MCID: RBL001
MIFTS: 59

Rubella

Categories: Eye diseases, Fetal diseases, Infectious diseases, Liver diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Rubella

Summaries for Rubella

MedlinePlus : 42 Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. It is usually mild with fever and a rash. About half of the people who get rubella do not have symptoms. If you do get them, symptoms may include A rash that starts on the face and spreads to the body Mild fever Aching joints, especially in young women Swollen glands Rubella is most dangerous for a pregnant woman's baby. It can cause miscarriage or birth defects. Rubella spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes. People without symptoms can still spread it. There is no treatment, but the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine can prevent it. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Rubella, also known as german measles, is related to measles and exanthem, and has symptoms including fever, conjunctivitis and headache. An important gene associated with Rubella is CD40LG (CD40 Ligand), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. The drugs Bleomycin and Lactitol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, testes and heart, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and immune system

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that results in infection located in skin, has material basis in Rubella virus, which is transmitted by droplet spread of oronasal secretions from the infected person through coughing and sneezing, and transmitted by congenital method. The infection has symptom rash on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs, has symptom fever, has symptom lymphadenopathy, has symptom joint pains, has symptom headache, and has symptom conjunctivitis.

CDC : 3 Rubella is a contagious disease caused by a virus. Most people who get rubella usually have a mild illness, with symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, sore throat, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Rubella can cause a miscarriage or serious birth defects in a developing baby if a woman is infected while she is pregnant. The best protection against rubella is MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine.

Wikipedia : 74 Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.... more...

Related Diseases for Rubella

Diseases in the Rubella family:

Congenital Rubella

Diseases related to Rubella via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 519)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 measles 32.3 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 HLA-DRB1
2 exanthem 30.4 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
3 encephalitis 30.2 TNF MOG IL6 IL4 IL10 DDX58
4 purpura 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
5 meningoencephalitis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10 CD40LG
6 thyroiditis 30.0 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10
7 mumps 29.9 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
8 chickenpox 29.9 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
9 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 29.7 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1
10 herpes zoster 29.5 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-B
11 rheumatoid arthritis 29.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
12 congenital rubella 11.9
13 microcephaly 11.4
14 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.6 TNF IL10
15 juvenile myasthenia gravis 10.6 IL10 HLA-DRB1
16 external pathological resorption 10.6 TNF IL6
17 epstein-barr virus hepatitis 10.6 HLA-B CD40LG
18 brawny scleritis 10.6 IFNG CD40LG
19 drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms 10.6 TNF HLA-B
20 scorpion envenomation 10.6 TNF IL6
21 beryllium disease 10.6 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
22 microscopic polyangiitis 10.6 TNF HLA-DRB1
23 frontal fibrosing alopecia 10.6 HLA-B HLA-A
24 multifocal choroiditis 10.6 TNF IL10
25 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene allergic contact dermatitis 10.6 IL4 IL2
26 idiopathic anterior uveitis 10.6 TNF IL6
27 transient hypogammaglobulinemia 10.6 TNF IL10 CD40LG
28 oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis 10.5 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
29 staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 10.5 TNF IFNG
30 autoimmune myocarditis 10.5 TNF IFNG
31 aortitis 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
32 tenosynovitis 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
33 blastomycosis 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
34 postherpetic neuralgia 10.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
35 opportunistic bacterial infectious disease 10.5 TNF IFNG CD40LG
36 gastrointestinal tuberculosis 10.5 TNF IFNG CD40LG
37 recurrent respiratory papillomatosis 10.5 IL2 HLA-DRB1
38 selective igg deficiency disease 10.5 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
39 laryngitis 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
40 epididymis disease 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
41 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.5 TNF IL10
42 vaginal discharge 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
43 moyamoya angiopathy 10.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
44 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.5 TNF IL6
45 acute transverse myelitis 10.5 IL6 IL10
46 urethritis 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
47 tendinitis 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
48 abdominal tuberculosis 10.5 TNF IFNG CD40LG
49 polyradiculopathy 10.5 TNF IL6 CD40LG
50 miliary tuberculosis 10.5 TNF IFNG CD40LG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Rubella:



Diseases related to Rubella

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Rubella

Symptoms:

12
  • fever
  • conjunctivitis
  • headache
  • lymphadenopathy
  • rash on the face which spreads to the trunk
  • joint pains

UMLS symptoms related to Rubella:


fever, pruritus, exanthema

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Rubella:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.03 C1QBP CD40LG DDX58 HLA-A IFNAR2 IFNG
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.9 CD40LG DDX58 HLA-A IFNAR2 IFNG IL10
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.5 DDX58 IFNAR2 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL6
4 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.17 C1QBP HLA-A IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Rubella

Drugs for Rubella (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 80)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Bleomycin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 11056-06-7 5360373
2
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-88-6, 585-86-4 493591
3
BCG vaccine Investigational Phase 4
4 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 4
5 insulin Phase 4
6 Liver Extracts Phase 4
7 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
8 Vaccines Phase 4
9 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
10 Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Phase 4
11 Laxatives Phase 4
12 Cathartics Phase 4
13 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
14
Letrozole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 112809-51-5 3902
15
Aluminum hydroxide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 21645-51-2
16
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 3 8009-03-8
17
Podophyllin Approved Phase 3 9000-55-9
18
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 22737-96-8, 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 9904001 445354
19 Progestins Phase 3
20 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 3
21 Hormones Phase 3
22 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
23 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
24 Estrogens Phase 3
25 Aromatase Inhibitors Phase 3
26 taxane Phase 3
27 Hemagglutinins Phase 3
28 PENTA Phase 3
29 Retinol palmitate Phase 3
30 retinol Phase 3
31 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
32 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
33 Keratolytic Agents Phase 3
34
Altretamine Approved Phase 2 645-05-6 2123
35
Aluminum sulfate Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 10043-01-3
36 Aluminum phosphate Phase 1, Phase 2
37 Antibodies Phase 2
38 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
39 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 2
40 Immunoglobulin G Phase 1
41 Immunoglobulin M Phase 1
42
Adalimumab Approved 331731-18-1 16219006
43
Certolizumab pegol Approved 428863-50-7
44
Methotrexate Approved 59-05-2, 1959-05-2 126941
45
Mercaptopurine Approved 50-44-2 667490
46
Azathioprine Approved 446-86-6 2265
47
Infliximab Approved 170277-31-3
48
Hydroxocobalamin Approved 13422-51-0 15589840 11953898
49
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved 50-56-6 53477758 439302
50
Eugenol Approved 97-53-0 3314

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 167)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Assessing Immunogenicity of Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 6 and 9 Months of Age Unknown status NCT03071575 Phase 4
2 The Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Rotavirus Vaccine Simultaneously Vaccinated With MR or MMR Vaccine Unknown status NCT02153866 Phase 4
3 Induction and Maintenance of Immunity Against Measles in Pediatric Orthotopic Liver Transplantation Recipients: a Prospective Nationwide Study in Switzerland Unknown status NCT01770119 Phase 4
4 Evaluating Immunogenicity and Safety Effect on Combined Immune Effect of EV71 Inactivated Vaccine and HepB、MPSV-A、MR、JE-L:A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03519568 Phase 4
5 The Efficacy of Intra-lesional Bleomycin Versus Intra-lesional Purified Protein Derivative in Treatment of Palmoplantar Warts Unknown status NCT03477448 Phase 4 Bleomycin;Purified Protein Derivative
6 Reactogenicity and Protectivity Following Measles- Rubella (MR) Routine Immunization in Indonesian Infants and Children Completed NCT03680417 Phase 4
7 Blinded, Randomised Study to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals' Live Attenuated Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine When Given to Healthy Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00126997 Phase 4
8 Phase IV Open Study to Assess the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals' Live Attenuated Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine When Given to Healthy Children at the Age of 12 to 18 Months in Singapore. Completed NCT00388440 Phase 4
9 Non-interference and Safety of Concomitant Administration of Measles-rubella and Rotavirus Vaccines at 9 Months of Age in Rural Bangladesh Completed NCT01700621 Phase 4
10 A Double-blind, Randomised, Controlled, Multi-centre Safety Study of a Refrigerator-stable Formulation of VARIVAX® in Healthy 12 to 15 Month-old Infants. Completed NCT00432731 Phase 4
11 Immunogenicity of Co-administered Yellow Fever and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccines in Children Under 2 Years Old in Argentina Completed NCT03368495 Phase 4
12 Immunogenicity and Safety of Concurrent Administration of Live, Attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine and Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine in Infants 9-12 Months of Age in the Philippines Completed NCT02880865 Phase 4
13 Immunogenicity and Safety of AVAXIM™ 80U-Pediatric Administered Alone or Concomitantly With TRIMOVAX™ in 12-13 Months Old Healthy Hepatitis A Seronegative Turkish Children Completed NCT00313950 Phase 4
14 An Open, Randomized, Multicenter Study of the Safety, Tolerability, & Immunogenicity of VAQTA™ Given Concomitantly With PROQUAD™ and PREVNAR™ in Healthy Children 12 Months of Age Completed NCT00312858 Phase 4
15 An Open, Multicenter Study of the Safety and Tolerability of VAQTA(TM) and ProQuad(TM) in Healthy Children 12 to 23 Months of Age Completed NCT00326183 Phase 4
16 Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination With Live Attenuated Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine Completed NCT00731965 Phase 4
17 Comparative Study of the Immunogenicity of MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella), Single Dose and Multidose Presentations in Children 12 to 23 Months of Age. Completed NCT01777529 Phase 4
18 Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, and Serologic Responses After Vaccination Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Infected Adults in Northern Thailand Completed NCT02724852 Phase 4
19 Intralesional Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Versus Cryotherapy in Treatment of Multiple Common and Planter Warts : a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03183765 Phase 4 Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
20 Comparison of Immunization Schedules of Beijing Tiantan Biological's MMR Vaccine in 18-72 Month-Old Children Completed NCT03160820 Phase 4
21 Search for the Measles Vaccine Virus Excretion in Breast Milk of Breastfeeding Women After Postpartum Vaccination With a Combined Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine Completed NCT02325310 Phase 4
22 A Phase 4, Randomized Trial to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine When Given Concomitantly With Measles and Rubella Combined Vaccine and Yellow Fever Vaccine at Nine Months and When Administered Via Different Vaccination Routes Completed NCT01847872 Phase 4 IPV IM Needle;IPV ID Needle;IPV IM Device;IPV ID Device
23 Immunogenicity of Co-administration of Measles Containing Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Alive Vaccines Completed NCT02643433 Phase 4
24 A Phase IV, Non-Inferiority, Observer Blind Randomized Clinical Study Comparing Safety And Immunogenicity Of MMR Subcutaneous Vaccination By Disposable-Syringe Jet Injector To Vaccination By Needle And Syringe For The Administration In Healthy Children In India Aged 15 To 18 Months Completed NCT02253407 Phase 4
25 Immunogenicity and Safety of a Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccine and a 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine After Concomitant Vaccination in ≥50-year-old Adults Completed NCT03552445 Phase 4
26 Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Effectiveness Trial of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Among Military Trainees At Increased Risk of Respiratory Disease Completed NCT02079701 Phase 4
27 A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Two-Dose Priming With the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine at 6 and 10 Weeks to 6 and 14 Weeks in Nepali Children Completed NCT02385513 Phase 4
28 A Single Centre, Open-label, Randomised Clinical Study to Investigate Meningococcal Serogroup A and C Saccharide Specific B Cell Responses in Adult Volunteers to One of Three Regimens of Meningococcal ACWY Conjugate Vaccine or Meningococcal ACWY Polysaccharide Vaccine Priming Doses Followed by a Booster Dose of the Meningococcal ACWY Conjugate Vaccine Completed NCT01593514 Phase 4
29 Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine at 6 Months of Age, Immunology, and Childhood Morbidity in a High-income Setting Recruiting NCT03780179 Phase 4
30 A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Concomitant Administration of EV71 Vaccine With Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Combined Live Attenuated Vaccine/ Encephalitis Live Attenuated Vaccine Recruiting NCT04111432 Phase 4
31 Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Phase Ⅳ Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Mumps Vaccine in Healthy Infants Aged 8 ~12 Months. Recruiting NCT04364399 Phase 4
32 Occupational Exposure to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Prophylactic Vaccination (Version IV Dated 24Oct2017) Recruiting NCT03350698 Phase 4
33 Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of a Trivalent MMR (Trivivac) in Healthy Infants Unknown status NCT01763268 Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Effect of Acupuncture Pre-treatment Combined With Letrozole on Live Birth in Infertile Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Unknown status NCT02491320 Phase 3 Letrozole
35 A Comparison of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Refrigerator-Stable Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Combination Vaccine V221 (Refrigerated) Versus V221 (Frozen) in Healthy Children Completed NCT00092430 Phase 3
36 Blinded, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine Given to Healthy Children During the Second Year of Life Completed NCT00127010 Phase 3
37 A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine Made With an Alternative Manufacturing Process (AMP) Completed NCT01536405 Phase 3
38 Immunogenicity & Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Vaccine 208136 Completed NCT00751348 Phase 3
39 Blinded, Randomised, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Candidate Vaccine Given to Healthy Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00127023 Phase 3
40 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biological's Live Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella Varicella Vaccine (PriorixTetra™) When Co-administered With Conjugated Meningococcal C Vaccine (Meningitec®, Nuron Biotechs' Vaccine) in Healthy Children Completed NCT01506193 Phase 3
41 Immunogenicity & Safety of Bio Farma's Measles-Rubella (MR) Vaccine in Indonesian Infants (Bridging Study) Completed NCT04183114 Phase 2, Phase 3
42 An Open, Randomized, Multicenter Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of V221 Given Concomitantly With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Children 12 to 15 Months of Age Completed NCT00109343 Phase 3
43 Follow-up to Evaluate the the Immunogenicity & Safety of GSK Biologicals' MMRV Vaccine Given as a Two-dose Schedule in the Second Year of Life, as Compared to Separate Administration of GSK Biologicals' Priorix® & Varilrix®. Completed NCT00406211 Phase 3
44 An Open-label, Multi-centre Study of the Safety of a 2-dose Regimen of a Combined Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Live Vaccine (ProQuad®) Manufactured With Recombinant Human Albumin (rHA) When Administered to Children in Their Second Year of Life Completed NCT00560755 Phase 3
45 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Randomized, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of MMRV Vaccine When Administered Concomitantly With Novartis Meningococcal ACWY Conjugate Vaccine to Healthy Toddlers Completed NCT00626327 Phase 3
46 An Open, Randomised, Comparative, Multicentre Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of ProQuad® When Administered by Intramuscular (IM) Route or Subcutaneous (SC) Route to Healthy Children Aged 12 to 18 Months Completed NCT00402831 Phase 3
47 Immunogenicity and Safety of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE CV) Concomitantly Administered With Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine in Toddlers in Taiwan. Completed NCT01188343 Phase 3
48 A Pilot Study to Compare the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine and the Concomitant Administration of the Currently Licensed VARIVAX™ and M-M-R II™ in Healthy Children Completed NCT00975507 Phase 3
49 Immunogenicity & Safety of GSK Biologicals' Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine (Havrix™) Co-administered With Merck & Company, Inc. Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (M-M-RII) & Merck & Co Varicella Vaccine (VARIVAX™) to Children 15 Months of Age Completed NCT00197015 Phase 3
50 Administration of Frozen Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine to Healthy Children at 4 to 6 Years of Age Completed NCT00985166 Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Rubella

Cochrane evidence based reviews: rubella

Genetic Tests for Rubella

Anatomical Context for Rubella

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Rubella:

19
Skin

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Rubella:

40
Testes, Heart, Skin, Brain, Eye, Liver, T Cells

Publications for Rubella

Articles related to Rubella:

(show top 50) (show all 12599)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Early impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and physical distancing measures on routine childhood vaccinations in England, January to April 2020. 42 61
32431288 2020
2
Consequences of Undervaccination - Measles Outbreak, New York City, 2018-2019. 61 42
32160662 2020
3
Measles and mumps outbreaks in Lebanon: trends and links. 42
32216754 2020
4
Infectious antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. 61 54
19880558 2009
5
An interesting case of pachydermoperiostosis with idiopathic myelofibrosis associated with monosomy 22. 54 61
19659869 2009
6
Positive rates for rubella antibody in pregnant women and benefit of post-partum vaccination in a Japanese perinatal center. 61 54
18412777 2008
7
A case of common variable immunodeficiency syndrome associated with Takayasu arteritis. 61 54
17304891 2007
8
Collection tubes with or without gel separator did not interfere with detection of rubella virus antibodies IgM and IgG. 61 54
17847106 2007
9
Confirmed congenital rubella syndrome--A case report. 54 61
17111737 2006
10
Humoral immune response to primary rubella virus infection. 61 54
16522781 2006
11
Assessment of IgM enzyme immunoassay and IgG avidity assay for distinguishing between primary and secondary immune response to rubella vaccine. 54 61
16026863 2005
12
Detection of rubella immunoglobulin M from dried venous blood spots using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. 61 54
16168610 2005
13
Evaluation of diagnostic markers for measles virus infection in the context of an outbreak in Spain. 54 61
16207972 2005
14
Comparison of immulite with vidas for detection of infection in a low-prevalence population of pregnant women in The Netherlands. 54 61
11329456 2001
15
An immunoblot assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody to human herpesvirus 6. 61 54
10973462 2000
16
Decline of measles-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies after primary measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. 54 61
9521134 1998
17
Viral arthritis. 54 61
9229181 1997
18
Enhanced spontaneous antibody response after coronary artery bypass surgery. 61 54
9187781 1997
19
Calreticulin binds hYRNA and the 52-kDa polypeptide component of the Ro/SS-A ribonucleoprotein autoantigen. 54 61
8666824 1996
20
Persistent rubella infection after erroneous vaccination in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. 54 61
8636717 1995
21
The rubella virus RNA binding activity of human calreticulin is localized to the N-terminal domain. 61 54
7745733 1995
22
Identification of calreticulin as a rubella virus RNA binding protein. 61 54
7809119 1994
23
Differential antibody responses to rubella virus infection in males and females. 54 61
1431244 1992
24
Detection of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies by immunoblot assays. 61 54
1572968 1992
25
Detection of rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies in whole blood on Whatman paper: comparison with detection in sera. 61 54
1939573 1991
26
Evaluation of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of B19 parvovirus IgM and IgG. 54 61
1660053 1991
27
Development of a highly specific and sensitive rubella immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme immunoassay that uses enzyme-labeled antigen. 61 54
2185260 1990
28
Rubella-specific IgM in reinfection and risk to the fetus. 54 61
2265806 1990
29
Coverage rates of the children vaccination programme in Greenland. 61
32000619 2020
30
Vaccines and autism: a preliminary qualitative study on the beliefs of concerned mothers in Italy. 61
32298221 2020
31
Genes encoding light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and insight into lineage-specific evolution in Brassicaceae. 61
32334024 2020
32
No similarities between the Wakefield report on measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and the Swedish report on traumatic shaking. 61
31803948 2020
33
Addressing the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Revaccination Guidelines for Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant Patients: A Response to the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy 2019 Position Statement. 61
32209395 2020
34
Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta following measles rubella vaccine. 61
32474500 2020
35
Childhood infections, vaccinations, and tonsillectomy and risk of first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination in the Ausimmune Study. 61
32305688 2020
36
Clinical features and aetiology of cerebral palsy in children from Cross River State, Nigeria. 61
31959596 2020
37
Temporary Fertility Decline after Large Rubella Outbreak, Japan. 61
32441617 2020
38
Intralesional antigen immunotherapy for the treatment of plane warts: A comparative study. 61
32530550 2020
39
The status of rubella IgG antibody titer between antenatal and postnatal among pregnant non-immune to rubella. 61
32574108 2020
40
Corrigendum to "Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies and determinants of susceptibility to rubella in a cohort of pregnant women in Canada, 2008-2011" [Vaccine 35 (2017) 3050-3055]. 61
32576460 2020
41
Related factor of igg rubella-specific in couples of childbearing age in bolaang mongondow district. 61
32545114 2020
42
Rubella retinopathy with choroidal neovascular membrane in a 7-year-old. 61
32461467 2020
43
Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella-zoster virus serology and infections in solid organ transplant recipients during the first year post-transplantation. 61
32564061 2020
44
Multistate Mumps Outbreak Originating from Asymptomatic Transmission at a Nebraska Wedding - Six States, August-October 2019. 61
32497030 2020
45
The contagious nature of a vaccine scare: How the introduction of HPV vaccination lifted and eroded MMR vaccination in Denmark. 61
32418796 2020
46
The Importance of Advancing SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Children. 61
32492123 2020
47
Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria among schoolchildren aged 6-7 years old in the Solomon Islands, 2016. 61
32473876 2020
48
Faster waning of the rubella specific immune response in young pregnant women immunized with MMR at 15 months. 61
32569402 2020
49
Plant species-specific recognition of long and short β-1,3-linked glucans is mediated by different receptor systems. 61
31925978 2020
50
A homozygote frameshift mutation in OCLN gene result in Pseudo-TORCH syndrome type I: A case report extending the phenotype with central diabetes insipidus and renal dysfunction. 61
32240828 2020

Variations for Rubella

Expression for Rubella

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Rubella.

Pathways for Rubella

Pathways related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 72)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
14 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2
2
Show member pathways
13.75 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
3
Show member pathways
13.61 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
4
Show member pathways
13.15 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
5
Show member pathways
13.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNAR2 IFNA21
6
Show member pathways
13.04 TRIM5 TNF IL6 IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-B
7 12.96 IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
8 12.8 TNF IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-DRB1
9
Show member pathways
12.75 TNF IL6 IL2 CD40LG CALM1
10
Show member pathways
12.74 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
11
Show member pathways
12.72 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
12
Show member pathways
12.71 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
13
Show member pathways
12.69 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
14
Show member pathways
12.66 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
15 12.66 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG DDX58
16
Show member pathways
12.66 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2
17
Show member pathways
12.61 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
18
Show member pathways
12.57 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG IFNAR2
19
Show member pathways
12.51 TRIM5 TRIM22 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-DRB1
20
Show member pathways
12.51 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
21 12.45 TNF IL6 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B
22
Show member pathways
12.43 IL2 HLA-DRB1 CD40LG CALM1
23
Show member pathways
12.43 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
24
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG
25
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
26
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
27 12.35 TNF IL6 IL10 IFNG IFNA21 HLA-DRB1
28
Show member pathways
12.33 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CALM1
29
Show member pathways
12.31 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
30 12.29 TNF IL6 IFNAR2 IFNA21
31 12.27 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
32
Show member pathways
12.26 TNF IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
33 12.26 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
34
Show member pathways
12.25 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG
35 12.22 IL6 HLA-B HLA-A CALM1
36 12.15 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
37 12.13 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
38
Show member pathways
12.12 IL4 IL2 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-A
39 12.1 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
40
Show member pathways
12.08 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
41 12.07 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10
42 12.04 TNF IL6 IL4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
43 12.02 TNF IL6 IL10 IFNG
44 12 TNF IL6 IFNG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1
45 11.97 IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
46 11.92 IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
47 11.92 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
48
Show member pathways
11.89 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG CD40LG CALM1
49 11.88 TNF IL6 IL10 CALM1
50 11.88 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG

GO Terms for Rubella

Cellular components related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.03 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.9 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
3 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.77 TNF MOG HLA-DRB1 CD40LG CALR
4 ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane GO:0012507 9.62 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
5 phagocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030670 9.61 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
6 cell surface GO:0009986 9.56 TNF HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
7 MHC class I protein complex GO:0042612 9.46 HLA-B HLA-A
8 MHC class I peptide loading complex GO:0042824 9.4 HLA-A CALR
9 integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0071556 9.02 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A CALR

Biological processes related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 innate immune response GO:0045087 10.14 TRIM5 TRIM22 HLA-B HLA-A DDX58 C1QBP
2 immune system process GO:0002376 10.13 TRIM5 IL2 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
3 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.09 TNF IL6 IL4 IFNG DDX58 CALR
4 viral process GO:0016032 10.06 TRIM5 TRIM22 MOG HLA-B HLA-A DDX58
5 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0043123 10 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF HLA-DRB1
6 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 10 TNF IL2 IFNG HLA-DRB1
7 regulation of immune response GO:0050776 10 MOG IL4 HLA-B HLA-A CD40LG
8 T cell receptor signaling pathway GO:0050852 9.99 MOG HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-A
9 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.97 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 CD40LG
10 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.95 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNAR2
11 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 9.92 IL2 IFNG IFNA21 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B
12 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent GO:0002479 9.9 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
13 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.89 TNF IL6 IL10
14 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.89 IL4 IL10 IFNA21 CD40LG
15 positive regulation of autophagy GO:0010508 9.88 TRIM5 TRIM22 IFNG
16 type I interferon signaling pathway GO:0060337 9.88 IFNAR2 IFNA21 HLA-B HLA-A
17 response to virus GO:0009615 9.88 TRIM22 TNF IFNG IFNAR2 DDX58
18 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.87 TNF IL6 DDX58
19 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.86 TNF IL6 IFNG IFNA21
20 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.85 TNF IFNG CALR
21 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion GO:2000778 9.84 TNF IFNG DDX58
22 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.83 IL10 IFNA21 CD40LG
23 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.83 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
24 positive regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050715 9.82 TNF IL10 IFNG
25 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.81 TNF IL6 IL10
26 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.81 IL10 HLA-DRB1 C1QBP
27 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.81 TNF IL2 HLA-DPB1 HLA-A
28 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.8 TNF IL4 IFNG
29 antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I GO:0002474 9.8 HLA-B HLA-A CALR
30 antigen processing and presentation GO:0019882 9.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
31 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.77 IL6 IL4 IL2 HLA-DPB1 CD40LG
32 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.75 TNF IL4 IFNG
33 negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process GO:0042536 9.73 IL4 IL10
34 negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance GO:1900222 9.73 TNF IFNG
35 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.73 IL4 IL2
36 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 9.73 TRIM5 TRIM22 TNF IL6 IL10 DDX58
37 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.72 TNF IL6
38 negative regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation GO:2000320 9.72 IL4 IL2
39 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta biosynthetic process GO:0050725 9.72 TNF IFNG
40 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent GO:0002480 9.72 HLA-B HLA-A
41 detection of bacterium GO:0016045 9.72 HLA-DRB1 HLA-B HLA-A
42 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.71 TNF IL10
43 antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I via ER pathway, TAP-independent GO:0002486 9.71 HLA-B HLA-A
44 positive regulation of dendritic cell chemotaxis GO:2000510 9.71 CALR C1QBP
45 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.71 IL4 IL10 IFNG
46 positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration GO:0071677 9.7 TNF IL4
47 defense response to virus GO:0051607 9.7 TRIM5 TRIM22 IL6 IFNG IFNAR2 IFNA21
48 protection from natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity GO:0042270 9.69 HLA-B HLA-A
49 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.69 IL4 IL10
50 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.69 TNF IL10

Molecular functions related to Rubella according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.56 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10
2 complement component C1q binding GO:0001849 9.32 CALR C1QBP
3 peptide antigen binding GO:0042605 9.26 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DPB1 HLA-B HLA-A
4 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.23 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
5 TAP binding GO:0046977 9.16 HLA-B HLA-A

Sources for Rubella

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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