MCID: RBL001
MIFTS: 58

Rubella

Categories: Eye diseases, Fetal diseases, Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Rubella

Summaries for Rubella

MedlinePlus : 42 Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. It is usually mild with fever and a rash. About half of the people who get rubella do not have symptoms. If you do get them, symptoms may include A rash that starts on the face and spreads to the body Mild fever Aching joints, especially in young women Swollen glands Rubella is most dangerous for a pregnant woman's baby. It can cause miscarriage or birth defects. Rubella spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes. People without symptoms can still spread it. There is no treatment, but the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine can prevent it. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Rubella, also known as german measles, is related to measles and encephalitis, and has symptoms including fever, conjunctivitis and headache. An important gene associated with Rubella is MOG (Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. The drugs Vaccines and Pharmaceutical Solutions have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, eye and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and neoplasm

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in infection located in skin, has material basis in Rubella virus, which is transmitted by droplet spread of oronasal secretions from the infected person through coughing and sneezing, and transmitted by congenital method. The infection has symptom rash on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs, has symptom fever, has symptom lymphadenopathy, has symptom joint pains, has symptom headache, and has symptom conjunctivitis.

CDC : 3 Rubella is a contagious disease caused by a virus. Most people who get rubella usually have a mild illness, with symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, sore throat, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Rubella can cause a miscarriage or serious birth defects in a developing baby if a woman is infected while she is pregnant. The best protection against rubella is MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine.

Wikipedia : 73 Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.... more...

Related Diseases for Rubella

Diseases in the Rubella family:

Congenital Rubella

Diseases related to Rubella via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 504)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 measles 31.9 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 HLA-DRB1
2 encephalitis 30.6 TNF MOG IL6 IL10 DDX58
3 exanthem 30.5 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
4 purpura 30.2 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10 IFNG
5 meningoencephalitis 30.2 TNF IL6 IL10 CD40LG
6 mumps 30.1 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
7 chickenpox 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
8 disease by infectious agent 29.8 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
9 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 29.8 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1
10 herpes zoster 29.8 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
11 thyroiditis 29.7 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
12 congenital rubella 11.3
13 microcephaly 11.1
14 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.5 TNF IL10
15 juvenile myasthenia gravis 10.5 IL10 HLA-DRB1
16 external pathological resorption 10.5 TNF IL6
17 drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms 10.5 TNF HLA-B
18 beryllium disease 10.5 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
19 scorpion envenomation 10.5 TNF IL6
20 physiological polycythemia 10.5 TNF IL6
21 occupational asthma 10.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
22 frontal fibrosing alopecia 10.4 HLA-B HLA-A
23 multifocal choroiditis 10.4 TNF IL10
24 idiopathic anterior uveitis 10.4 TNF IL6
25 stevens-johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis 10.4 HLA-B HLA-A
26 oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis 10.4 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
27 staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 10.4 TNF IFNG
28 apple allergy 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
29 autoimmune myocarditis 10.4 TNF IFNG
30 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.4 HLA-B HLA-A
31 postherpetic neuralgia 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
32 systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis 10.4 TNF IL6 HLA-DRB1
33 htlv-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
34 guillain-barre syndrome 10.4 TNF MOG HLA-DRB1
35 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.4 TNF IL6
36 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene allergic contact dermatitis 10.4 IL4 IL2
37 polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis 10.4 TNF IFNG
38 acute transverse myelitis 10.4 IL6 IL10
39 sympathetic ophthalmia 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
40 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 40 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
41 spotted fever 10.4 TNF IL10 IFNG
42 spotted fever rickettsiosis 10.4 TNF IL10 IFNG
43 cardiogenic shock 10.4 TNF IL6
44 pityriasis rosea 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
45 bacterial conjunctivitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
46 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.4 TNF IL10
47 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10
48 recurrent respiratory papillomatosis 10.4 IL2 HLA-DRB1
49 spondylarthropathy 10.4 TNF HLA-B
50 enterocolitis 10.4 TNF IL6 IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Rubella:



Diseases related to Rubella

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Rubella

Symptoms:

12
  • fever
  • conjunctivitis
  • headache
  • lymphadenopathy
  • rash on the face which spreads to the trunk
  • joint pains

UMLS symptoms related to Rubella:


fever; pruritus; exanthema

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Rubella:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.93 C1QBP CD40LG DDX58 HLA-A IFNAR2 IFNG
2 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.5 DDX58 IFNAR2 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL6
3 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.17 C1QBP HLA-A IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Rubella

Drugs for Rubella (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 35)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Vaccines Phase 4
2 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
3 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
4
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 585-86-4 157355
5
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 3 8009-03-8
6
Podophyllin Approved Phase 3 9000-55-9
7
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
8 Immunoglobulins Phase 3
9 Antibodies Phase 3
10 Retinol palmitate Phase 3
11 Trace Elements Phase 3
12 Nutrients Phase 3
13 retinol Phase 3
14 Micronutrients Phase 3
15 Vitamins Phase 3
16 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 3
17 Hemagglutinins Phase 3
18 Somatomedin B Phase 3
19 taxane Phase 3
20 Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Phase 3
21 insulin Phase 3
22 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 3
23 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
24 Keratolytic Agents Phase 3
25
Altretamine Approved Phase 2 645-05-6 2123
26
BCG vaccine Approved, Investigational
27
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
28
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
29
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
30
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 1406-16-2
31
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical 67-97-0 6221 5280795
32 Acidophilus
33 Calciferol
34 Epinephryl borate
35 Antibodies, Blocking

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 105)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Immunogenicity and Safety of AVAXIM™ 80U-Pediatric Administered Alone or Concomitantly With TRIMOVAX™ in 12-13 Months Old Healthy Hepatitis A Seronegative Turkish Children Completed NCT00313950 Phase 4
2 Assessing Immunogenicity of Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 6 and 9 Months of Age Completed NCT03071575 Phase 4
3 Reactogenicity and Protectivity Following Measles- Rubella (MR) Routine Immunization in Indonesian Infants and Children Completed NCT03680417 Phase 4
4 Immunogenicity and Safety of Concurrent Administration of Live, Attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine and Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine in Infants 9-12 Months of Age in the Philippines Completed NCT02880865 Phase 4
5 Phase IV Open Study to Assess the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals' Live Attenuated Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine When Given to Healthy Children at the Age of 12 to 18 Months in Singapore. Completed NCT00388440 Phase 4
6 Non-interference and Safety of Concomitant Administration of Measles-rubella and Rotavirus Vaccines at 9 Months of Age in Rural Bangladesh Completed NCT01700621 Phase 4
7 Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination With Live Attenuated Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine Completed NCT00731965 Phase 4
8 Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, and Serologic Responses After Vaccination Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Infected Adults in Northern Thailand Completed NCT02724852 Phase 4
9 Search for the Measles Vaccine Virus Excretion in Breast Milk of Breastfeeding Women After Postpartum Vaccination With a Combined Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine Completed NCT02325310 Phase 4
10 Immunogenicity of Co-administered Yellow Fever and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccines in Children Under 2 Years Old in Argentina Completed NCT03368495 Phase 4
11 A Phase 4, Randomized Trial to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine When Given Concomitantly With Measles and Rubella Combined Vaccine and Yellow Fever Vaccine at Nine Months and When Administered Via Different Vaccination Routes Completed NCT01847872 Phase 4 IPV IM Needle;IPV ID Needle;IPV IM Device;IPV ID Device
12 Blinded, Randomised Study to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals' Live Attenuated Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine When Given to Healthy Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00126997 Phase 4
13 Comparative Study of the Immunogenicity of MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella), Single Dose and Multidose Presentations in Children 12 to 23 Months of Age. Completed NCT01777529 Phase 4
14 Intralesional Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Versus Cryotherapy in Treatment of Multiple Common and Planter Warts : a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03183765 Phase 4 Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
15 Immunogenicity of Co-administration of Measles Containing Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Alive Vaccines Completed NCT02643433 Phase 4
16 A Double-blind, Randomised, Controlled, Multi-centre Safety Study of a Refrigerator-stable Formulation of VARIVAX® in Healthy 12 to 15 Month-old Infants. Completed NCT00432731 Phase 4
17 An Open, Multicenter Study of the Safety and Tolerability of VAQTA(TM) and ProQuad(TM) in Healthy Children 12 to 23 Months of Age Completed NCT00326183 Phase 4
18 Comparison of Immunization Schedules of Beijing Tiantan Biological's MMR Vaccine in 18-72 Month-Old Children Completed NCT03160820 Phase 4
19 Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine at 6 Months of Age, Immunology, and Childhood Morbidity in a High-income Setting Recruiting NCT03780179 Phase 4
20 Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Phase Ⅳ Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Mumps Vaccine in Healthy Infants Aged 8 ~12 Months. Recruiting NCT04364399 Phase 4
21 A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Phase 4 Clinic Trial to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Combined Immunization of Sabin-strain Inactivated Polio Vaccine (sIPV), Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) and Measles, Moms and Rubella Vaccine (MMR) Recruiting NCT04638985 Phase 4
22 A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Concomitant Administration of EV71 Vaccine With Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Combined Live Attenuated Vaccine/ Encephalitis Live Attenuated Vaccine Recruiting NCT04111432 Phase 4
23 Immunogenicity & Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Vaccine 208136 Completed NCT00751348 Phase 3
24 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Randomized, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of MMRV Vaccine When Administered Concomitantly With Novartis Meningococcal ACWY Conjugate Vaccine to Healthy Toddlers Completed NCT00626327 Phase 3
25 A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine Made With an Alternative Manufacturing Process (AMP) Completed NCT01536405 Phase 3
26 Immunogenicity & Safety of Bio Farma's Measles-Rubella (MR) Vaccine in Indonesian Infants (Bridging Study) Completed NCT04183114 Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Consistency Study of GSK Biologicals' Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine (209762) (Priorix) Comparing Immunogenicity and Safety to Merck & Co., Inc.'s MMR Vaccine (M-M-R II), in Healthy Children 12 to 15 Months of Age Completed NCT01702428 Phase 3
28 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine in Subjects Four to Six Years of Age (209762) Completed NCT01621802 Phase 3
29 Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GSK Biologicals' Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine (209762) Comparing Immunogenicity and Safety to Merck & Co., Inc.'s MMR Vaccine, in Healthy Children 12 to 15 Months of Age Completed NCT02184572 Phase 3
30 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine in Subjects Seven Years and Older (209762) Completed NCT02058563 Phase 3
31 Follow-up to Evaluate the the Immunogenicity & Safety of GSK Biologicals' MMRV Vaccine Given as a Two-dose Schedule in the Second Year of Life, as Compared to Separate Administration of GSK Biologicals' Priorix® & Varilrix®. Completed NCT00406211 Phase 3
32 A Phase II / III, Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Immunogenicity, Reatogenicity and Safety of Double Viral Vaccine (MR) for Measles and Rubella, Produced by Bio-Manguinhos / Fiocruz in 11-month-old Infants. Completed NCT03148990 Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biological's Live Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella Varicella Vaccine (PriorixTetra™) When Co-administered With Conjugated Meningococcal C Vaccine (Meningitec®, Nuron Biotechs' Vaccine) in Healthy Children Completed NCT01506193 Phase 3
34 An Open-label, Multi-centre Study of the Safety of a 2-dose Regimen of a Combined Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Live Vaccine (ProQuad®) Manufactured With Recombinant Human Albumin (rHA) When Administered to Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00560755 Phase 3
35 A Phase 3b, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate the Safety of Novartis MenACWY Conjugate Vaccine When Administered With Routine Infant Vaccinations to Healthy Infants Completed NCT00806195 Phase 3
36 An Open-label, Randomised, Comparative, Multi-centre Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a 2-dose Regimen of ProQuad® Manufactured With rHA Administered to Healthy Children From 9 Months of Age Completed NCT00566527 Phase 3
37 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Interchangeability of V114 and Prevnar 13™ With Respect to Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity in Healthy Infants (PNEU-DIRECTION) Completed NCT03620162 Phase 3
38 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine (SB257049) Given at 6, 7.5 and 9 Months of Age in Co-administration With Measles, Rubella and Yellow Fever Vaccines Followed by a Booster of the Malaria Vaccine. Completed NCT02699099 Phase 3
39 A Phase III Open-label Randomised Study, to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Concomitant Administration of V419 (PR5I) Given at 2, 3 and 4 Months of Age With Two Types of Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate (MCC) Vaccines Given at 3 and 4 Months of Age, and Followed by the Administration at 12 Months of Age of a Combined Haemophilus Influenzae Type b-MCC Vaccine Completed NCT01553279 Phase 3
40 A Phase III Double Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of VARIVAX™ New Seed Process (NSP) Administered Concomitantly With M-M-R™ II Completed NCT02062502 Phase 3
41 An Open, Randomised, Comparative, Multicentre Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of Concomitant Versus Separate Administration of a Combined Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Live Vaccine (ProQuad®) and a Booster Dose of Infanrix® Hexa in Healthy Children 12 to 23 Months of Age Completed NCT00432042 Phase 3
42 An Open, Randomized, Multicenter Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of V221 Given Concomitantly With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Children 12 to 15 Months of Age Completed NCT00109343 Phase 3
43 An Open, Randomised, Comparative, Multicentre Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of ProQuad® When Administered by Intramuscular (IM) Route or Subcutaneous (SC) Route to Healthy Children Aged 12 to 18 Months Completed NCT00402831 Phase 3
44 A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of VARIVAX™ Passage Extension 34 (PE34) Process Administered Concomitantly With M-M-R™ II Completed NCT03239873 Phase 3
45 Immunogenicity and Safety of an Investigational Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administered Concomitantly With Other Pediatric Vaccines in Healthy Toddlers Completed NCT03205371 Phase 3
46 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Priorix Vaccine (209762) at an End of Shelf-life Potency Compared to Merck & Co., Inc.'s Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine When Both Are Given on a 2-dose Schedule to Healthy Children in Their 2nd Year of Life Completed NCT01681992 Phase 3
47 Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial for Measles - Rubella Combined Vaccine (MRVAC) Produced by POLYVAC by Technology Transfer From Japan (Phase III) Completed NCT03713359 Phase 3
48 Immunogenicity and Safety of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE CV) Concomitantly Administered With Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine in Toddlers in Taiwan. Completed NCT01188343 Phase 3
49 A Pilot Study to Compare the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine and the Concomitant Administration of the Currently Licensed VARIVAX™ and M-M-R II™ in Healthy Children Completed NCT00975507 Phase 3
50 Administration of Frozen Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine to Healthy Children at 4 to 6 Years of Age Completed NCT00985166 Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Rubella

Cochrane evidence based reviews: rubella

Genetic Tests for Rubella

Anatomical Context for Rubella

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Rubella:

19
Skin

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Rubella:

40
Eye, Bone Marrow, Lung, Skin, Placenta, Bone, Liver

Publications for Rubella

Articles related to Rubella:

(show top 50) (show all 12939)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Safety and immunogenicity of co-administration of meningococcal type A and measles-rubella vaccines with typhoid conjugate vaccine in children aged 15-23 months in Burkina Faso. 42 61
33176205 2021
2
Measles and Rubella during COVID-19 Pandemic: Future Challenges in Japan. 61 42
33374998 2020
3
Rubella Immunity among Italian Female Healthcare Workers: A Serological Study. 42 61
33143150 2020
4
Infectious antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. 61 54
19880558 2009
5
An interesting case of pachydermoperiostosis with idiopathic myelofibrosis associated with monosomy 22. 54 61
19659869 2009
6
Positive rates for rubella antibody in pregnant women and benefit of post-partum vaccination in a Japanese perinatal center. 54 61
18412777 2008
7
A case of common variable immunodeficiency syndrome associated with Takayasu arteritis. 61 54
17304891 2007
8
Collection tubes with or without gel separator did not interfere with detection of rubella virus antibodies IgM and IgG. 54 61
17847106 2007
9
Confirmed congenital rubella syndrome--A case report. 61 54
17111737 2006
10
Humoral immune response to primary rubella virus infection. 54 61
16522781 2006
11
Assessment of IgM enzyme immunoassay and IgG avidity assay for distinguishing between primary and secondary immune response to rubella vaccine. 61 54
16026863 2005
12
Evaluation of diagnostic markers for measles virus infection in the context of an outbreak in Spain. 54 61
16207972 2005
13
Detection of rubella immunoglobulin M from dried venous blood spots using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. 54 61
16168610 2005
14
Comparison of immulite with vidas for detection of infection in a low-prevalence population of pregnant women in The Netherlands. 54 61
11329456 2001
15
An immunoblot assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody to human herpesvirus 6. 54 61
10973462 2000
16
Decline of measles-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies after primary measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. 54 61
9521134 1998
17
Viral arthritis. 61 54
9229181 1997
18
Enhanced spontaneous antibody response after coronary artery bypass surgery. 61 54
9187781 1997
19
Calreticulin binds hYRNA and the 52-kDa polypeptide component of the Ro/SS-A ribonucleoprotein autoantigen. 61 54
8666824 1996
20
Persistent rubella infection after erroneous vaccination in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. 61 54
8636717 1995
21
The rubella virus RNA binding activity of human calreticulin is localized to the N-terminal domain. 54 61
7745733 1995
22
Identification of calreticulin as a rubella virus RNA binding protein. 61 54
7809119 1994
23
Differential antibody responses to rubella virus infection in males and females. 61 54
1431244 1992
24
Detection of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies by immunoblot assays. 54 61
1572968 1992
25
Detection of rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies in whole blood on Whatman paper: comparison with detection in sera. 61 54
1939573 1991
26
Evaluation of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of B19 parvovirus IgM and IgG. 61 54
1660053 1991
27
Development of a highly specific and sensitive rubella immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme immunoassay that uses enzyme-labeled antigen. 54 61
2185260 1990
28
Rubella-specific IgM in reinfection and risk to the fetus. 61 54
2265806 1990
29
A comparative genomics-based study of positive strand RNA viruses emphasizing on SARS-CoV-2 utilizing dinucleotide signature, codon usage and codon context analyses. 61
33615042 2021
30
Factors associated with knowledges and attitudes about measles and rubella immunization in a non-health care occupational setting in Japan. 61
33376034 2021
31
[Preliminary practice of multidisciplinary cooperative vaccination management model for pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases]. 61
33775050 2021
32
Antioxidant activities of major tryptophyllin L peptides: A joint investigation of Gaussian-based 3D-QSAR and radical scavenging experiments. 61
33410242 2021
33
Immunization status and re-immunization of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors. 61
32882157 2021
34
Progress of public health policy regarding global infectious diseases over the past decade in Japan. 61
33472748 2021
35
Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cataract: Sonographic Features and Perinatal Outcome in 41 Cases. 61
33728625 2021
36
The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition-Like Process Induced by TGF-β1 Enhances Rubella Virus Binding and Infection in A549 Cells via the Smad Pathway. 61
33806778 2021
37
Model Comparisons of the Cost Effectiveness of Rubella Vaccination Method in Japanese Adults. 61
33800506 2021
38
Seroprevalence of rubella virus among pregnant women: A 4-year registered-based study from family medicine and obstetric clinics in Saudi Arabia. 61
33743553 2021
39
A public health collaboration between medical professionals and Japan's professional football league for rubella awareness. 61
33717787 2021
40
Differences in levels of rubella hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers according to birth cohort. 61
33077365 2021
41
Correlation of protection against varicella in a randomized Phase III varicella-containing vaccine efficacy trial in healthy infants. 61
33736915 2021
42
[2nd Seroprevalence Study in Spain, 2017-2018.] 61
33734212 2021
43
Vaccine coverage among children with epilepsy in two Canadian provinces: A Canadian immunization research network study. 61
33722410 2021
44
Measles and rubella serosusceptibity among population vaccinated with different schedules: the potential impact on measles-rubella elimination in Iran. 61
33765968 2021
45
Association between Viral Infections and Risk of Autistic Disorder: An Overview. 61
33802042 2021
46
Is 20/20 visual outcome a reality in rubella cataract? - Prognostic factors in children with cataract associated with congenital rubella syndrome. 61
33595483 2021
47
Parvovirus B19 and mumps virus antibodies are major constituents of the intrathecal immune response in European patients with MS and increase the diagnostic sensitivity and discriminatory power of the MRZ reaction. 61
33770235 2021
48
The Costs of Contradictory Messages About Live Vaccines in Pregnancy. 61
33476239 2021
49
Does prior immunization with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines contribute to the antibody response to COVID-19 antigens? 61
33787513 2021
50
Vigilance regarding immune thrombocytopenic purpura after COVID-19 vaccine. 61
33788135 2021

Variations for Rubella

Expression for Rubella

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Rubella.

Pathways for Rubella

Pathways related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 73)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
14 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2
2
Show member pathways
13.76 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
3
Show member pathways
13.61 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
4
Show member pathways
13.28 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
5
Show member pathways
13.11 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNAR2 IFNA21
6
Show member pathways
13.05 TRIM5 TNF IL6 IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-B
7 12.96 IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
8 12.81 TNF IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-DRB1
9
Show member pathways
12.76 TNF IL6 IL2 CD40LG CALM1
10
Show member pathways
12.75 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
11
Show member pathways
12.73 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
12
Show member pathways
12.72 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
13
Show member pathways
12.69 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
14 12.67 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG DDX58
15
Show member pathways
12.66 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
16
Show member pathways
12.66 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2
17
Show member pathways
12.61 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
18
Show member pathways
12.55 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
19
Show member pathways
12.51 TRIM5 TRIM22 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-DRB1
20
Show member pathways
12.51 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
21 12.45 TNF IL6 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B
22
Show member pathways
12.44 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
23
Show member pathways
12.43 IL2 HLA-DRB1 CD40LG CALM1
24
Show member pathways
12.39 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
25
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG
26
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
27 12.35 TNF IL6 IL10 IFNG IFNA21 HLA-DRB1
28
Show member pathways
12.33 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CALM1
29
Show member pathways
12.31 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
30 12.29 TNF IL6 IFNAR2 IFNA21
31 12.28 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
32
Show member pathways
12.27 TNF IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
33 12.26 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
34
Show member pathways
12.25 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG
35 12.22 IL6 HLA-B HLA-A CALM1
36 12.16 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
37 12.15 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
38 12.13 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
39
Show member pathways
12.12 IL4 IL2 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-A
40 12.08 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10
41 12.05 TNF IL6 IL4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
42 12.02 TNF IL6 IL10 IFNG
43 12.01 TNF IL6 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
44 11.97 IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
45 11.94 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
46 11.92 IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
47
Show member pathways
11.91 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
48 11.9 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
49
Show member pathways
11.89 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG CD40LG CALM1
50 11.88 TNF IL6 IL10 CALM1

GO Terms for Rubella

Cellular components related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.03 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.77 TNF MOG HLA-DRB1 CD40LG CALR
3 cell surface GO:0009986 9.76 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.73 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
5 ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane GO:0012507 9.62 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
6 phagocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030670 9.61 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
7 MHC class I protein complex GO:0042612 9.46 HLA-B HLA-A
8 MHC class I peptide loading complex GO:0042824 9.4 HLA-A CALR
9 integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0071556 9.02 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CALR

Biological processes related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 65)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 innate immune response GO:0045087 10.15 TRIM5 TRIM22 HLA-B HLA-A DDX58 C1QBP
2 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 10.15 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10
3 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.11 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG DDX58 CALR
4 immune system process GO:0002376 10.11 TRIM5 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
5 viral process GO:0016032 10.06 TRIM5 TRIM22 MOG HLA-B HLA-A DDX58
6 regulation of immune response GO:0050776 10.02 IL4 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
7 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 10.01 TNF IL2 IFNG HLA-DRB1
8 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0043123 10 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF HLA-DRB1
9 T cell receptor signaling pathway GO:0050852 9.99 MOG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-A
10 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.96 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 CD40LG
11 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.95 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNAR2
12 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 9.92 IL2 IFNG IFNA21 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B
13 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent GO:0002479 9.91 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
14 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.91 TNF IL6 IFNG
15 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.9 TNF IL6 IL10
16 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.9 TNF IL6 IFNG DDX58
17 positive regulation of autophagy GO:0010508 9.89 TRIM5 TRIM22 IFNG
18 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.88 TNF IL6 DDX58
19 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032731 9.88 TNF IL6 IFNG
20 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.88 IL4 IL10 IFNA21 CD40LG
21 type I interferon signaling pathway GO:0060337 9.88 IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-B HLA-A
22 response to virus GO:0009615 9.88 TRIM22 TNF IFNG IFNAR2 DDX58
23 positive regulation of cytokine production GO:0001819 9.87 TNF IL10 IFNG
24 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.87 TNF IL2 HLA-DPB1 HLA-A
25 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.85 TNF IFNG CALR
26 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.85 IL10 HLA-DRB1 C1QBP
27 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.84 TNF IL6 IFNG
28 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 9.84 IL6 IL4 CD40LG
29 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.84 TNF IL6 IFNG IFNA21
30 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.83 IL10 IFNA21 CD40LG
31 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.83 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
32 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.82 TNF IL6 IL10
33 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.81 TNF IL4 IFNG
34 antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I GO:0002474 9.8 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
35 antigen processing and presentation GO:0019882 9.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
36 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity GO:0001916 9.79 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
37 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 9.77 IL6 IL2 IL10
38 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.77 IL6 IL4 IL2 HLA-DPB1 CD40LG
39 negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance GO:1900222 9.74 TNF IFNG
40 negative regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation GO:2000320 9.73 IL4 IL2
41 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.73 IL4 IL2
42 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.73 TNF IL6
43 regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002637 9.73 TNF CD40LG
44 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 9.73 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL10 DDX58
45 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent GO:0002480 9.72 HLA-B HLA-A
46 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.72 TNF IL10
47 antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I via ER pathway, TAP-independent GO:0002486 9.72 HLA-B HLA-A
48 detection of bacterium GO:0016045 9.72 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
49 positive regulation of dendritic cell chemotaxis GO:2000510 9.71 CALR C1QBP
50 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.71 TNF IL6

Molecular functions related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.56 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10
2 T cell receptor binding GO:0042608 9.37 HLA-DRB1 HLA-A
3 complement component C1q binding GO:0001849 9.32 CALR C1QBP
4 peptide antigen binding GO:0042605 9.26 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
5 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.23 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
6 TAP binding GO:0046977 9.16 HLA-B HLA-A

Sources for Rubella

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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