3 154-42-7 2723601
20
Carboplatin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 41575-94-4 10339178 38904 498142
21
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 1177-87-3
22
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
23
alemtuzumab Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 216503-57-0
24
Hydroxyurea Approved Phase 3 127-07-1 3657
25
Amsacrine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51264-14-3 2179
26
Ivosidenib Approved, Investigational Phase 3 1448347-49-6 71657455
27
Decitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 2353-33-5 451668
28
Azacitidine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 320-67-2 9444
29
midostaurin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 120685-11-2 104937 9829523
30
nivolumab Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 946414-94-4
31
Coal tar Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 8007-45-2
32
Daunorubicin Approved Phase 3 20830-81-3 30323
33
Idarubicin Approved Phase 3 58957-92-9 42890
34
Tretinoin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 302-79-4 444795 5538
35
Aspartic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 56-84-8 5960
36
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 56-40-6 750
37
tipifarnib Investigational Phase 3 192185-72-1 159324
38 Staurosporine Experimental Phase 2, Phase 3 62996-74-1
39 Senna Phase 3
40 Sennoside A&B Phase 3
41 Immunologic Factors Phase 2, Phase 3
42 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3
43 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Antimetabolites Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Antiviral Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Interleukin-2 Phase 3
48 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 3
49 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 3
50 Keratolytic Agents Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 239)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A One-year, Open-label, Single Arm, Multi-center Trial Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Oral ICL670 in Patients Diagnosed With Low and INT-1 Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) and Transfusion-dependent Iron Overload Completed NCT00481143 Phase 4 ICL670/Deferasirox
2 Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT) Versus a Second Intensive Consolidation Course After a Common Induction and Consolidation Course in Patients With Bad Prognosis Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Secondary (SAML) to MDS of More Acute Than 6 Months Duration Unknown status NCT00002926 Phase 3 cytarabine;etoposide;idarubicin
3 Intravenous Low-Dose Decitabine Versus Supportive Care in Elderly Patients With Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) (>10% Blasts or High-Risk Cytogenetics), Secondary MDS or Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) Who Are Not Eligible for Intensive Therapy: An EORTC-German MDS Study Group Randomized Phase III Study Unknown status NCT00043134 Phase 3 decitabine
4 Protocol for the Treatment of Adults Aged </= 60 Years With De Novo Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia or Secondary AML or RAEB-T (AML 01/99 Trial) Unknown status NCT00209833 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cytarabine;Idarubicin;Etoposide;Fludarabine;G-CSF;Daunorubicine
5 Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor+Decitabine+Busulfan+Cyclophosphamide vs Busulfan+Cyclophosphamide Conditioning Regimen for Patients With RAEB-1, RAEB-2 and AML Secondary to MDS Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Unknown status NCT02744742 Phase 2, Phase 3 Decitabine;Busulfan (BU);Cyclophosphamide (CY);Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor(G-CSF)
6 A Randomised Study Comparing an Oral Regimen (Idarubicin and Etoposide) With an Intravenous Regimen (MAE) for Consolidation in Patients Over 55 Years With Acute Myeloid Leukaemia in First Complete Remission Unknown status NCT00003602 Phase 3 cytarabine;etoposide;idarubicin;mitoxantrone hydrochloride
7 REGIME: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Prolonged Treatment With Darbepoetin Alpha, With or Without Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor, Versus Best Supportive Care in Patients With Low-risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Unknown status NCT01196715 Phase 3 Darbepoetin alpha;Filgrastim
8 A Randomised Study of the Optimal Bowel Preparation for Routine Capsule Endoscopy Using Citramag and Senna or Metoclopramide Unknown status NCT00275184 Phase 3 Senna;Citramag powder;Metoclopramide
9 Prospective Study of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) in Childhood Unknown status NCT00047268 Phase 3 cytarabine;mercaptopurine
10 Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) and Cyclosporine (CSA) to Treat Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). A Randomized Trial Comparing ATG + CSA With Best Supportive Care Completed NCT00004208 Phase 3 ATG + CSA
11 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind, Trial of the Administration of the MDR Modulator, Zosuquidar Trihydrochloride (LY335979), During Conventional Induction and Post-Remission Therapy in Patients Greater Than 60 Years of Age With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation or High-Risk Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts Completed NCT00046930 Phase 3 cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;zosuquidar trihydrochloride;Placebo
12 Randomized Open-label Phase III Study With Deferiprone and/or Desferrioxamine in Iron Overloaded Patients Completed NCT00350662 Phase 3 Deferiprone (L1);Desferrioxamine
13 Phase III Evaluation of EPO With or Without G-CSF Versus Supportive Therapy Alone in the Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00003138 Phase 3
14 Randomised Induction and Post Induction Therapy in Older Patients (≥61 Years of Age) With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts (RAEB, RAEB-t) Completed NCT00121303 Phase 3 cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;gemtuzumab ozogamicin
15 Treatment of Children With Down Syndrome (DS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder (TMD): A Phase III Group-Wide Study Completed NCT00003593 Phase 3 asparaginase;cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;methotrexate;therapeutic hydrocortisone;thioguanine
16 The Unrelated Donor Marrow Transplantation Trial Completed NCT00003187 Phase 2, Phase 3 cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;cytarabine;methotrexate;methylprednisolone
17 Allogeneic Blood or Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancy and Aplastic Anemia Completed NCT00003816 Phase 2, Phase 3 busulfan;carboplatin;cyclophosphamide;etoposide;fludarabine phosphate;melphalan;thiotepa
18 A PHASE III STUDY IN CHILDREN WITH UNTREATED ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA (AML) OR MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME (MDS) Completed NCT00002798 Phase 3 asparaginase;daunorubicin hydrochloride;fludarabine phosphate;therapeutic hydrocortisone;cytarabine;idarubicin;dexamethasone;thioguanine;etoposide;methotrexate;cyclophosphamide;busulfan
19 A Randomized Multicentre Study Comparing G-CSF Mobilized Peripheral Blood and G-CSF Stimulated Bone Marrow in Patients Undergoing Matched Sibling Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies Completed NCT00438958 Phase 3
20 A Phase III Randomized Study Comparing Busulfan-Total Body Irradiation Versus Cyclophosphamide-Total Body Irradiation Preparative Regimen in Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) or MDS-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Undergoing HLA-Identical Sibling Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation, (A BMT Study) Completed NCT00005866 Phase 3 busulfan;cyclophosphamide;cyclosporine;methotrexate
21 A Multi-Center, Open Label, Randomized, Active Controlled Phase II/III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Processed Unrelated Bone Marrow in Patients With Acute or Chronic Leukemia Completed NCT00004255 Phase 2, Phase 3 cyclophosphamide;fludarabine phosphate;methylprednisolone;tacrolimus
22 IDA VS MTZ IN INDUCTION AND INTENSIFICATION TREATMENT OF AML OR MDS IN CHILDREN, A PHASE III RANDOMIZED STUDY Completed NCT00002517 Phase 3 cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;dexamethasone;etoposide;idarubicin;mitoxantrone hydrochloride;thioguanine
23 A Phase III Randomized Study of Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitor R115777 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Patients in Second or Subsequent Remission or in Remission After Primary Induction Failure or Patients Over Age 60 in First Remission Completed NCT00093470 Phase 3 Tipifarnib
24 A Randomized Trial for Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High Risk Myelodysplatic Syndrome Aged 60 or Over Completed NCT00005823 Phase 3 cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;etoposide;hydroxyurea;idarubicin;mitoxantrone hydrochloride;thioguanine;tretinoin;valspodar
25 Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia in Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Trial 12 Completed NCT00003436 Phase 3 amsacrine;asparaginase;cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;etoposide;methotrexate;mitoxantrone hydrochloride;therapeutic hydrocortisone
26 Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Comorbidity Completed NCT00281892 Phase 3 Fludarabine mono
27 Randomized Field Intervention Trial of H. Pylori Eradication to Reduce Iron Deficiency Among Children in El Paso, Texas Completed NCT00364104 Phase 3 Quadruple sequential Helicobacter pylori eradication + iron sulfate;Quadruple sequential Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy;Ferrous sulfate;Placebo
28 A Programme of Treatment Development for Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia and High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Completed NCT00454480 Phase 2, Phase 3 arsenic trioxide;azacitidine;busulfan;clofarabine;cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;fludarabine phosphate;gemtuzumab ozogamicin;melphalan;tipifarnib
29 A Phase III, International, Randomized, Controlled Study of Rigosertib Versus Physician's Choice of Treatment in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome After Failure of a Hypomethylating Agent Recruiting NCT02562443 Phase 3 rigosertib;Any approved or standard-of-care therapy;best supportive care (BSC);best supportive care (BSC)
30 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study of Ivosidenib or Enasidenib in Combination With Induction Therapy and Consolidation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts-2, With an IDH1 or IDH2 Mutation, Respectively, Eligible for Intensive Chemotherapy. Recruiting NCT03839771 Phase 3 AG-120;Placebo for AG-120;AG-221;Placebo for AG-221
31 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized, Study of Gilteritinib Versus Midostaurin in Combination With Induction and Consolidation Therapy Followed by One-year Maintenance in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) or Myelodysplastic Syndromes With Excess Blasts-2 (MDS-EB2) With FLT3 Mutations Eligible for Intensive Chemotherapy (HOVON 156 AML / AMLSG 28-18) Recruiting NCT04027309 Phase 3 Gilteritinib;Midostaurin
32 Phase IIIB, Open-label, Multi-Center Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Rigosertib Administered as 72-hour Continuous Intravenous Infusions in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts Progressing On or After Azacitidine or Decitabine Active, not recruiting NCT01928537 Phase 3 rigosertib sodium
33 Phase 2/3 Study of Romiplostim(AMG531) in Subjects With Aplastic Anemia Refractory to or Ineligible for Immunosuppressive Therapy Active, not recruiting NCT02773290 Phase 2, Phase 3
34 A Randomized Phase II/III Trial of "Novel Therapeutics" Versus Azacitidine in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), Age 60 or Older LEAP: Less-Intense AML Platform Trial Suspended NCT03092674 Phase 2, Phase 3 Azacitidine;Cytarabine;Decitabine;Midostaurin
35 A Randomized Multicenter Study of More Intensive Versus Less Intensive Post-Remission Therapy in Elderly Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) or Transformed Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts (RAEB-t). Terminated NCT00363025 Phase 3 Idarubicin versus daunorubicin
36 A Phase II Trial of Ethyol (Amifostine) in Adult Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes Unknown status NCT00003123 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate
37 An Open Label, Prospective, Stratified, Randomized, Controlled, Multi-Center, Phase IIB Study of the Impact of Thymoglobulin Therapy on Transfusion Needs of Patients With Early Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Unknown status NCT00017550 Phase 2
38 Phase Two Multicenter Study Of Arsenic Trioxide In Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Unknown status NCT00020969 Phase 2 arsenic trioxide
39 Phase 2 Study of Proteinase 3 PR1 Peptide Mixed With Montanide ISA 51 VG Adjuvant and Administered With GM-CSF in Low Risk and Intermediate-1 MDS Unknown status NCT00513578 Phase 2
40 Phase II Multicenter Study of Amifostine in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes at Relatively Low Risk of Developing Acute Leukemia Unknown status NCT00003681 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate
41 A Randomized Study Of The Safety And Efficacy Of Two Dose Schedules Of Gemcituzumab Ozogamicin In Patients With Intermediate-2 Or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes Unknown status NCT00022321 Phase 2 gemtuzumab ozogamicin
42 Treatment of Poor Risk Myelodysplasia With the Combination of Amifostine, Topotecan and ARA-C: A Phase II Study Unknown status NCT00003827 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate;cytarabine;topotecan hydrochloride
43 Phase II Study of Umbilical Cord/Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat RA and RARS of MDS Unknown status NCT01129739 Phase 2
44 Protocol for Treatment of Newly Diagnosed High Risk And Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Blastic Crisis Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia With Ethyol and High-Dose Cytarabine + Mitoxantron Followed by Maintenance Phase Using Low-Dose ARA-C, rhGM-CSF, Pentoxifylline, Ciprofloxacin and Decadron Unknown status NCT00003407 Phase 2 amifostine trihydrate;cytarabine;mitoxantrone hydrochloride
45 A Phase 2, Open-label Study of Brentuximab Vedotin in Patients With CD30-positive Nonlymphomatous Malignancies Completed NCT01461538 Phase 2 brentuximab vedotin;brentuximab vedotin;brentuximab vedotin
46 A Randomized Phase II Trial of Oral Topotecan Given Twice a Day for 5 Days or Once a Day for 10 Days to Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Completed NCT00003675 Phase 2 topotecan hydrochloride
47 Therapy of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) With Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) and TNFR:Fc Completed NCT00005853 Phase 2
48 Phase II Study With Decitabine (5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine, DAC) in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Completed NCT00003361 Phase 2 decitabine
49 Phase II Clinical Evaluation of Bryostatin 1 in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome Completed NCT00003171 Phase 2 bryostatin 1
50 A Phase II Study of Anti-Thymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine for Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Completed NCT00016419 Phase 2 cyclosporine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractory Anemia

Genetic Tests for Refractory Anemia

Anatomical Context for Refractory Anemia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractory Anemia:

40
Myeloid, Bone, Bone Marrow, T Cells, Liver, Neutrophil, Monocytes

Publications for Refractory Anemia

Articles related to Refractory Anemia:

(show top 50) (show all 2121)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Mutations of JAK2 and TET2, but not CBL are detectable in a high portion of patients with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis. 54 61
19903679 2010
2
Nandrolone decanoate for the treatment of erythropoietin refractory anemia: a case series. 54 61
20043618 2009
3
Zinc deficiency anemia and effects of zinc therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients. 54 61
19527468 2009
4
Effect of intravenous ascorbic acid in hemodialysis patients with anemia and hyperferritinemia. 61 54
18974579 2008
5
Defective erythropoietin production and reticulocyte response in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria-associated anemia. 54 61
19058593 2008
6
Common misconceptions in the diagnosis and management of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. 61 54
18477354 2008
7
Translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) without rearrangement of RUNX1 and RUNX1T1 genes in a patient with refractory anemia with excess of blasts. 61 54
18068542 2008
8
Diagnostic challenges related to myeloid/natural killer cells, a variant of myeloblasts. 61 54
18787634 2008
9
Analysis of FLT3 gene mutations in de novo myelodysplastic syndromes. FLT3 internal tandem duplication detected in a case of refractory anemia. 61 54
18067020 2007
10
Wilms' tumor 1 message and protein expression in bone marrow failure syndrome and acute leukemia. 54 61
17803653 2007
11
Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis harbors JAK2 mutation and shows overlapping myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic features. 54 61
16871284 2006
12
Effect of intravenous ascorbic acid in hemodialysis patients with EPO-hyporesponsive anemia and hyperferritinemia. 54 61
16564942 2006
13
Aclarubicin and low-dose Cytosine arabinoside in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in treating acute myeloid leukemia patients with relapsed or refractory disease and myelodysplastic syndrome: a multicenter study of 112 Chinese patients. 54 61
16105759 2005
14
Flow cytometric evaluation of circulating CD34+ cell counts and apoptotic rate in children with acquired aplastic anemia and myelodysplasia. 54 61
15850838 2005
15
Hypochromic red blood cells in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: effects of treatment with hemopoietic growth factors. 61 54
15590394 2004
16
Treatment of chronic skin ulcers in individuals with anemia of chronic disease using recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO): a review of four cases. 61 54
15509883 2004
17
High incidence of somatic mutations in the AML1/RUNX1 gene in myelodysplastic syndrome and low blast percentage myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia. 61 54
14615365 2004
18
Successful treatment of refractory anemia with a combination regimen containing recombinant human erythropoietin, low-dose methylprednisolone and nandrolone. 61 54
15149150 2004
19
Soluble transferrin receptor and its ratio to erythroblasts in bone marrow may be a new diagnostic tool to distinguish between aplastic and refractory anemia. 54 61
15034234 2004
20
Effect of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome on EPO hyporesponsiveness in maintenance hemodialysis patients. 54 61
14520627 2003
21
[Wilms' tumor-1 gene expression in myelodysplastic syndrome and its changes in the process of myelodysplastic syndrome transforming into acute leukemia]. 61 54
12971856 2003
22
Significant correlation between the degree of WT1 expression and the International Prognostic Scoring System Score in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
12743153 2003
23
Amifostine plus erythropoietin in a patient with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. 54 61
12707729 2003
24
Mitochondrial ferritin expression in erythroid cells from patients with sideroblastic anemia. 54 61
12406866 2003
25
Approach to anemia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
12901143 2003
26
Effect of azacytidine in the release of leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin m, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-11 by mononuclear cells of patients with refractory anemia. 61 54
12543079 2002
27
Long-term follow-up of patients with aplastic anemia and refractory anemia responding to combination therapy with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin. 54 61
12416735 2002
28
Recombinant human erythropoietin in combined treatment with granulocyte- or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
12242514 2002
29
Humoral immune responses against Wilms tumor gene WT1 product in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. 61 54
11964293 2002
30
Erythropoietin receptor in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. 61 54
11999556 2002
31
Erythropoietin-dependent transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute monoblastic leukemia. 54 61
11719396 2001
32
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor inhibits Fas-triggered apoptosis in bone marrow cells isolated from patients with refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. 54 61
11368434 2001
33
Decreased amount of mpl and reduced expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and glycoprotein Ib on platelets from patients with refractory anemia: analysis by a non-isotopic quantitative ligand binding assay and immunofluorescence. 61 54
11380604 2001
34
Thrombopoietin and myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
11039665 2000
35
Treatment with low-dose cytosine arabinoside followed by administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor prolongs the survival of patients with RAEB, RAEB-T, or leukemic phase myelodysplastic syndrome: a pilot study. 61 54
10905057 2000
36
Low-dose cytarabine and aclarubicin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CAG regimen) for previously treated patients with relapsed or primary resistant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and previously untreated elderly patients with AML, secondary AML, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation. 61 54
10846828 2000
37
Effect of thrombopoietin on proliferation of blasts from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
10742383 2000
38
Treatment of anemia in low risk myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus recombinant human erythropoietin. 61 54
10400415 1999
39
WT1 and GATA1 expression in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia. 54 61
10360378 1999
40
Randomized phase II study of fludarabine + cytosine arabinoside + idarubicin +/- all-trans retinoic acid +/- granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in poor prognosis newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. 54 61
10194425 1999
41
The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a good marker for diagnosis of disease progression of myelodysplastic syndromes. 54 61
10086730 1999
42
Priming with G-CSF effectively enhances low-dose Ara-C-induced in vivo apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. 61 54
10029165 1999
43
Clonality analysis of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts: simultaneous study of clonality and cytochemistry of bone marrow progenitors. 54 61
10049048 1999
44
Treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor plus erythropoietin: results from a randomized phase II study and long-term follow-up of 71 patients. 54 61
9639501 1998
45
Recombinant human erythropoietin for the treatment of refractory anemia in lymphoproliferative disorders: preliminary results. 54 61
9654164 1998
46
Sustained improvement in anemia with low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in a patient with hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities. 61 54
9617872 1998
47
Endogenous serum thrombopoietin concentrations in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
9436921 1998
48
Hypermethylation of the p15INK4B gene in myelodysplastic syndromes. 61 54
9269757 1997
49
[Sequential treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and human recombinant erythropoietin (rH-EPO) in anemia of a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and high blood transfusion requirements)]. 54 61
9410796 1997
50
Trilineage extramedullary myeloid cell tumor in myelodysplastic syndrome. 61 54
9167610 1997

Variations for Refractory Anemia

Expression for Refractory Anemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractory Anemia.

Pathways for Refractory Anemia

GO Terms for Refractory Anemia

Biological processes related to Refractory Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 9.67 TET2 RUNX1 CSF3 ASXL1
2 hemopoiesis GO:0030097 9.32 RUNX1 ASXL1
3 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.26 IL3 EPO
4 negative regulation of neuron death GO:1901215 9.16 EPO CSF3
5 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.13 MPL IL3 CSF3
6 regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0001959 8.62 RUNX1 IL3

Molecular functions related to Refractory Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 8.8 IL3 EPO CSF3

Sources for Refractory Anemia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
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30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
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35 IUPHAR
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53 NINDS
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56 OMIM
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61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
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70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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