Retinal Disease

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Retinal Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Retinal Disease:

Name: Retinal Disease 12 15
Retinal Diseases 43 15 71
Retinal Disorders 42


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:5679
ICD9CM 34 362.9
MeSH 43 D012164
NCIt 49 C62601
SNOMED-CT 67 29555009
ICD10 32 H35.8 H35.9 H36
UMLS 71 C0035309

Summaries for Retinal Disease

MedlinePlus : 42 The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. In the center of this nerve tissue is the macula. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving and seeing fine detail. Retinal disorders affect this vital tissue. They can affect your vision, and some can be serious enough to cause blindness. Examples are Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision Diabetic eye disease Retinal detachment - a medical emergency, when the retina is pulled away from the back of the eye Retinoblastoma - cancer of the retina. It is most common in young children. Macular pucker - scar tissue on the macula Macular hole - a small break in the macula that usually happens to people over 60 Floaters - cobwebs or specks in your field of vision NIH: National Eye Institute

MalaCards based summary : Retinal Disease, also known as retinal diseases, is related to night blindness and retinitis pigmentosa, and has symptoms including eye manifestations An important gene associated with Retinal Disease is PRPH2 (Peripherin 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Phototransduction and Visual Cycle in Retinal Rods. The drugs leucovorin and Methylcobalamin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include retina, eye and endothelial, and related phenotypes are nervous system and cardiovascular system

Disease Ontology : 12 An eye disease that is located in the retina.

Wikipedia : 74 The retina (from Latin: rēte) is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye of most... more...

Related Diseases for Retinal Disease

Diseases in the Retinal Disease family:

Inherited Retinal Disorder Rare Retinal Disorder

Diseases related to Retinal Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 481)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 night blindness 33.1 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
2 retinitis pigmentosa 33.1 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
3 retinal degeneration 33.1 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
4 cone dystrophy 33.0 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
5 pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy 33.0 GUCY2D CRB1 AIPL1 ABCA4
6 retinoschisis 1, x-linked, juvenile 33.0 RPGR RPE65 RHO NR2E3 CRX CRB1
7 enhanced s-cone syndrome 33.0 RPGR RPE65 RHO NR2E3 CRX AIPL1
8 vitreoretinochoroidopathy 33.0 RPE65 PRPH2 PRPF31 BEST1 ABCA4
9 leber plus disease 33.0 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
10 stargardt disease 32.9 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
11 night blindness, congenital stationary, type 1a 32.7 RHO CEP290 CACNA1F
12 choroidal dystrophy, central areolar, 1 32.5 RPE65 PRPH2 GUCY2D CRX AIPL1 ABCA4
13 senior-loken syndrome 1 32.5 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 GUCY2D
14 cone-rod dystrophy 3 32.5 GUCY2D CRX CACNA1F ABCA4
15 macular dystrophy, vitelliform, 3 32.4 PRPH2 BEST1
16 cone-rod dystrophy, x-linked, 3 32.3 RPGR CACNA1F
17 night blindness, congenital stationary, autosomal dominant 1 32.3 RHO CACNA1F
18 retinitis 32.2 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
19 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 32.1 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO MYO7A GUCY2D
20 usher syndrome, type i 32.0 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PDE6B MYO7A
21 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 32.0 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
22 leber congenital amaurosis 2 31.9 RPGR RPE65 RHO MYO7A GUCY2D CRX
23 pattern dystrophy 31.9 RHO PRPH2 CRX
24 macular retinal edema 31.7 RHO CRB1 BEST1 ALB
25 retinal vascular disease 31.5 RHO ALB AIPL1
26 cone-rod dystrophy 2 31.5 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
27 usher syndrome, type iiia 31.4 USH2A RPE65 PRPF31 PDE6B MYO7A CRB1
28 eye disease 31.4 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
29 congenital stationary night blindness 31.4 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
30 usher syndrome 31.3 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
31 leber congenital amaurosis 4 31.3 RPE65 PRPH2 GUCY2D CRX CRB1 CEP290
32 peripheral retinal degeneration 31.3 RPGR RHO PRPH2 PRPF31 ABCA4
33 leber congenital amaurosis 6 31.3 GUCY2D CRB1 CEP290 AIPL1
34 inherited retinal disorder 31.3 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PRPF31
35 leber congenital amaurosis 9 31.3 RPE65 GUCY2D CRX CRB1 CEP290 AIPL1
36 leber congenital amaurosis 3 31.3 RPE65 GUCY2D CRX CRB1 CEP290 AIPL1
37 leber congenital amaurosis 8 31.3 RPE65 GUCY2D CRX CRB1 AIPL1
38 achromatopsia 31.2 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
39 leber congenital amaurosis 7 31.2 GUCY2D CRX CRB1 AIPL1
40 choroideremia 31.2 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO ABCA4
41 leber congenital amaurosis 12 31.2 RPE65 GUCY2D AIPL1
42 leber congenital amaurosis 16 31.2 GUCY2D CRB1 AIPL1
43 retinitis pigmentosa 19 31.2 RPGR PRPH2 ABCA4
44 doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy 31.2 PRPH2 CFH BEST1 ARMS2 ABCA4
45 retinitis pigmentosa 1 31.2 RPGR RHO PRPH2 CRX
46 central serous chorioretinopathy 31.2 CFH ARMS2
47 basal laminar drusen 31.2 CFH BEST1 ARMS2 ABCA4
48 patterned macular dystrophy 31.2 RHO NR2E3
49 scotoma 31.2 RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D CRB1 ABCA4
50 retinitis pigmentosa 40 31.2 RPGR PRPF31 PDE6B

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Retinal Disease:

Diseases related to Retinal Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Retinal Disease

UMLS symptoms related to Retinal Disease:

eye manifestations

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Retinal Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.06 ABCA4 AIPL1 CACNA1F CEP290 CFH CRB1
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.96 ABCA4 ALB CEP290 CFH CRB1 CRX
3 pigmentation MP:0001186 9.77 ABCA4 BEST1 CEP290 CFH CRB1 CRX
4 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.58 ABCA4 AIPL1 BEST1 CACNA1F CEP290 CFH

Drugs & Therapeutics for Retinal Disease

Drugs for Retinal Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 396)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
leucovorin Approved Phase 4 58-05-9 6006 143
Methylcobalamin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 13422-55-4
Hydroxocobalamin Approved Phase 4 13422-51-0 15589840 11953898
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 66635-83-4, 74103-06-3 3826
Acarbose Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56180-94-0 441184
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 216974-75-3
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4 347396-82-1 459903
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 4 52365-63-6 3105
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
Benserazide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 322-35-0
Latanoprost Approved, Investigational Phase 4 130209-82-4 5311221 5282380
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Verteporfin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129497-78-5
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
22 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Fenofibrate Approved Phase 4 49562-28-9 3339
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4 79902-63-9 54454
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Fluorouracil Approved Phase 4 51-21-8 3385
Tesamorelin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 218949-48-5
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 69-65-8 6251 453
Cyanocobalamin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 68-19-9 44176380
Pyridoxine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 65-23-6 1054
Cobalamin Experimental Phase 4 13408-78-1 6857388
2,4-thiazolidinedione Investigational Phase 4 2295-31-0
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
35 Hematinics Phase 4
36 Vitamin B 6 Phase 4
37 Vitamin B 12 Phase 4
38 Vitamin B12 Phase 4
39 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 4
40 (T,G)-A-L Phase 4
Glatiramer Acetate Phase 4 147245-92-9 3081884
42 Cardiac Glycosides Phase 4
43 Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors Phase 4
44 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
45 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 4
46 Vardenafil Dihydrochloride Phase 4
47 Sildenafil Citrate Phase 4 171599-83-0
48 Anesthetics Phase 4
49 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4
50 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 713)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Panretinal Photocoagulation for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in a Single Session Using Low Fluence Parameters Unknown status NCT01023698 Phase 4
2 Effect of Folic Acid, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 in Diabetic Retinopathy Unknown status NCT01921192 Phase 4 Folic Acid, vit B6 and B12;Placebo
3 Effect of Doxium on High Sensitivity CRP and Endothelin-1 Serum Levels in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy Unknown status NCT01382498 Phase 4 Calcium dobesilate (Doxium);Placebo drug
4 CPAP Application at Delivery Room at Very Low Birth Weight Infants Unknown status NCT01024361 Phase 4
5 The Effect of Bevacizumab on Peripheral Retinal Changes as Imaged by Wide -Field Fluorescein Angiography in Diabetic Macular Edema Unknown status NCT02096874 Phase 4 Bevacizumab
6 Effects of Glatiramer Acetate (Copaxone) in the Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Retinal Function in Diabetic Patients After Pan- Retinal Photocoagulation (PRP), a Double- Masked Randomized Clinical Trial. Unknown status NCT00677664 Phase 4 Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone);Mannitol
7 A Prospective, Randomised Controlled Trial of Ranibizumab Pre-treatment in Diabetic Vitrectomy - a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01306981 Phase 4 Ranibizumab;Saline
8 Topical Application of ACULAR a Randomized, Vehicle Controlled Clinical Trial: Efficiency in Inhibiting Proliferative Retinopathy of Prematurity Unknown status NCT00634972 Phase 4 ACULAR;REFRESH TEARS;placebo
9 A Pilot Study to Determine if Intravitreal Injections of Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen) Given Every 12 Weeks for a Year After an Induction Phase of Three Injections Every 6 Weeks Will Reduce the Progression of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients Without Significant Vitreous Hemorrhage in Comparison to Treatment With Retinal Photocoagulation Alone and After an Induction Phase Unknown status NCT01486771 Phase 4 Macugen ® (pegaptanib sodium)
10 Three Arm, Prospective, Single-blind, Randomized Study Comparing Ranibizumab Plus Green Diode Laser Versus Ranibizumab Plus Pattern Scan Laser (Pascal) Versus Ranibizumab (Monotherapy) for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Unknown status NCT02005432 Phase 4 Intravitreal Ranibizumabe;panfotocoagulation (PASCAL);panfotocoagulation (PRP) single shoot (ETDRS)
11 Different Day Regimes of Preoperative CONbercept Administration on CytokinEs of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial (CONCEPT) Unknown status NCT03506750 Phase 4 IVC
12 Pilot Study Investigating the Use of Intravitreal Ranibizumab in the Treatment of Vitreous Hemorrhage in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Unknown status NCT01824043 Phase 4 intravitreal ranibizumab injections
13 A Prospective, Randomized, 3-arm Parallel Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Clinical Effectiveness of 2 Lower Dose Combined PDE5i's vs. Single Maximal Dose PDE5i Treatment Unknown status NCT00498680 Phase 4 Sildenafil, Vardenafil;Sildenafil;Vardenafil;Sildenafil & Vardenafil
14 The Effects of Thiazolidinedione on the Diabetic Retinopathy and Nephropathy Unknown status NCT01175486 Phase 4 Actos (Pioglitazone);Acarbose
15 Pattern Scan Laser System vs Regular Photocoagulation System: Changes in Macular Edema Post Treatment. Unknown status NCT00563628 Phase 4
16 Pattern Scan Laser System vs Regular Photocoagulation System: Changes in Electroretinograms and Contrast Sensitivity Post Treatment. Unknown status NCT00563043 Phase 4
17 Pain Using Reduced Fluence Parameters in Photocoagulation for Diabetic Retinopathy. Completed NCT00802269 Phase 4
18 Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Surgical Treatment of Severe Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Completed NCT01025934 Phase 4 Bevacizumab
19 Effect of Levodopa on Human Multifocal Electroretinogram Completed NCT00812760 Phase 4 levodopa
20 Topical Application of Latanoprost in Diabetic Retinopathy Completed NCT01225653 Phase 4 Latanoprost
21 Evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Insulin Completed NCT00174824 Phase 4 Insulin glargine
22 Ranibizumab Treatment of Diabetic Macular Oedema With Bimonthly Monitoring After a Phase of Initial Treatment. A UK, 18-month, Prospective, Open-label, Multicentre, Single-arm, Phase IIIb Study With 12-month Primary Endpoint, Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Ranibizumab in Patients With Visual Impairment Due to Diabetic Macular Oedema. Completed NCT01257815 Phase 4 Ranibizumab
23 Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy With New Dense Vitreous Hemorrhage After Full Panretinal Photocoagulation Completed NCT01724385 Phase 4 intravitreal injection of bevacizumab
24 Efficacy of Ranibizumab Therapy With Aflibercept in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Completed NCT02646670 Phase 4 Ranibizumab;Aflibercept;Ranibizumab and Aflibercept;Aflibercept and ranibizumab
25 DECREASING THE NEED FOR MECHANICAL VENTILATION AFTER RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY SURGERY: Sedation vs General Anesthesia Completed NCT01955135 Phase 4 Ketamine;Sevoflurane;propofol
26 Sucrose and Non Nutritive Suck as Analgesia for Babies Undergoing Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening; a Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial Completed NCT00921544 Phase 4
27 Different Conbercept Injection Methods in Treatment of Severe Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Completed NCT02816710 Phase 4 Conbercept
28 Effects of Fenofibrate on Endothelial Progenitor Cell Levels in Diabetic Patients With Retinopathy. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT01927315 Phase 4 Fenofibrate 145 mg;Placebo
29 Diabetic Macula Oedema. A Prospective Randomised Study Comparing the Detailed Functional and Anatomical Changes of Repeated Pan Anti-VEGF Therapy With Ranibizumab Versus Conventional Macular Laser Therapy. Completed NCT01223612 Phase 4 Ranibizumab
30 An Open-label, Multi-center, 6-month Extension Study Comparing the Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Lucentis (Ranibizumab) Intravitreal Injections Versus Ozurdex (Dexamethasone) Intravitreal Implant in Patients With Visual Impairment Due to Macular Edema Following Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO) or Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) Who Have Completed the Respective Core Study (CRFB002EDE17 or CRFB002EDE18) Completed NCT01580020 Phase 4 Dexamethasone
31 A 12 Months, Prospective, Multicenter, Open-label, Single Arm Interventional Study Assessing the Safety and Tolerability of 0.5 mg Ranibizumab in Mono/Bilateral Wet AMD Patients in Eyes With (Best-Corrected Distance Visual Acuity) BCVA Below 2/10 and/or Second Affected Eye Completed NCT01986907 Phase 4 ranibizumab
32 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind Non-inferiority Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Entelon® as Compared to Doxium Tab. And Placebo for the Treatment of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Completed NCT03962296 Phase 4 Vitis vinifera extract;Calcium Dobesilate;Placebo
33 Prospective Randomized Controlled Study of Intravitreal Injection of 0.16 mg Bevacizumab One Day Before Surgery for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Completed NCT01854593 Phase 4 Bevacizumab
34 Comparison of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Serum Concentrations After Intravitreal Use of Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab as a Treatment for Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity Completed NCT03148132 Phase 4 Bevacizumab Injection;Ranibizumab Ophthalmic
35 Morphological and Functional Retinal Changes Following Retinal Photocoagulation Using a Semiautomated Patterned Scanning Laser System in Proliferative Retinopathy or Macular Edema Secondary to Diabetes Mellitus or Retinal Vein Occlusion Completed NCT00682240 Phase 4
36 Open Label Macugen for the Treatment of Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Completed NCT00406107 Phase 4 pegaptanib sodium (Macugen)
37 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Multicentre Trial Comparing Half-dose Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) With High-density Subthreshold Micropulse Laser Treatment in Patients With Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC) Completed NCT01797861 Phase 4
38 Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Intravitreal Injections of Anti-VEGF on Macular Perfusion in Diabetic Patients Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Completed NCT03246152 Phase 4 Bevacizumab
39 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Aqueous, Vitreous and Subretinal Fluid in Patients With Retinopathy of Prematurity Stage IV and V Completed NCT00563121 Phase 4
40 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Aqueous, Vitreous and Subretinal Fluid in Patients With Retinopathy of Prematurity Stage V. Completed NCT00500396 Phase 4
41 Prospective, Single-center, Six-month Study of Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Macular Edema With Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Effects on Microaneurysm Turnover and Non-perfused Retinal Area Completed NCT02834663 Phase 4 Lucentis
42 Increase in Capillary Plexus Density Level Following the Use of Ozurdex for the Treatment of DME (RMSM ICOD STUDY) Recruiting NCT04038125 Phase 4 Ozurdex Drug Implant Product
43 A Randomised Placebo-controlled Trial of Fenofibrate to Prevent Progression of Non-proliferative Retinopathy in Diabetes Recruiting NCT03439345 Phase 4 Fenofibrate 145 mg;Placebo Oral Tablet
44 Investigator Initiated Observational Study of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Subjects With Diabetic Macular Edema Previously Treated With Ranibizumab or Bevacizumab Recruiting NCT02559180 Phase 4 aflibercept
45 Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on the Progression of Vascular Retinal Disease in Patients With Sleep Apnea and Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. A Randomized Clinical Trial Active, not recruiting NCT02874313 Phase 4 Pharmacological treatment
46 A Phase IV Randomised Clinical Trial of Laser Therapy for Peripheral Retinal Ischaemia Combined With Intravitreal Aflibercept (Eylea®) Versus Intravitreal Aflibercept Monotherapy for Diabetic Macular Oedema Active, not recruiting NCT02432547 Phase 4 Aflibercept
47 Evaluation of Lipid Lowering Agents on Diabetic Retinopathy and Cardiovascular Risk of Diabetic Patients Not yet recruiting NCT04140201 Phase 4 Simvastatin 40mg;Fenofibrate 200mg;Omega 3 fatty acid
48 Efficacy of Calcium Dobesilate in Treating Chinese Patients With Mild to Moderate Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (CALM-DR): a Single-blind, Multicenter, Cluster-randomized, Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04283162 Phase 4 Calcium Dobesilate
49 Outpatient Performed Pterygium Surgery Study Not yet recruiting NCT03037736 Phase 4 5-Fluorouracil;Bevacizumab;Normal saline
50 DEXTENZA VS. PREDNISOLONE ACETATE 1% in the Incidence of Pseudophakic Macular Edema in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy Undergoing Cataract Surgery Not yet recruiting NCT04362241 Phase 4 Prednisolone Acetate 1% Ophthalmic Suspension [PRED FORTE]

Search NIH Clinical Center for Retinal Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: retinal diseases

Genetic Tests for Retinal Disease

Anatomical Context for Retinal Disease

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Retinal Disease:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Retinal Disease:

Retina, Eye, Endothelial, Testes, Brain, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Retinal Disease

Articles related to Retinal Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 5058)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Screening and identification of key biomarkers for retinoblastoma: Evidence from bioinformatics analysis. 42
32443297 2020
Refractory adult Coats disease treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant: A case report. 42
32443362 2020
Surgical treatment for type II macular hole retinal detachment in pathologic myopia. 42
32332602 2020
Simultaneous photoacoustic microscopy, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein microscopy multi-modality retinal imaging. 61
32566480 2020
Intravitreal stem cell paracrine properties as a potential neuroprotective therapy for retinal photoreceptor neurodegenerative diseases. 61
32209762 2020
Identification of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in the CDHR1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. 61
32277948 2020
Beneficial effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ocular pathologies, particularly neurodegenerative retinal diseases. 61
31997799 2020
The angiogenic effects of exosomes secreted from retinal pigment epithelial cells on endothelial cells. 61
32420462 2020
New clinical forms of hereditary apoA-I amyloidosis entail both glomerular and retinal amyloidosis. 61
32571483 2020
Validation of electronic visual acuity (EVA) measurement against standardised ETDRS charts in patients with visual field loss from inherited retinal degenerations. 61
31585961 2020
Gene editing prospects for treating inherited retinal diseases. 61
31857428 2020
Identification of novel USH2A mutations in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa via targeted next‑generation sequencing. 61
32319668 2020
Fully automated detection, segmentation, and analysis of in vivo RPE single cells. 61
32555522 2020
Association Between Intravitreal Aflibercept and Serious Non-ocular Haemorrhage Compared with Intravitreal Ranibizumab: A Multicentre Observational Cohort Study. 61
32557181 2020
Emerging roles of noncoding RNAs in retinal diseases: A review. 61
32519377 2020
Keep an eye on adenosine: Its role in retinal inflammation. 61
32109489 2020
Automated segmentation of optic disc using statistical region merging and morphological operations. 61
32557248 2020
Novel AAV44.9-Based Vectors Display Exceptional Characteristics for Retinal Gene Therapy. 61
32304666 2020
Splicing mutations in inherited retinal diseases. 61
32553897 2020
Migration of an outer retinal element in a healthy child followed by longitudinal multimodal imaging. 61
32154438 2020
Voretigene neparvovec-rzyl for treatment of RPE65-mediated inherited retinal diseases: a model for ocular gene therapy development. 61
32149547 2020
Phosphoinositide Lipids in Ocular Tissues. 61
32545642 2020
Forward genetic analysis using OCT screening identifies Sfxn3 mutations leading to progressive outer retinal degeneration in mice. 61
32457148 2020
Building on the success of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy: a vision for the next decade. 61
32541890 2020
Precision Therapy for Inherited Retinal Disease: At the Forefront of Genomic Medicine. 61
32439068 2020
A novel homozygous c.67C>T variant in retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) associated with retinitis pigmentosa and childhood acne vulgaris. 61
32323592 2020
Deep Learning-Based Detection of Pigment Signs for Analysis and Diagnosis of Retinitis Pigmentosa. 61
32570943 2020
An innovative method for screening and evaluating the degree of diabetic retinopathy and drug treatment based on artificial intelligence algorithms. 61
32502641 2020
A robust method for the automatic location of the optic disc and the fovea in fundus images. 61
32574904 2020
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase attenuated retinal inflammation via suppressing NF-κB activation. 61
32184102 2020
Guidance for anti-VEGF intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 pandemic. 61
32328757 2020
Retinal microglia are critical for subretinal neovascular formation. 61
32437334 2020
Retinal morphology in Astyanax mexicanus during eye degeneration. 61
31811648 2020
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome Exhibits a Neuroprotective Effect over In Vitro Retinal Photoreceptor Degeneration. 61
32514411 2020
Next generation sequencing using phenotype-based panels for genetic testing in inherited retinal diseases. 61
32543920 2020
Retinal vessel oximetry in children with inherited retinal diseases. 61
32573052 2020
Intraocular Pressure Changes and VEGF Inhibitor Use in Various Retinal Diseases: Long-Term Outcomes in Routine Clinical Practice: Data from the Fight Retinal Blindness! Registry. 61
32574830 2020
Loss of Function of RIMS2 Causes a Syndromic Congenital Cone-Rod Synaptic Disease with Neurodevelopmental and Pancreatic Involvement. 61
32470375 2020
The TSPO-NOX1 axis controls phagocyte-triggered pathological angiogenesis in the eye. 61
32483169 2020
Pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids for disease modeling and development of therapies. 61
32506758 2020
"Eye genetics at the fork in the road" 2017 Franceschetti Lecture, Leeds UK. 61
32363976 2020
Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery to the Retina. 61
32501716 2020
Cell Atlas of The Human Fovea and Peripheral Retina. 61
32555229 2020
Agreement in Measures of Macular Perfusion between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Machines. 61
32433483 2020
Blue light-emitting diode irradiation promotes transcription factor EB-mediated lysosome biogenesis and lysosomal cell death in murine photoreceptor-derived cells. 61
32234235 2020
Future Vision 2020 and Beyond-5 Critical Trends in Eye Research. 61
32501897 2020
3D Shape Modeling and Analysis of Retinal Microvasculature in OCT-Angiography Images. 61
31647423 2020
A review of electroretinography waveforms and models and their application in the dog. 61
32196872 2020
Design, implementation, and evaluation of a nurse-led intravitreal injection programme for retinal diseases in Singapore. 61
32382144 2020
Comment on "Use of biomaterials for sustained delivery of anti-VEGF to treat retinal diseases". 61
32467630 2020

Variations for Retinal Disease

Expression for Retinal Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Retinal Disease.

Pathways for Retinal Disease

GO Terms for Retinal Disease

Cellular components related to Retinal Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell projection GO:0042995 9.85 USH2A RPGR RHO PRPH2 GUCY2D CEP290
2 photoreceptor inner segment GO:0001917 9.5 USH2A RHO PRPH2 MYO7A CRB1 ARMS2
3 photoreceptor disc membrane GO:0097381 9.46 RHO PDE6B GUCY2D ABCA4
4 photoreceptor connecting cilium GO:0032391 9.43 USH2A MYO7A CEP290
5 photoreceptor outer segment membrane GO:0042622 9.32 RHO GUCY2D
6 photoreceptor outer segment GO:0001750 9.23 RPGR RHO PRPH2 PDE6B MYO7A GUCY2D

Biological processes related to Retinal Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to stimulus GO:0050896 9.77 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
2 retina homeostasis GO:0001895 9.76 RPE65 ARMS2 ALB AIPL1
3 photoreceptor cell maintenance GO:0045494 9.73 USH2A RHO CRB1 ABCA4
4 regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway GO:0022400 9.71 RHO PDE6B GUCY2D AIPL1
5 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 9.7 RPE65 RHO ABCA4
6 detection of light stimulus involved in visual perception GO:0050908 9.67 RPE65 CRB1 CACNA1F BEST1
7 sensory perception of light stimulus GO:0050953 9.65 USH2A RHO MYO7A
8 retina development in camera-type eye GO:0060041 9.63 RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B NR2E3 CRB1
9 eye photoreceptor cell development GO:0042462 9.62 NR2E3 MYO7A CRB1 CEP290
10 cellular response to light stimulus GO:0071482 9.56 RHO CRB1
11 phototransduction, visible light GO:0007603 9.56 RHO PDE6B AIPL1 ABCA4
12 retina morphogenesis in camera-type eye GO:0060042 9.55 RPE65 CRB1
13 rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway GO:0016056 9.54 RHO PDE6B
14 inner ear receptor cell differentiation GO:0060113 9.51 USH2A MYO7A
15 visual perception GO:0007601 9.5 USH2A RPGR RPE65 RHO PRPH2 PDE6B
16 detection of light stimulus GO:0009583 9.49 RHO PDE6B

Sources for Retinal Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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