SCZD
MCID: SCH015
MIFTS: 70

Schizophrenia (SCZD)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Schizophrenia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Schizophrenia:

Name: Schizophrenia 57 38 12 76 25 75 37 29 13 55 6 43 44 15 40 73
Schizophrenia, Susceptibility to 57 13 6
Schizophrenia with or Without an Affective Disorder 57 75
Schizophrenia 12 57 73
Sczd 57 75
Dementia Praecox 25
Schizophrenia 1 73
Schizophrenia-1 12

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant

Miscellaneous:
genetic heterogeneity
onset often in late adolescence
symptoms must occur for 6 months including 1 month of characteristic symptoms (e.g. delusions) to make diagnosis
multiple gene loci involved in causation of schizophrenia


HPO:

32
schizophrenia:
Inheritance heterogeneous autosomal dominant inheritance


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 57 181500
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:5419
ICD10 33 F20 F20.9
ICD9CM 35 295 295.9 295.90
MeSH 44 D012559
NCIt 50 C3362
SNOMED-CT 68 58214004
KEGG 37 H01649

Summaries for Schizophrenia

MedlinePlus : 43 Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. They may think other people are trying to hurt them. Sometimes they don't make sense when they talk. The disorder makes it hard for them to keep a job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men often develop symptoms at a younger age than women. People usually do not get schizophrenia after age 45. There are three types of symptoms: Psychotic symptoms distort a person's thinking. These include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (beliefs that are not true), trouble organizing thoughts, and strange movements. "Negative" symptoms make it difficult to show emotions and to function normally. A person may seem depressed and withdrawn. Cognitive symptoms affect the thought process. These include trouble using information, making decisions, and paying attention. No one is sure what causes schizophrenia. Your genes, environment, and brain chemistry may play a role. There is no cure. Medicine can help control many of the symptoms. You may need to try different medicines to see which works best. You should stay on your medicine for as long as your doctor recommends. Additional treatments can help you deal with your illness from day to day. These include therapy, family education, rehabilitation, and skills training. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

MalaCards based summary : Schizophrenia, also known as schizophrenia, susceptibility to, is related to paranoid schizophrenia and schizophrenia 2, and has symptoms including photophobia, restlessness and personality changes. An important gene associated with Schizophrenia is RTN4R (Reticulon 4 Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Dopaminergic synapse and Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. The drugs Ziprasidone and Aripiprazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and testes, and related phenotypes are eeg abnormality and hallucinations

Disease Ontology : 12 A psychotic disorder that is characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, which means that it affects a person's thinking, sense of self, and perceptions. The disorder typically becomes evident during late adolescence or early adulthood.

OMIM : 57 Schizophrenia is a psychosis, a disorder of thought and sense of self. Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. There is no characteristic pathology, such as neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (104300). Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1%. It is highly heritable but the genetics are complex. This may not be a single entity. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (see 125480) are generally considered to be separate entities, but patients who exhibit multiple symptoms of both disorders are often given the hybrid diagnosis schizoaffective disorder (Blacker and Tsuang, 1992). (181500)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 75 Schizophrenia: A complex, multifactorial psychotic disorder or group of disorders characterized by disturbances in the form and content of thought (e.g. delusions, hallucinations), in mood (e.g. inappropriate affect), in sense of self and relationship to the external world (e.g. loss of ego boundaries, withdrawal), and in behavior (e.g bizarre or apparently purposeless behavior). Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. Some patients manifest schizophrenic as well as bipolar disorder symptoms and are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder.

Wikipedia : 76 Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior and a decreased ability to... more...

Related Diseases for Schizophrenia

Diseases in the Schizophrenia family:

Schizophrenia 1 Schizophrenia 3
Schizophrenia 4 Schizophrenia 6
Schizophrenia 5 Schizophrenia 7
Schizophrenia 8 Schizophrenia 2
Schizophrenia 9 Schizophrenia 10
Schizophrenia 11 Schizophrenia 12
Schizophrenia 14 Schizophrenia 13
Schizophrenia 15 Schizophrenia 16
Schizophrenia 18 Schizophrenia 19
Early-Onset Schizophrenia

Diseases related to Schizophrenia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 571)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 paranoid schizophrenia 34.7 MIAT HTR2A COMT
2 schizophrenia 2 34.3 DISC2 DISC1
3 schizophrenia 5 34.2 HTR2A COMT
4 schizoaffective disorder 34.2 HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 DAOA COMT
5 psychotic disorder 33.1 RTN4R MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC1 DAOA
6 bipolar disorder 32.3 SYN2 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1
7 mood disorder 31.7 HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 DAOA COMT
8 tardive dyskinesia 31.7 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
9 major depressive disorder 31.6 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 COMT
10 autism 31.5 SYN2 HTR2A DRD3 DISC1 COMT
11 obsessive-compulsive disorder 31.2 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
12 substance abuse 31.2 MIAT DRD3 COMT
13 disease of mental health 30.9 HTR2A DRD3 DISC1 COMT
14 panic disorder 30.6 HTR2A DAOA-AS1 COMT
15 anorexia nervosa 30.5 MC4R HTR2A COMT
16 pathological gambling 30.3 HTR2A DRD3
17 schizophrenia 4 12.5
18 schizophrenia 1 12.4
19 schizophrenia 3 12.4
20 schizophrenia 6 12.4
21 schizophrenia 10 12.4
22 schizophrenia 14 12.4
23 schizophrenia 9 12.4
24 schizophrenia 15 12.4
25 schizophrenia 18 12.4
26 schizophrenia 12 12.4
27 schizophrenia 19 12.3
28 schizophrenia 8 12.3
29 schizophrenia 13 12.3
30 early-onset schizophrenia 12.3
31 schizophrenia 7 12.3
32 schizophrenia 11 12.3
33 schizophrenia 16 12.3
34 childhood-onset schizophrenia 12.2
35 chromosome 2p16.3 deletion syndrome 11.9
36 schizophreniform disorder 11.5
37 neuroleptic malignant syndrome 11.3
38 systemic lupus erythematosus 11.2
39 syngap1-related non-syndromic intellectual disability 11.0
40 darier-white disease 10.9
41 dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency, congenital 10.9
42 hyperprolinemia, type i 10.9
43 chromosome 15q13.3 deletion syndrome 10.9
44 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome, 1.35-mb 10.9
45 childhood-onset cerebral x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy 10.9
46 social emotional agnosia 10.9
47 landau-kleffner syndrome 10.9
48 15q13.3 microduplication syndrome 10.9
49 lupus - neurological sequelae 10.9
50 delusional disorder 10.8

Comorbidity relations with Schizophrenia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 16)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Alzheimer Disease Bipolar Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease Hypothyroidism
Iron Deficiency Anemia Major Depressive Disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Tardive Dyskinesia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Schizophrenia:



Diseases related to Schizophrenia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Schizophrenia

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
hallucinations
schizophrenia
social and occupational deterioration
delusions
disorganized speech
more
Laboratory Abnormalities:
abnormal eeg in 25% hospitalized patients


Clinical features from OMIM:

181500

Human phenotypes related to Schizophrenia:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 eeg abnormality 32 very rare (1%) HP:0002353
2 hallucinations 32 HP:0000738
3 schizophrenia 32 HP:0100753
4 social and occupational deterioration 32 HP:0007086
5 delusions 32 HP:0000746

UMLS symptoms related to Schizophrenia:


photophobia, restlessness, personality changes, pseudobulbar behavioral symptoms, sleep disturbances

Drugs & Therapeutics for Schizophrenia

Drugs for Schizophrenia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 731)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 146939-27-7 60854
2
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 129722-12-9 60795
3
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 106266-06-2 5073
4
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
5
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 132539-06-1 4585
6
Donepezil Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 120014-06-4 3152
7
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 2078-54-8 4943
8
Etomidate Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 33125-97-2 667484 36339
9
Clozapine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 5786-21-0 2818
10
Moxonidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 75438-57-2 4810
11
Reboxetine Approved, Experimental Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 98769-81-4, 71620-89-8 123628 65856
12
Citalopram Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 59729-33-8 2771
13
Sulpiride Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 15676-16-1 5355
14
Metformin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 657-24-9 14219 4091
15
Huperzine A Approved, Experimental Phase 4,Phase 2 102518-79-6
16
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 52-86-8 3559
17
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 68693-11-8 4236
18
Armodafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 112111-43-0
19
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 29110-47-2 3519
20
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 10118-90-8 5281021
21
Chlorpromazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 50-53-3 2726
22
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 51-41-2 439260
23
Linagliptin Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 668270-12-0 10096344
24
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 2921-57-5
25
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 83-43-2 6741
26
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 50-24-8 5755
27
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 302-25-0
28
Asenapine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 65576-45-6, 85650-56-2 3001386
29
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
30
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
31
Testosterone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-22-0 6013
32
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
33
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
34
leucovorin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 58-05-9 6006 143
35
Hydroxocobalamin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 13422-51-0 11953898 44475014
36
Methylcobalamin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 13422-55-4
37
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 99-66-1 3121
38
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 50-56-6 439302 53477758
39
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 98-92-0 936
40
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 19982-08-2 4054
41
Fluvoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 54739-18-3 3404 5324346
42
Perphenazine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 58-39-9 4748
43
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
44 tannic acid Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
45
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 22916-47-8 4189
46
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 79902-63-9 54454
47
Famotidine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 76824-35-6 3325
48
Galantamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 357-70-0 9651
49
Pimozide Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 2062-78-4 16362
50
Trifluoperazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 117-89-5 5566

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 3298)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Omega-3 Fatty Acids Efficacy in First-episode of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02210962 Phase 4
2 Tandospirone Combined With Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02040883 Phase 4 Risperidone/Olanzapine/Quetiapine/Ziprasidone/Aripiprazole;Tandospirone
3 Paliperidone ER(Invega®) on Depressive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Patients Unknown status NCT01399450 Phase 4 paliperidone
4 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Donepezil Adjunctive Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01490567 Phase 4 Donepezil;placebo
5 Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in Patients With Super Refractory Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02049021 Phase 4
6 Treatment Study Comparing Aripiprazole Once Monthly With Standard of Care Medication in Outpatients With Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02282085 Phase 4 Aripiprazole Once-Monthly;Oral Antipsychotic (i.e. aripiprazole, risperidone, lurasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, etc)
7 Alleviating the Metabolic Side Effects of Antipsychotic Medications Unknown status NCT01567124 Phase 4 Moxonidine;Placebo;Moxonidine;Placebo
8 Magnetic Stimulation as a Treatment for Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00186771 Phase 4
9 The New Strategy for Pharmacological Treatment in People With Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00352339 Phase 4 Rispridoen and Aripiprazole;Risperidne;Abilify
10 Reboxetine and Citalopram as an Adjunct Treatment to Second Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01300364 Phase 4 Reboxetine;citalopram (SSRI)
11 Association of Amisulpride Response in Schizophrenia With Brain Image Unknown status NCT02095938 Phase 4 amisulpride
12 Diabetes Prevention Program in Schizophrenia [DPPS] Unknown status NCT00182494 Phase 4
13 High Dose Risperidone Consta for Patients With Schizophrenia With Poor Response to Risperidone Unknown status NCT00539071 Phase 4 long-acting injectable risperidone;long acting injectable risperidone;long acting injectable risperidone
14 Huperzine-A to Help With Mental Problems and the Inability to Care for Onself in Patients With Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01012830 Phase 4 Huperzine A
15 Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Clozapine and Aripiprazole Versus Clozapine and Haloperidol in the Treatment of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00395915 Phase 4 aripiprazole
16 Antipsychotic Effects on Brain Function in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01913327 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;Risperidone;Modafinil
17 Identification and Treatment of the Liability to Develop Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00305474 Phase 4 Risperidone
18 Guanfacine Adjunctive Treatment to Atypical Antipsychotics for Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00469664 Phase 4 Guanfacine/Tenex
19 PREvent First Episode Relapse (PREFER) Unknown status NCT00220714 Phase 4 atypical antipsychotics:oral vs. long-acting route
20 Tolerability And Efficacy Of High Dose Escitalopram In The Treatment Of Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - An Open Label Study Unknown status NCT00708396 Phase 4 Escitalopram
21 Minocycline as an Adjunctive Therapy for Schizophrenia: a Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT01133080 Phase 4 Minocycline;placebo
22 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Quetiapine Fumarate Instant-Release (Seroquel IR) in Controlling Agitation and Aggressive Symptoms in the Acute Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00838032 Phase 4 Quetiapine fumarate;Haloperidol
23 Identifying Predictors of Response to Antipsychotics Using a Treatment Algorithm Unknown status NCT01016145 Phase 4 Antipsychotics;Antipsychotics
24 Effects of Aripiprazole (LAI) on Phychosocial/Cognitive Functioning, pt Reported AcceptabilityofTreatment in Sch Unknown status NCT02697045 Phase 4 Aripiprazole 400mg LAI
25 Optimization of Acute Treatment in First Episode Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00157378 Phase 4 Risperidone, Haloperidol
26 Trial for Antidepressant Treatment for Negative Symptom of Schizophrenia With NRG1 Risk Genotype Unknown status NCT01078870 Phase 4 Lexapro;Cymbalta;Placebo
27 Linagliptin and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02442817 Phase 4 Linagliptin
28 Comparison of Cognitive Functions of Schizophrenic Patients Treated With Sertindole Versus Risperidone Unknown status NCT00480844 Phase 4 Sertindole;Risperidone
29 The Monitor of Serum Prolactin Level in a 3 Months Aripiprazole Trial Unknown status NCT00468533 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
30 The Efficacy And Safety Of Intramuscular Ziprasidone For Three Days In Patients With Psychotic Agitation Unknown status NCT02935998 Phase 4 Ziprasidone
31 Contrasting the Brain Effects of Risperidone and Invega With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning Unknown status NCT00937261 Phase 4 Risperidone;Paliperidone
32 A Pharmacokinetic Study of Paliperidone ER Unknown status NCT02433717 Phase 4 Paliperidone ER
33 Effects of 'Seroquel-XR' on the Improvement of Neurocognitive Function in People At-risk Mental States(ARMS) Unknown status NCT01250847 Phase 4 Quetiapine(Seroquel-XR) 50~800mg a day
34 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
35 Prednisolone Addition for Patients With Recent-onset Psychotic Disorder Unknown status NCT02949232 Phase 4 Prednisolone;Placebo Oral Tablet
36 Heart Rate Changes in Schizophrenic and Bipolar Patients Under the Medication of Aripiprazole and Quetiapine Unknown status NCT01047215 Phase 4 Aripiprazole; Quetiapine
37 Donepezil Double Blind Trial for ECT Memory Disfunction Unknown status NCT00465283 Phase 4 Donepezil
38 Quetiapine Extended Release (XR) for the Management of Psychotic Aggression or Agitation in Adult Acute Psychiatry Unknown status NCT00986167 Phase 4 Quetiapine XR
39 Investigator Initiated Study - Asenapine Early Psychosis Unknown status NCT01968161 Phase 4 Asenapine
40 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
41 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Flexible Dose of Quetiapine Fumarate (Seroquel) Switching From Other Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Manic Patients With Bipolar Disorder Unknown status NCT00837343 Phase 4 quetiapine fumarate tablet (Seroquel)
42 Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk in Severe Mental Illness Unknown status NCT01182012 Phase 4
43 Tolerance and Effect of Antipsychotics in Children and Adolescents With Psychosis Unknown status NCT01119014 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;Quetiapine
44 Testosterone Replacement in Middle-Aged Hypogonadal Men With Dysthymia: Parallel Group, Double Blind Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT00260390 Phase 4 Testoviron
45 Estrogen and Perimenopausal Depression Unknown status NCT00229450 Phase 4 estrogen
46 The Effects of Nicotine on Cognition in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00383747 Phase 4 transdermal nicotine patch;Transdermal Nicotine Patch
47 Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Completed NCT01081418 Phase 4
48 Evaluation of Mirtazapine and Folic Acid for Schizophrenia: Completed NCT01263080 Phase 4 mirtazapine;folic acid placebo;mirtazapine placebo;folic acid
49 Curcumin Addition to Antipsychotic Treatment in Chronic Schizophrenia Patients Completed NCT02298985 Phase 4 Curcumin;placebo
50 A Trial of Folate With B12 in Patients With Schizophrenia With Residual Symptoms in Ethiopia Completed NCT01724476 Phase 4 folate with B12;placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Schizophrenia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: schizophrenia

Genetic Tests for Schizophrenia

Genetic tests related to Schizophrenia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Schizophrenia 29 AKT1 APOL2 APOL4 CHI3L1 COMT DAOA DISC2 DRD3 HTR2A MTHFR RTN4R SYN2

Anatomical Context for Schizophrenia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Schizophrenia:

41
Brain, Cortex, Testes, Prefrontal Cortex, Eye, Temporal Lobe, Cingulate Cortex

Publications for Schizophrenia

Articles related to Schizophrenia:

(show top 50) (show all 12951)
# Title Authors Year
1
Nonlinear Indices with Applications to Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder. ( 30557135 )
2019
2
Genetic basis of psychopathological dimensions shared between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ( 30149091 )
2019
3
Where There's Smoke, There's Fire-But Who Is Lighting the Match? Bolstering Transcriptional Evidence for the Role of Nuclear Factor-κB in Neuroimmune Activation in Schizophrenia. ( 30527210 )
2019
4
From "under" to "over" social cognition in schizophrenia: Is there distinct profiles of impairments according to negative and positive symptoms? ( 30534527 )
2019
5
Adjunctive second-generation antipsychotics for specific symptom domains of schizophrenia resistant to clozapine: A meta-analysis. ( 30447508 )
2019
6
Cognition in schizophrenia improves with treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnoea: A pilot study. ( 30450286 )
2019
7
Comparison of serum essential trace metals between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. ( 30466942 )
2019
8
Enrichment of rare genetic variants in astrocyte gene enriched co-expression modules altered in postmortem brain samples of schizophrenia. ( 30347265 )
2019
9
Development of the MAM model of schizophrenia in mice: Sex similarities and differences of hippocampal and prefrontal cortical function. ( 30366002 )
2019
10
Convergent and divergent altered patterns of default mode network in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. ( 30367960 )
2019
11
Over-expression of TGF-β1 gene in medication free Schizophrenia. ( 30389222 )
2019
12
Sex differences in schizophrenia: estrogen and mitochondria. ( 30294000 )
2019
13
A framework for linking resting-state chronnectome/genome features in schizophrenia: A pilot study. ( 30300752 )
2019
14
The impact of schizophrenia and intelligence on the relationship between age and brain volume. ( 30302317 )
2019
15
Association between lower estimated premorbid intelligence quotient and smoking behavior in patients with schizophrenia. ( 30310770 )
2019
16
Abnormal cortical region and subsystem complexity in dynamical functional connectivity of chronic schizophrenia: A new graph index for fMRI analysis. ( 30316890 )
2019
17
The association between short-term ambient air pollution and daily outpatient visits for schizophrenia: A hospital-based study. ( 30326384 )
2019
18
Increased responses of the reward circuitry to positive task feedback following acute stress in healthy controls but not in siblings of schizophrenia patients. ( 30243958 )
2019
19
Insular changes induced by electroconvulsive therapy response to symptom improvements in schizophrenia. ( 30248379 )
2019
20
The effects of illness severity, cognition, and estimated antipsychotic dopamine receptor occupancy on insight into the illness in schizophrenia: An analysis of clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) data. ( 30172739 )
2019
21
Quantitative proteomics of forebrain subcellular fractions in fragile X mental retardation 1 knockout mice following acute treatment with 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine: Relevance to developmental study of schizophrenia. ( 30176067 )
2019
22
Inhibition of return (IOR) in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use. ( 30184467 )
2019
23
Maternal immune activation in mid-late gestation alters amphetamine sensitivity and object recognition, but not other schizophrenia-related behaviours in adult rats. ( 30145278 )
2019
24
No interaction between polygenic scores and childhood trauma in predicting suicide attempt in schizophrenia. ( 30149093 )
2019
25
Prescription of potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs in homeless people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Results from the French Housing First (FHF) program. ( 30153497 )
2019
26
The need to improve detection and treatment of physical pain of homeless people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Results from the French Housing First Study. ( 30053572 )
2019
27
The past and future of novel, non-dopamine-2 receptor therapeutics for schizophrenia: A critical and comprehensive review. ( 30055853 )
2019
28
Gene expression changes related to immune processes associate with cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia. ( 30030132 )
2019
29
A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of RP5063 Phase 2 Study Data in Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder. ( 29619682 )
2018
30
Analyzing the genes related to nicotine addiction or schizophrenia via a pathway and network based approach. ( 29440730 )
2018
31
A systematic review of health economic models and utility estimation methods in schizophrenia. ( 29347854 )
2018
32
Schizophrenia heterogeneity revisited: Clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial correlates of statistically-derived negative symptoms subgroups. ( 29156414 )
2018
33
Verbal learning and hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. ( 29223768 )
2018
34
Psychotropic Medication Use Among Adults With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder in the United States. ( 29606075 )
2018
35
Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Life in People with Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders in a Rural Area. ( 28756572 )
2018
36
Correction: Effects of Low Dose Metformin on Metabolic Traits in Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients: An Exploratory Twelve-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. ( 29451914 )
2018
37
Predictors of negative symptoms in the chronic phase of schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study. ( 28965809 )
2018
38
Clinical implication of smoking among patients with schizophrenia at a Tertiary Institution in South East Nigeria. ( 29977263 )
2018
39
DNA methylation landscape of the genes regulating D-serine and D-aspartate metabolism in post-mortem brain from controls and subjects with schizophrenia. ( 29976992 )
2018
40
Attenuated resting-state functional connectivity in patients with childhood- and adult-onset schizophrenia. ( 29310911 )
2018
41
The effects of psychological help on assertive behaviors in family members of schizophrenia patients. ( 29975367 )
2018
42
The Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. ( 29125018 )
2018
43
The reasons for use of cannabinoids and stimulants in patients with schizophrenia. ( 29975366 )
2018
44
Pharmacological treatment for schizoaffective disorder : A comparison with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ( 29564469 )
2018
45
The Cognitive Screening Scale for Schizophrenia (CSSS) - Part 2: Validity of the Scale. ( 29975364 )
2018
46
Objective investigation of activity preference in schizophrenia: A pilot study. ( 29980136 )
2018
47
Raloxifene as an adjunctive treatment for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ( 28849318 )
2018
48
Priming production: Neural evidence for enhanced automatic semantic activity preceding language production in schizophrenia. ( 29387525 )
2018
49
Associations between the DBH gene, plasma dopamine I^-hydroxylase activity and cognitive measures in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. ( 28647493 )
2018
50
Interplay Among Psychopathologic Variables, Personal Resources, Context-Related Factors, and Real-life Functioning in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Network Analysis. ( 29450447 )
2018

Variations for Schizophrenia

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Schizophrenia:

75
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 RTN4R p.Arg119Trp VAR_079154 rs74315508
2 RTN4R p.Arg196His VAR_079155 rs74315509
3 RTN4R p.Arg292His VAR_079231
4 RTN4R p.Arg377Gln VAR_079235 rs779384862
5 RTN4R p.Arg377Trp VAR_079236 rs748655075

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Schizophrenia:

6 (show all 32)
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 MTHFR NM_005957.4(MTHFR): c.1286A> C (p.Glu429Ala) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity, other, risk factor rs1801131 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 11854476: 11854476
2 MTHFR NM_005957.4(MTHFR): c.1286A> C (p.Glu429Ala) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity, other, risk factor rs1801131 GRCh38 Chromosome 1, 11794419: 11794419
3 RTN4R NM_023004.5(RTN4R): c.355C> T (p.Arg119Trp) single nucleotide variant risk factor rs74315508 GRCh37 Chromosome 22, 20230301: 20230301
4 RTN4R NM_023004.5(RTN4R): c.355C> T (p.Arg119Trp) single nucleotide variant risk factor rs74315508 GRCh38 Chromosome 22, 20242778: 20242778
5 RTN4R NM_023004.5(RTN4R): c.587G> A (p.Arg196His) single nucleotide variant risk factor rs74315509 GRCh37 Chromosome 22, 20230069: 20230069
6 RTN4R NM_023004.5(RTN4R): c.587G> A (p.Arg196His) single nucleotide variant risk factor rs74315509 GRCh38 Chromosome 22, 20242546: 20242546
7 HTR2A HTR2A, 102T-C single nucleotide variant risk factor
8 MC4R NM_005912.2(MC4R): c.105C> A (p.Tyr35Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs13447324 GRCh37 Chromosome 18, 58039478: 58039478
9 MC4R NM_005912.2(MC4R): c.105C> A (p.Tyr35Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs13447324 GRCh38 Chromosome 18, 60372245: 60372245
10 DRD3 NM_000796.5(DRD3): c.25G> A (p.Gly9Ser) single nucleotide variant Likely benign rs6280 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 113890815: 113890815
11 DRD3 NM_000796.5(DRD3): c.25G> A (p.Gly9Ser) single nucleotide variant Likely benign rs6280 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 114171968: 114171968
12 COMT NM_000754.3(COMT): c.214G> T (p.Ala72Ser) single nucleotide variant risk factor rs6267 GRCh37 Chromosome 22, 19950263: 19950263
13 COMT NM_000754.3(COMT): c.214G> T (p.Ala72Ser) single nucleotide variant risk factor rs6267 GRCh38 Chromosome 22, 19962740: 19962740
14 MECP2 NM_004992.3(MECP2): c.596C> A (p.Pro199His) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs267608502 GRCh37 Chromosome X, 153296683: 153296683
15 MECP2 NM_004992.3(MECP2): c.596C> A (p.Pro199His) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs267608502 GRCh38 Chromosome X, 154031232: 154031232
16 ABCA13 NM_152701.4(ABCA13): c.11473+2T> C single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs797045205 GRCh37 Chromosome 7, 48427558: 48427558
17 ABCA13 NM_152701.4(ABCA13): c.11473+2T> C single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs797045205 GRCh38 Chromosome 7, 48387961: 48387961
18 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.518-2A> G single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312829 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 30974752: 30974752
19 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.518-2A> G single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312829 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 30963431: 30963431
20 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.1272delC (p.Tyr425Thrfs) deletion Pathogenic rs869312830 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 30976335: 30976335
21 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.1272delC (p.Tyr425Thrfs) deletion Pathogenic rs869312830 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 30965014: 30965014
22 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.1938C> G (p.Tyr646Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs770913157 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 30977140: 30977140
23 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.1938C> G (p.Tyr646Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs770913157 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 30965819: 30965819
24 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.2171dupC (p.Ala725Serfs) duplication Pathogenic rs869312832 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 30966052: 30966052
25 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.2171dupC (p.Ala725Serfs) duplication Pathogenic rs869312832 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 30977373: 30977373
26 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.2209C> T (p.Gln737Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312831 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 30977411: 30977411
27 SETD1A NM_014712.2(SETD1A): c.2209C> T (p.Gln737Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312831 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 30966090: 30966090
28 EHMT1 NM_024757.4(EHMT1): c.1647+2T> C single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs1057518913 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 140657274: 140657274
29 EHMT1 NM_024757.4(EHMT1): c.1647+2T> C single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs1057518913 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 137762822: 137762822
30 ALKAL1; RB1CC1 GRCh37/hg19 8q11.23(chr8: 53468370-53720613) copy number gain not provided GRCh37 Chromosome 8, 53468370: 53720613
31 SHANK2 NM_012309.4(SHANK2): c.4592_4593delCA (p.Thr1531Serfs) deletion not provided GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 70485700: 70485701
32 SHANK2 NM_012309.4(SHANK2): c.4592_4593delCA (p.Thr1531Serfs) deletion not provided GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 70331805: 70331806

Copy number variations for Schizophrenia from CNVD:

7 (show top 50) (show all 5299)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 13368 1 1 16700000 Deletion Schizophrenia
2 13397 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F16 Schizophrenia
3 13398 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F29 Schizophrenia
4 13399 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F3 Schizophrenia
5 13400 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F5 Schizophrenia
6 13737 1 1 247249719 Deletion Schizophrenia
7 13808 1 1 6300000 Copy number Schizophrenia
8 13997 1