MCID: RBL001
MIFTS: 59

Rubella

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Rubella

Summaries for Rubella

MedlinePlus: 41 Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. It is usually mild with fever and a rash. About half of the people who get rubella do not have symptoms. If you do get them, symptoms may include: A rash that starts on the face and spreads to the body Mild fever Aching joints, especially in young women Swollen glands Rubella is most dangerous for a pregnant woman's baby. It can cause miscarriage or birth defects. Rubella spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes. People without symptoms can still spread it. There is no treatment, but the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine can prevent it. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary: Rubella, also known as german measles, is related to measles and exanthem, and has symptoms including rash on the face which spreads to the trunk, fever and lymphadenopathy. An important gene associated with Rubella is MOG (Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Disease. The drugs Antibodies and Immunologic Factors have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, heart and brain, and related phenotypes are no effect and no effect

Disease Ontology: 11 A viral infectious disease that results in infection located in skin, has material basis in Rubella virus, which is transmitted by droplet spread of oronasal secretions from the infected person through coughing and sneezing, and transmitted by congenital method. The infection has symptom rash on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs, has symptom fever, has symptom lymphadenopathy, has symptom joint pains, has symptom headache, and has symptom conjunctivitis.

CDC: 2 Rubella is a contagious disease caused by a virus. Most people who get rubella usually have a mild illness, with symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, sore throat, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Rubella can cause a miscarriage or serious birth defects in a developing baby if a woman is infected while she is pregnant. The best protection against rubella is MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine.

GARD: 19 A viral infection caused by the rubella virus. It is initially manifested with flu-like symptoms that last one or two days, followed by the development of a characteristic red rash which lasts from one to five days. The rash first appears in the neck and face. It subsequently spreads to the rest of the body.

Wikipedia: 75 Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.... more...

Related Diseases for Rubella

Diseases related to Rubella via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 544)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 measles 32.1 TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL2 IFNAR2 CD40LG
2 exanthem 30.3 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
3 encephalitis 30.3 TNF TLR3 RIGI MOG IL6 IL10
4 meningoencephalitis 30.1 TNF MOG IL6 IL10 CD40LG
5 purpura 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
6 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
7 disease by infectious agent 29.9 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
8 mumps 29.8 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
9 thyroiditis 29.7 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
10 chickenpox 29.7 TNF TLR3 MOG IL6 IL4 IL2
11 herpes zoster 29.7 TLR3 IL2 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
12 common cold 29.6 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10
13 viral infectious disease 29.0 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL4 IL2
14 craniosynostosis 1 11.2
15 microcephaly 11.2
16 external pathological resorption 10.5 TNF IL6
17 aztreonam allergy 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
18 juvenile ankylosing spondylitis 10.4 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
19 physiological polycythemia 10.4 TNF IL6
20 ceftriaxone allergy 10.4 IL10 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
21 systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis 10.4 IL6 HLA-DRB1
22 cefuroxime allergy 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
23 cefaclor allergy 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
24 chronic beryllium disease 10.4 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
25 benzylpenicillin allergy 10.4 IFNG HLA-B
26 adult dermatomyositis 10.4 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1
27 autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder 40 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
28 subacute thyroiditis 10.4 TNF IL6 HLA-B
29 pityriasis rosea 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
30 juvenile dermatitis herpetiformis 10.4 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-A
31 post-cardiac arrest syndrome 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
32 tuberculous encephalopathy 10.4 MOG IFNG
33 chemical colitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
34 bacterial conjunctivitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
35 tracheitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
36 acute necrotizing pancreatitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
37 funisitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
38 enterocolitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
39 trichomoniasis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
40 miller fisher syndrome 10.4 TNF MOG IL6
41 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene allergic contact dermatitis 10.4 IL4 IL2
42 salpingitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
43 non-severe covid-19 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
44 crohn's colitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
45 good syndrome 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
46 microscopic colitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
47 vaginal discharge 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
48 viral exanthem 10.4 TNF IL6 IFNG
49 urethritis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
50 childhood type dermatomyositis 10.4 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Rubella:



Diseases related to Rubella

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Rubella

Symptoms:

11
  • rash on the face which spreads to the trunk
  • fever
  • lymphadenopathy
  • joint pains
  • headache
  • conjunctivitis

UMLS symptoms related to Rubella:


exanthema; fever; pruritus

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.14 C1QBP CALM1 CALR CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.14 C1QBP CALR CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DPB1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Rubella:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 10.13 CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQA1 IFNA21 IFNAR2
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.11 CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQA1 IFNG IL10
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.03 IFNAR2 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL6 RIGI
4 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 10.01 C1QBP HLA-A HLA-B IFNG IL10 IL2
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.92 HLA-B IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.86 C1QBP CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQA1 IFNA21
7 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.76 IFNA21 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.47 C1QBP CALR CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B IFNAR2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Rubella

Drugs for Rubella (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Antibodies Phase 4
2 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
3 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
4 Vaccines Phase 4
5 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
6
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 3 8009-03-8
7
Podophyllin Approved Phase 3 9000-55-9
8
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 2052-63-3, 22737-97-9, 22737-96-8, 68-26-8 9904001 9947823 5280382 445354
9
Insulin Phase 3
10 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 3
11 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
12 Keratolytic Agents Phase 3
13 Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Phase 3
14 Micronutrients Phase 3
15 Vitamins Phase 3
16 Trace Elements Phase 3
17 Retinol palmitate Phase 3
18 Hemagglutinins Phase 3
19 Somatomedin B Phase 3
20 Taxane Phase 3 108169
21
Altretamine Approved Phase 2 645-05-6 2123
22
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
23
Cholecalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 67-97-0, 1406-16-2 5280795 10883523
24 Acidophilus
25 Calciferol
26 Antibodies, Blocking

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 90)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Assessing Immunogenicity of Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 6 and 9 Months of Age Completed NCT03071575 Phase 4
2 Immunogenicity and Safety of Concurrent Administration of Live, Attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine and Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine in Infants 9-12 Months of Age in the Philippines Completed NCT02880865 Phase 4
3 Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination With Live Attenuated Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine Completed NCT00731965 Phase 4
4 Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine at 6 Months of Age, Immunology, and Childhood Morbidity in a High-income Setting Completed NCT03780179 Phase 4
5 A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Concomitant Administration of EV71 Vaccine With Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Combined Live Attenuated Vaccine/ Encephalitis Live Attenuated Vaccine Completed NCT04111432 Phase 4
6 Blinded, Randomised Study to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals' Live Attenuated Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine When Given to Healthy Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00126997 Phase 4
7 Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, and Serologic Responses After Vaccination Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Infected Adults in Northern Thailand Completed NCT02724852 Phase 4
8 Reactogenicity and Protectivity Following Measles- Rubella (MR) Routine Immunization in Indonesian Infants and Children Completed NCT03680417 Phase 4
9 Phase IV Open Study to Assess the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals' Live Attenuated Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine When Given to Healthy Children at the Age of 12 to 18 Months in Singapore. Completed NCT00388440 Phase 4
10 Immunogenicity of Co-administered Yellow Fever and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccines in Children Under 2 Years Old in Argentina Completed NCT03368495 Phase 4
11 Non-interference and Safety of Concomitant Administration of Measles-rubella and Rotavirus Vaccines at 9 Months of Age in Rural Bangladesh Completed NCT01700621 Phase 4
12 A Phase 4, Randomized Trial to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine When Given Concomitantly With Measles and Rubella Combined Vaccine and Yellow Fever Vaccine at Nine Months and When Administered Via Different Vaccination Routes Completed NCT01847872 Phase 4 IPV IM Needle;IPV ID Needle;IPV IM Device;IPV ID Device
13 Comparative Study of the Immunogenicity of MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella), Single Dose and Multidose Presentations in Children 12 to 23 Months of Age. Completed NCT01777529 Phase 4
14 Search for the Measles Vaccine Virus Excretion in Breast Milk of Breastfeeding Women After Postpartum Vaccination With a Combined Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine Completed NCT02325310 Phase 4
15 Intralesional Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Versus Cryotherapy in Treatment of Multiple Common and Planter Warts : a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03183765 Phase 4 Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
16 A Double-blind, Randomised, Controlled, Multi-centre Safety Study of a Refrigerator-stable Formulation of VARIVAX® in Healthy 12 to 15 Month-old Infants. Completed NCT00432731 Phase 4
17 Immunogenicity and Safety of AVAXIM™ 80U-Pediatric Administered Alone or Concomitantly With TRIMOVAX™ in 12-13 Months Old Healthy Hepatitis A Seronegative Turkish Children Completed NCT00313950 Phase 4
18 Immunogenicity of Co-administration of Measles Containing Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Alive Vaccines Completed NCT02643433 Phase 4
19 An Open, Multicenter Study of the Safety and Tolerability of VAQTA(TM) and ProQuad(TM) in Healthy Children 12 to 23 Months of Age Completed NCT00326183 Phase 4
20 Comparison of Immunization Schedules of Beijing Tiantan Biological's MMR Vaccine in 18-72 Month-Old Children Completed NCT03160820 Phase 4
21 A Phase IV Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial to Assess Measles Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine, Live, (MMR) Lot-to-lot Consistency in Healthy Chinese Children at the Age of 8-12 Months Recruiting NCT05161845 Phase 4
22 A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Phase 4 Clinic Trial to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Combined Immunization of Sabin-strain Inactivated Polio Vaccine (sIPV), Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) and Measles, Moms and Rubella Vaccine (MMR) Recruiting NCT04638985 Phase 4
23 Immunogenicity and Safety of Concomitant Inoculation of Recombinant Human Papillomavirus Bivalent (Types 16,18) Vaccine (Escherichia Coli) and Measles Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine, Live Active, not recruiting NCT05279248 Phase 4
24 The Efficacy of Intralesional Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine, Intralesional Candidal Antigen and Topical Podophyllin in Treatment of Genital Warts: A Comparative Study Unknown status NCT03853785 Phase 3 Topical Podophyllin
25 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Priorix Vaccine (209762) at an End of Shelf-life Potency Compared to Merck & Co., Inc.'s Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine When Both Are Given on a 2-dose Schedule to Healthy Children in Their 2nd Year of Life Completed NCT01681992 Phase 3
26 Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GSK Biologicals' Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine (209762) Comparing Immunogenicity and Safety to Merck & Co., Inc.'s MMR Vaccine, in Healthy Children 12 to 15 Months of Age Completed NCT02184572 Phase 3
27 Immunogenicity and Safety of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE CV) Concomitantly Administered With Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine in Toddlers in Taiwan. Completed NCT01188343 Phase 3
28 Consistency Study of GSK Biologicals' Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine (209762) (Priorix) Comparing Immunogenicity and Safety to Merck & Co., Inc.'s MMR Vaccine (M-M-R II), in Healthy Children 12 to 15 Months of Age Completed NCT01702428 Phase 3
29 Immunogenicity & Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Vaccine 208136 Completed NCT00751348 Phase 3
30 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine in Subjects Seven Years and Older (209762) Completed NCT02058563 Phase 3
31 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine (SB257049) Given at 6, 7.5 and 9 Months of Age in Co-administration With Measles, Rubella and Yellow Fever Vaccines Followed by a Booster of the Malaria Vaccine. Completed NCT02699099 Phase 3
32 Study of Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity and Safety of the Combined Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine Produced by Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz in Children 12-15 Months of Age, Followed by Tetraviral Vaccine in Children 15-18 Months. Completed NCT01991899 Phase 3
33 Blinded, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine Given to Healthy Children During the Second Year of Life Completed NCT00127010 Phase 3
34 Comparison of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of 3 Consistency Lots of Frozen Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccine (ProQuad) in Healthy Children Completed NCT00985153 Phase 3
35 Immunogenicity & Safety of GSK Biologicals' Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine (Havrix™) Co-administered With Merck & Company, Inc. Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (M-M-RII) & Merck & Co Varicella Vaccine (VARIVAX™) to Children 15 Months of Age Completed NCT00197015 Phase 3
36 Immunogenicity & Safety of Bio Farma's Measles-Rubella (MR) Vaccine in Indonesian Infants (Bridging Study) Completed NCT04183114 Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Administration of Frozen Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine to Healthy Children at 4 to 6 Years of Age Completed NCT00985166 Phase 3
38 A Comparison of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Refrigerator-Stable Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Combination Vaccine V221 (Refrigerated) Versus V221 (Frozen) in Healthy Children Completed NCT00092430 Phase 3
39 An Open, Randomised, Comparative, Multicentre Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of Concomitant Versus Separate Administration of a Combined Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Live Vaccine (ProQuad®) and a Booster Dose of Infanrix® Hexa in Healthy Children 12 to 23 Months of Age Completed NCT00432042 Phase 3
40 Study in Healthy Children (<2 Years) to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GSK Biologicals' Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine (VarilrixTM) and of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine Completed NCT00226499 Phase 3
41 Blinded, Randomised, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine Given to Healthy Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00127023 Phase 3
42 A Pilot Study to Compare the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine and the Concomitant Administration of the Currently Licensed VARIVAX™ and M-M-R II™ in Healthy Children Completed NCT00975507 Phase 3
43 An Open-label, Multi-centre Study of the Safety of a 2-dose Regimen of a Combined Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Live Vaccine (ProQuad®) Manufactured With Recombinant Human Albumin (rHA) When Administered to Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00560755 Phase 3
44 A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine Made With an Alternative Manufacturing Process (AMP) Completed NCT01536405 Phase 3
45 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biological's Live Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella Varicella Vaccine (PriorixTetra™) When Co-administered With Conjugated Meningococcal C Vaccine (Meningitec®, Nuron Biotechs' Vaccine) in Healthy Children Completed NCT01506193 Phase 3
46 Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial for Measles - Rubella Combined Vaccine (MRVAC) Produced by POLYVAC by Technology Transfer From Japan (Phase III) Completed NCT03713359 Phase 3
47 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Trial to Assess Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Influenza Virus Vaccine, Trivalent, Types A & B, Live Cold-Adapted (FluMist) and Measles, Mumps, Rubella, (MMRIIÒ) and Varicella (VARIVAXÒ) Vaccines Administered Concurrently to Healthy Children (AV018) Completed NCT00192491 Phase 3
48 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine in Subjects Four to Six Years of Age (209762) Completed NCT01621802 Phase 3
49 A Phase II / III, Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Immunogenicity, Reatogenicity and Safety of Double Viral Vaccine (MR) for Measles and Rubella, Produced by Bio-Manguinhos / Fiocruz in 11-month-old Infants. Completed NCT03148990 Phase 2, Phase 3
50 An Immunogenicity and Safety Evaluation of Two Doses of Menactra® (Meningococcal [Groups A, C, Y and W-135] Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine) Given to Healthy Subjects at 9 and 12 Months of Age Completed NCT00384397 Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Rubella

Cochrane evidence based reviews: rubella

Genetic Tests for Rubella

Anatomical Context for Rubella

Organs/tissues related to Rubella:

FMA: Skin
MalaCards : Skin, Heart, Brain, Breast, Bone Marrow, Placenta, Kidney

Publications for Rubella

Articles related to Rubella:

(show top 50) (show all 13494)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Evaluating the effect of measles and rubella mass vaccination campaigns on seroprevalence in India: a before-and-after cross-sectional household serosurvey in four districts, 2018-2020. 62 41
36240831 2022
2
Feasibility of measles and rubella vaccination programmes for disease elimination: a modelling study. 62 41
36113527 2022
3
Prevalence of arboviruses and other infectious causes of skin rash in patients treated at a tertiary health unit in the Brazilian Amazon. 62 41
36228027 2022
4
Infectious antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. 53 62
19880558 2009
5
An interesting case of pachydermoperiostosis with idiopathic myelofibrosis associated with monosomy 22. 53 62
19659869 2009
6
Positive rates for rubella antibody in pregnant women and benefit of post-partum vaccination in a Japanese perinatal center. 53 62
18412777 2008
7
A case of common variable immunodeficiency syndrome associated with Takayasu arteritis. 53 62
17304891 2007
8
Collection tubes with or without gel separator did not interfere with detection of rubella virus antibodies IgM and IgG. 53 62
17847106 2007
9
Confirmed congenital rubella syndrome--A case report. 53 62
17111737 2006
10
Humoral immune response to primary rubella virus infection. 53 62
16522781 2006
11
Assessment of IgM enzyme immunoassay and IgG avidity assay for distinguishing between primary and secondary immune response to rubella vaccine. 53 62
16026863 2005
12
Detection of rubella immunoglobulin M from dried venous blood spots using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. 53 62
16168610 2005
13
Evaluation of diagnostic markers for measles virus infection in the context of an outbreak in Spain. 53 62
16207972 2005
14
Comparison of immulite with vidas for detection of infection in a low-prevalence population of pregnant women in The Netherlands. 53 62
11329456 2001
15
An immunoblot assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody to human herpesvirus 6. 53 62
10973462 2000
16
Decline of measles-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies after primary measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. 53 62
9521134 1998
17
Viral arthritis. 53 62
9229181 1997
18
Enhanced spontaneous antibody response after coronary artery bypass surgery. 53 62
9187781 1997
19
Calreticulin binds hYRNA and the 52-kDa polypeptide component of the Ro/SS-A ribonucleoprotein autoantigen. 53 62
8666824 1996
20
Persistent rubella infection after erroneous vaccination in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. 53 62
8636717 1995
21
The rubella virus RNA binding activity of human calreticulin is localized to the N-terminal domain. 53 62
7745733 1995
22
Identification of calreticulin as a rubella virus RNA binding protein. 53 62
7809119 1994
23
Differential antibody responses to rubella virus infection in males and females. 53 62
1431244 1992
24
Detection of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies by immunoblot assays. 53 62
1572968 1992
25
Detection of rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies in whole blood on Whatman paper: comparison with detection in sera. 53 62
1939573 1991
26
Evaluation of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of B19 parvovirus IgM and IgG. 53 62
1660053 1991
27
Development of a highly specific and sensitive rubella immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme immunoassay that uses enzyme-labeled antigen. 53 62
2185260 1990
28
Rubella-specific IgM in reinfection and risk to the fetus. 53 62
2265806 1990
29
Corrigendum to "Examination of scenarios introducing rubella vaccine in the Democratic Republic of the Congo" [Vaccine: X 9 (2021) 100127]. 62
36148264 2022
30
Maternal infection and stillbirth: a review. 62
33233978 2022
31
Prevalence and management of rubella susceptibility in healthcare workers in Italy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
36032697 2022
32
Cost of conducting Measles-Rubella vaccination campaign in India. 62
34411494 2022
33
Evaluation of the seroprevalence of measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella and the requirement for additional vaccination based on the JSIPC guidelines among emergency medical technicians at eight fire stations in Narita, Japan: a project review. 62
34756159 2022
34
Effect of the mandatory vaccination law on measles and rubella incidence and vaccination coverage in Italy (2013-2019). 62
34346840 2022
35
Preliminary seroprevalence study of neurotropic virus antibodies in Nodding syndrome. 62
36133256 2022
36
Molecular evidence for SARS-CoV-2 in samples collected from patients with morbilliform eruptions since late 2019 in Lombardy, northern Italy. 62
36029839 2022
37
Gaps in knowledge about the vaccine coverage of immunocompromised children: a scoping review. 62
34270376 2022
38
Measles outbreak in Semuto Subcounty, Nakaseke District, Uganda, June-August 2021. 62
36188443 2022
39
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Zambia: a glimpse at the possible challenges ahead for COVID-19 vaccination rollout in sub-Saharan Africa. 62
34227914 2022
40
Use of M-M-R II outside of the routinely recommended age range - a systematic literature review. 62
34128759 2022
41
Religious affiliation and philosophical and moral beliefs about vaccines: A longitudinal study. 62
35289216 2022
42
Evaluation of vaccination status of health care workers for recommended vaccines and their acceptance of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. 62
35714279 2022
43
Measles immunity gap among reproductive-age women participating in a simulated HIV vaccine efficacy trial in Zambia. 62
35446726 2022
44
Epidemiological characteristic of rubella by age group during 12 years after the national introduction of rubella vaccine in Hangzhou, China. 62
35344684 2022
45
Kochiae Fructus: Evaluation on the antioxidant properties and oral safety of its water decoction. 62
36195155 2022
46
Iridian anterior segment OCT in rubella uveitis syndrome and cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis: a comparative study. 62
35708847 2022
47
Rubella virus-associated uveitis: The essentiality of aqueous humor virological analysis. 62
35285294 2022
48
The impact of aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction and serological test results for establishing infectious uveitis diagnosis: An Indonesian experience. 62
36262302 2022
49
Effects of coronavirus pandemic on expanded program on immunization in weija gbawe municipality (Accra-Ghana). 62
36194867 2022
50
Investing in global measles and rubella elimination is needed to avert deaths and advance health equity. 62
36113510 2022

Variations for Rubella

Expression for Rubella

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Rubella.

Pathways for Rubella

Pathways related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 76)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.88 CALM1 CALR CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DPB1
2
Show member pathways
13.85 C1QBP CALM1 CALR HLA-A HLA-B IFNA21
3
Show member pathways
13.67 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
4
Show member pathways
13.59 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
5
Show member pathways
13.56 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
6
Show member pathways
13.44 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10
7
Show member pathways
13.11 CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DPB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1
8
Show member pathways
12.93 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL2 IFNAR2
9
Show member pathways
12.92 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1
10
Show member pathways
12.77 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 CD40LG CALM1
11
Show member pathways
12.7 HLA-A HLA-B IFNA21 IFNAR2 IFNG IL10
12
Show member pathways
12.64 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
13 12.64 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL4 IL2 IL10
14
Show member pathways
12.61 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 CALM1
15
Show member pathways
12.6 RIGI IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1
16
Show member pathways
12.54 TNF TLR3 IL6 IFNA21
17
Show member pathways
12.48 TLR3 RIGI IFNG IFNA21
18
Show member pathways
12.44 TLR3 RIGI IL6 IFNA21
19
Show member pathways
12.44 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG
20
Show member pathways
12.42 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 CALM1
21
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF TLR3 IL6 IFNG CALM1
22
Show member pathways
12.34 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 CD40LG CALM1
23
Show member pathways
12.32 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 CALM1
24
Show member pathways
12.3 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG HLA-B CALM1
25 12.24 TNF TLR3 IL6 IFNG
26
Show member pathways
12.24 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
27
Show member pathways
12.22 CD40LG HLA-DRB1 IFNAR2 IFNG IL10 IL2
28 12.2 CALM1 IFNG IL10 IL4 IL6 TNF
29 12.12 RIGI IL4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B
30 12.1 IFNG IL2 IL4 IL6 TNF
31 12.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
32
Show member pathways
12.04 HLA-A IFNG IL2 IL4
33 12.02 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10
34
Show member pathways
12.02 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL6 TLR3 TNF
35
Show member pathways
11.94 TLR3 IL6 IL4 IFNG
36 11.94 IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
37 11.91 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 TNF
38 11.89 TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
39 11.87 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
40 11.86 IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
41 11.84 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG HLA-A
42
Show member pathways
11.82 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG CD40LG
43
Show member pathways
11.81 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
44 11.8 IFNG IL2 IL4 IL6
45
Show member pathways
11.78 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CD40LG
46 11.77 CD40LG IFNAR2 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4
47
Show member pathways
11.76 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
48 11.75 TNF IL6 IL10 CD40LG
49 11.74 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2
50 11.71 TNF IL6 IL4

GO Terms for Rubella

Cellular components related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.45 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.43 CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNAR2
3 plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.43 CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1 IFNAR2
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 10.25 C1QBP CALR CD40LG HLA-DRB1 IFNA21 IFNAR2
5 cell surface GO:0009986 10.19 C1QBP CALR CD40LG HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DPB1
6 transport vesicle membrane GO:0030658 9.91 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
7 MHC class II protein complex GO:0042613 9.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
8 ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane GO:0012507 9.65 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
9 obsolete integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0071556 9.1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CALR

Biological processes related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 52)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.45 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL4 IFNG
2 defense response to virus GO:0051607 10.34 TLR3 RIGI IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
3 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10.29 TNF RIGI IL6 IL10
4 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 10.27 IFNG IL2 TLR3 TNF
5 T cell receptor signaling pathway GO:0050852 10.26 HLA-A HLA-DPB1 HLA-DRB1 MOG
6 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 10.26 TLR3 RIGI IL6 IFNG
7 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 10.23 IL4 IL10 IFNA21 CD40LG
8 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 10.21 IFNG IL6 RIGI TLR3 TNF
9 response to virus GO:0009615 10.2 IFNAR2 IFNG RIGI TLR3 TNF
10 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 10.19 TNF IL6 IFNG
11 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 10.19 IL10 IFNA21 CD40LG
12 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 10.19 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6
13 response to activity GO:0014823 10.18 TNF IL6 IL10
14 negative regulation of type II interferon production GO:0032689 10.18 IL10 HLA-DRB1 C1QBP
15 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 10.18 TLR3 IFNG CD40LG
16 positive regulation of type II interferon production GO:0032729 10.18 TNF TLR3 IL2 HLA-DPB1 HLA-A
17 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 10.16 IL6 IL4 CD40LG
18 positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT GO:0046427 10.16 IL10 IL6 TNF
19 positive regulation of T cell activation GO:0050870 10.15 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
20 response to exogenous dsRNA GO:0043330 10.15 TLR3 RIGI IFNA21
21 positive regulation of cytokine production GO:0001819 10.14 IFNG IL10 TLR3 TNF
22 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 10.14 TNF TLR3 IL6 IFNG
23 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II GO:0019886 10.13 HLA-DPB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1
24 liver regeneration GO:0097421 10.13 TNF IL6 IL10
25 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 10.13 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
26 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 10.13 C1QBP HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DPB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1
27 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 10.11 IL10 IL2 IL6
28 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity GO:0001916 10.1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
29 defense response GO:0006952 10.08 TNF TLR3 IFNA21 HLA-B
30 humoral immune response GO:0006959 10.07 HLA-DRB1 IFNA21 IFNG IL6 TNF
31 peptide antigen assembly with MHC class II protein complex GO:0002503 10.06 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
32 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 10.06 IFNG IL4 TLR3 TNF
33 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 10.06 IL6 IL4 IL2 HLA-DPB1 CD40LG
34 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 10.05 IFNG IL10 IL4
35 detection of bacterium GO:0016045 10.04 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
36 detection of virus GO:0009597 10.01 RIGI TLR3
37 protection from natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity GO:0042270 10 HLA-A HLA-B
38 antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I via ER pathway, TAP-independent GO:0002486 10 HLA-A HLA-B
39 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.99 IL10 TNF
40 positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration GO:0071677 9.99 IL4 TNF
41 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.97 IL4 IL10
42 immune system process GO:0002376 9.97 TLR3 RIGI IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
43 positive regulation of plasma cell differentiation GO:1900100 9.95 IL2 IL10
44 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.94 TNF IFNG
45 positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process GO:0051173 9.94 TNF IFNG
46 chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0002439 9.92 IL10 TNF
47 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.91 IFNG TNF
48 cellular response to virus GO:0098586 9.73 CALR IFNA21 IFNAR2 IFNG IL6 TLR3
49 immunoglobulin production involved in immunoglobulin-mediated immune response GO:0002381 9.7 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
50 antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via MHC class II GO:0002504 9.67 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1

Molecular functions related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.97 TNF MOG IL6 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
2 peptide antigen binding GO:0042605 9.65 HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DPB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DRB1
3 MHC class II protein complex binding GO:0023026 9.63 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 HLA-DPB1
4 TAP binding GO:0046977 9.56 HLA-B HLA-A
5 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.53 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG

Sources for Rubella

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 24-Oct-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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