SCZD
MCID: SCH015
MIFTS: 74

Schizophrenia (SCZD)

Categories: Ear diseases, Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Schizophrenia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Schizophrenia:

Name: Schizophrenia 57 12 73 43 72 36 29 13 54 6 42 44 15 37 39 17 70 32
Schizophrenia with or Without an Affective Disorder 57 72
Schizophrenia, Susceptibility to 57 6
Schizophrenia 12 57 70
Sczd 57 72
Dementia Praecox 43
Schizophrenia 1 70
Schizophrenia-1 12

Characteristics:

OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant

Miscellaneous:
genetic heterogeneity
onset often in late adolescence
symptoms must occur for 6 months including 1 month of characteristic symptoms (e.g. delusions) to make diagnosis
multiple gene loci involved in causation of schizophrenia


HPO:

31
schizophrenia:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance heterogeneous


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:5419
OMIM® 57 181500
KEGG 36 H01649
ICD9CM 34 295
MeSH 44 D012559
NCIt 50 C3362
SNOMED-CT 67 58214004
ICD10 32 F20 F20.9
UMLS 70 C0036341 C0220702 C1837893

Summaries for Schizophrenia

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, which means that it affects a person's thinking, sense of self, and perceptions. The disorder typically becomes evident during late adolescence or early adulthood.Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia include false perceptions called hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations of voices are the most common hallucinations in schizophrenia, but affected individuals can also experience hallucinations of visions, smells, or touch (tactile) sensations. Strongly held false beliefs (delusions) are also characteristic of schizophrenia. For example, affected individuals may be certain that they are a particular historical figure or that they are being plotted against or controlled by others.People with schizophrenia often have decreased ability to function at school, at work, and in social settings. Disordered thinking and concentration, inappropriate emotional responses, erratic speech and behavior, and difficulty with personal hygiene and everyday tasks can also occur. People with schizophrenia may have diminished facial expression and animation (flat affect), and in some cases become unresponsive (catatonic). Substance abuse and suicidal thoughts and actions are common in people with schizophrenia.Certain movement problems such as tremors, facial tics, rigidity, and unusually slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia) are common in people with schizophrenia. In most cases these are side effects of medicines prescribed to help control the disorder. However, some affected individuals exhibit movement abnormalities before beginning treatment with medication.Some people with schizophrenia have mild impairment of intellectual function, but schizophrenia is not associated with the same types of physical changes in the brain that occur in people with dementias such as Alzheimer disease.Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are different from mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder, which primarily affect emotions. However, these disorders often occur together. Individuals who exhibit strong features of both schizophrenia and mood disorders are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder.

MalaCards based summary : Schizophrenia, also known as schizophrenia with or without an affective disorder, is related to schizoaffective disorder and paranoid schizophrenia, and has symptoms including photophobia, restlessness and personality changes. An important gene associated with Schizophrenia is RTN4R (Reticulon 4 Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Dopaminergic synapse and Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. The drugs Huperzine A and Guanfacine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotypes are eeg abnormality and hallucinations

Disease Ontology : 12 A psychotic disorder that is characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.

OMIM® : 57 Schizophrenia is a psychosis, a disorder of thought and sense of self. Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. There is no characteristic pathology, such as neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (104300). Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1%. It is highly heritable but the genetics are complex. This may not be a single entity. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (see 125480) are generally considered to be separate entities, but patients who exhibit multiple symptoms of both disorders are often given the hybrid diagnosis schizoaffective disorder (Blacker and Tsuang, 1992). (181500) (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MedlinePlus : 42 Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. They may think other people are trying to hurt them. Sometimes they don't make sense when they talk. The disorder makes it hard for them to keep a job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men often develop symptoms at a younger age than women. People usually do not get schizophrenia after age 45. There are three types of symptoms: Psychotic symptoms distort a person's thinking. These include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (beliefs that are not true), trouble organizing thoughts, and strange movements. "Negative" symptoms make it difficult to show emotions and to function normally. A person may seem depressed and withdrawn. Cognitive symptoms affect the thought process. These include trouble using information, making decisions, and paying attention. No one is sure what causes schizophrenia. Your genes, environment, and brain chemistry may play a role. There is no cure. Medicine can help control many of the symptoms. You may need to try different medicines to see which works best. You should stay on your medicine for as long as your doctor recommends. Additional treatments can help you deal with your illness from day to day. These include therapy, family education, rehabilitation, and skills training. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

KEGG : 36 Schizophrenia is a common serious psychotic illness that typically emerges in late adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by hallucinations and delusions (commonly known as positive symptoms), social withdrawal, alogia, and flat affect (negative symptoms), and cognitive disabilities. While treatments exist for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, there is no effective therapy to prevent the cognitive impairments. The disorder is substantially heritable, but expression of the clinical phenotype is likely to involve the interplay of multiple susceptibility variants, epigenetic factors, and environmental influences. Although it has been suggested that many of the promising candidate genes are involved in the development and maintenance of synaptic function, the most of them remains to be identified. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying schizophrenia are unknown, but observers have repeatedly noted pathological features involving excessive loss of gray matter and reduced numbers of synaptic structures on neurons. Recently, it has been found that alleles of the C4 genes are associated with schizophrenia in proportion to their tendency to promote greater expression of C4A in the brain.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Schizophrenia: A complex, multifactorial psychotic disorder or group of disorders characterized by disturbances in the form and content of thought (e.g. delusions, hallucinations), in mood (e.g. inappropriate affect), in sense of self and relationship to the external world (e.g. loss of ego boundaries, withdrawal), and in behavior (e.g bizarre or apparently purposeless behavior). Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. Some patients manifest schizophrenic as well as bipolar disorder symptoms and are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder.

Wikipedia : 73 Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.... more...

Related Diseases for Schizophrenia

Diseases in the Schizophrenia family:

Schizophrenia 1 Schizophrenia 3
Schizophrenia 4 Schizophrenia 6
Schizophrenia 5 Schizophrenia 7
Schizophrenia 8 Schizophrenia 2
Schizophrenia 9 Schizophrenia 10
Schizophrenia 11 Schizophrenia 12
Schizophrenia 14 Schizophrenia 13
Schizophrenia 15 Schizophrenia 16
Schizophrenia 18 Schizophrenia 19
Early-Onset Schizophrenia

Diseases related to Schizophrenia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1199)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 schizoaffective disorder 34.2 NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1
2 paranoid schizophrenia 33.8 NRXN1 MIAT HTR2A DISC1 COMT
3 psychotic disorder 33.8 SYN2 RTN4R NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3
4 bipolar disorder 33.6 SYN2 NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2
5 schizophreniform disorder 33.2 NRXN1 HTR2A DISC1 DAOA COMT
6 schizophrenia 2 33.1 DISC2 DISC1
7 tardive dyskinesia 32.9 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
8 disease of mental health 32.9 SYN2 SETD1A RTN4R NRXN1 MTHFR MBD5
9 mood disorder 32.8 HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 DAOA COMT
10 major depressive disorder 32.8 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 COMT
11 autism 32.7 SYN2 NRXN1 MTHFR MBD5 HTR2A DRD3
12 substance abuse 32.7 MIAT HTR2A DRD3 COMT
13 autism spectrum disorder 32.6 NRXN1 MTHFR MBD5 HTR2A DRD3 DISC2
14 personality disorder 32.5 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
15 schizotypal personality disorder 32.5 HTR2A DISC1 DAOA COMT
16 mental depression 32.5 HTR2A DISC1 COMT
17 asperger syndrome 32.4 NRXN1 DISC1 COMT
18 velocardiofacial syndrome 32.3 NRXN1 DISC1 COMT
19 tobacco addiction 32.3 NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 COMT
20 alcohol use disorder 32.3 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 COMT
21 delusional disorder 32.1 HTR2A DRD3 DISC1
22 panic disorder 31.8 HTR2A DRD3 DAOA COMT
23 neurotic disorder 31.7 HTR2A COMT
24 eating disorder 31.6 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
25 tic disorder 31.5 NRXN1 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
26 cyclothymic disorder 31.5 HTR2A DISC1 DAOA COMT
27 gilles de la tourette syndrome 31.4 NRXN1 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
28 cocaine dependence 31.4 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
29 migraine with or without aura 1 31.4 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 COMT
30 pervasive developmental disorder 31.3 NRXN1 HTR2A DISC1
31 mild cognitive impairment 31.2 MTHFR COMT
32 pathological gambling 31.2 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
33 substance-induced psychosis 31.1 HTR2A COMT
34 heroin dependence 31.0 MIAT HTR2A COMT
35 impulse control disorder 30.8 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
36 dysthymic disorder 30.7 HTR2A COMT
37 polysubstance abuse 30.7 DRD3 COMT
38 intermittent explosive disorder 30.5 HTR2A COMT
39 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 30.5 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
40 bruxism 30.4 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
41 phobia, specific 30.4 HTR2A COMT
42 childhood-onset schizophrenia 11.6
43 schizophrenia 15 11.6
44 schizophrenia 4 11.6
45 schizophrenia 18 11.6
46 schizophrenia 9 11.5
47 chromosome 2p16.3 deletion syndrome 11.5
48 schizophrenia 1 11.5
49 schizophrenia 19 11.5
50 schizophrenia 3 11.5

Comorbidity relations with Schizophrenia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 16)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Alzheimer Disease Bipolar Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease Hypothyroidism
Iron Deficiency Anemia Major Depressive Disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Tardive Dyskinesia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Schizophrenia:



Diseases related to Schizophrenia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Schizophrenia

Human phenotypes related to Schizophrenia:

31 (show all 6)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 eeg abnormality 31 very rare (1%) HP:0002353
2 hallucinations 31 HP:0000738
3 schizophrenia 31 HP:0100753
4 delusions 31 HP:0000746
5 social and occupational deterioration 31 HP:0007086
6 negativism 31 HP:0410291

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
hallucinations
schizophrenia
delusions
social and occupational deterioration
disorganized speech
more
Laboratory Abnormalities:
abnormal eeg in 25% hospitalized patients

Clinical features from OMIM®:

181500 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Schizophrenia:


photophobia; restlessness; personality changes; pseudobulbar behavioral symptoms; sleep disturbances

Drugs & Therapeutics for Schizophrenia

Drugs for Schizophrenia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 555)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Huperzine A Approved, Experimental Phase 4 102518-79-6
2
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
3
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
4
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2 149436
5
Asenapine Approved Phase 4 85650-56-2, 65576-45-6 3001386
6
Molindone Approved Phase 4 7416-34-4 23897
7
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
8
Curcumin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 458-37-7 969516
9
Flunarizine Approved Phase 4 52468-60-7 941361
10
Trifluoperazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 117-89-5 5566
11
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
12
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2
13
Succinylcholine Approved Phase 4 306-40-1 5314
14
Nizatidine Approved Phase 4 76963-41-2 3033637
15
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
16
Sibutramine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 106650-56-0 5210
17
Rasagiline Approved Phase 4 136236-51-6 3052776
18
Famotidine Approved Phase 4 76824-35-6 3325
19 Coconut Approved Phase 4
20
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051
21
Linagliptin Approved Phase 4 668270-12-0 10096344
22
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
23
Pramlintide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 151126-32-8
24
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 122320-73-4 77999
25
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 161973-10-0, 161796-78-7, 119141-88-7 4594 9568614
26
Aripiprazole lauroxil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1259305-29-7 49831411
27
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
28
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10118-90-8 5281021
29
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
30
gamma-Aminobutyric acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-12-2 119
31
Vortioxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 508233-74-7 9966051
32
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 50-36-2 446220 5760
33
Bazedoxifene Approved, Investigational Phase 4 198481-32-2
34
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
35
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
36
Sulfamethazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-68-1 5327
37
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68521-88-0, 11128-99-7, 4474-91-3 172198
38
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
39
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
40
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
41
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
42
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
43
Pimozide Approved Phase 4 2062-78-4 16362
44
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68693-11-8 4236
45
Galantamine Approved Phase 4 357-70-0 9651
46
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
47
Amisulpride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71675-85-9, 53583-79-2 2159
48
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
49
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
50
Iloperidone Approved Phase 4 133454-47-4 71360

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2816)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Clozapine and Aripiprazole Versus Clozapine and Haloperidol in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. An Independent, Pragmatic, Multicentre, Parallel-Group, Superiority Trial. Unknown status NCT00395915 Phase 4 aripiprazole
2 The Effect of a Community-based Long-acting Antipsychotic-treated Management Model on the Violence Risk of Patients With Schizophrenia: a 1-year, Open-label Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT03080194 Phase 4 paliperidone palmitate;control group
3 Effectiveness of Long-Acting Risperidone in the Maintenance Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00220714 Phase 4 atypical antipsychotics:oral vs. long-acting route
4 Comparison of Cognitive Functions of Schizophrenic Patients Treated With Sertindole Versus Risperidone Unknown status NCT00480844 Phase 4 Sertindole;Risperidone
5 Changes of Heart Rate Variability in Schizophrenic and Bipolar Patients Under the Medication of Aripiprazole and Quetiapine Unknown status NCT01047215 Phase 4 Aripiprazole; Quetiapine
6 A Study on the Efficacy, Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Effects of Paliperidone ER Unknown status NCT02433717 Phase 4 Paliperidone ER
7 Association of the Amisulpride Treatment Response in Patients With Schizophrenia With the Findings of Brain Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unknown status NCT02095938 Phase 4 amisulpride
8 A Multi-Center,Open-Labeled,Intervention Study:The Efficacy And Safety Of Intramuscular Ziprasidone For Three Days In Patients With Psychotic Agitation Unknown status NCT02935998 Phase 4 Ziprasidone
9 Pilot Double Blind, Placebo Controlled and Randomized Study to Assess Electroconvulsive Therapy Efficacy as Augmenting Strategy to Clozapine in Super-refractory Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02049021 Phase 4
10 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
11 Clinical Evaluation of Acupuncture Treatment for Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT03802838 Phase 4 Amisulpride
12 An Open-label Switch Study to Asenapine in the Early Stage of Psychosis Unknown status NCT01968161 Phase 4 Asenapine
13 A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Guanfacine Adjunctive Treatment to Atypical Antipsychotics for Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00469664 Phase 4 Guanfacine/Tenex
14 Switch Risperidone to Aripiprazole in Early Stage of Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00352339 Phase 4 Rispridoen and Aripiprazole;Risperidne;Abilify
15 Minocycline as an Adjunctive Therapy for Schizophrenia: a Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT01133080 Phase 4 Minocycline;placebo
16 A Randomized, Multi-site, Parallel-group, Rater-blind Study Comparing Response With Aripiprazole Once Monthly and Standard of Care Oral Antipsychotics in Non-adherent Outpatients With Schizophrenia Identified Using the Brief Adherence Rating Scale Unknown status NCT02282085 Phase 4 Aripiprazole Once-Monthly;Oral Antipsychotic (i.e. aripiprazole, risperidone, lurasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, etc)
17 Donepezil Adjunctive Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01490567 Phase 4 Donepezil;placebo
18 The Monitor of Serum Prolactin Level and Related Clinical Observations Among Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Illnesses in a 3 Months Aripiprazole Trial Unknown status NCT00468533 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
19 Identification and Treatment of the Liability to Develop Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00305474 Phase 4 Risperidone
20 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Used to Treat Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00186771 Phase 4
21 A Five Year, Prospective, Randomized, Blinded, Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Modified Diabetes Prevention Protocol and the Standard Comprehensive Outpatient Care in Lowering the Incidence of New Onset Diabetes Among People Treated for Schizophrenia and Are at Risk to Develop Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Unknown status NCT00182494 Phase 4
22 Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Berberine and Metformin for Schizophrenia Patients With Metabolic Syndrome Unknown status NCT03708549 Phase 4 Berberine;Metformin
23 Identifying Predictors of Response in 12 Weeks of Treatment With Antipsychotics Using a Treatment Algorithm for Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01016145 Phase 4 Antipsychotics;Antipsychotics
24 Phase 4 Study of Efficacy and Safety of Tandospirone Combined With Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs to Improve Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02040883 Phase 4 Risperidone/Olanzapine/Quetiapine/Ziprasidone/Aripiprazole;Tandospirone
25 Omega-3 Fatty Acids in First-episode Schizophrenia - a Randomized Controlled Study of Efficacy and Relapse Prevention (OFFER). Rationale, Design, and Methods. Unknown status NCT02210962 Phase 4
26 Double-blind Clinical Trial Controlled With Placebo of the Efficacy of Reboxetine and Citalopram as an Adjunct Treatment to Second Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01300364 Phase 4 Reboxetine;citalopram (SSRI)
27 Huperzine-A for Cognitive Dysfunction and Functional Status in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01012830 Phase 4 Huperzine A
28 Tolerability And Efficacy Of High Dose Escitalopram In The Treatment Of Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - An Open Label Study Unknown status NCT00708396 Phase 4 Escitalopram
29 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Quetiapine Fumarate Instant-Release (Seroquel IR) in Controlling Agitation and Aggressive Symptoms in the Acute Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00838032 Phase 4 Quetiapine fumarate;Haloperidol
30 Effect of Varenicline on Smoking Cessation in Patients With Schizophrenia: Evaluation of Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Neurological Symptoms as Correlates of Response Unknown status NCT03495024 Phase 4 Varenicline
31 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia by Aripiprazole Add-on Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Open-Label Trial Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
32 Neurocognitive Effectiveness in Treatment of First-episode Non-affective Psychosis: a Randomized Comparison of Aripiprazole and Risperidone Over 3 Years Unknown status NCT03883204 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;Risperidone
33 A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial on Comparing Escitalopram and Duloxetine add-on for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenic Subjects With Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) Risk Genotype Unknown status NCT01078870 Phase 4 Lexapro;Cymbalta;Placebo
34 Donepezil Double Blind Trial for ECT Memory Disfunction Unknown status NCT00465283 Phase 4 Donepezil
35 Optimization of Acute Treatment in First Episode Schizophrenic Patients by New Pharmacological Treatments Unknown status NCT00157378 Phase 4 Risperidone, Haloperidol
36 Determining the Efficacy and Tolerance of Quetiapine Extended Release (XR) for the Management of Psychotic Aggression or Agitation in Adult Acute Psychiatry Unknown status NCT00986167 Phase 4 Quetiapine XR
37 Contrasting the Brain Effects of Risperidone and Invega With fMRI and PET Scanning Unknown status NCT00937261 Phase 4 Risperidone;Paliperidone
38 Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk in Severe Mental Illness Prescribing and Using Better and More Appropriated Drugs Unknown status NCT01182012 Phase 4
39 A Pilot Study to Determine How Frequency of Administration Modifies Steady-State Plasma Concentrations of Orally Administered Clozapine Unknown status NCT02286206 Phase 4 Clozapine
40 Phase IV Study of Effects of 'Seroquel-XR' on the Improvement of Neurocognitive Function in People At-risk Mental States(ARMS) Unknown status NCT01250847 Phase 4 Quetiapine(Seroquel-XR) 50~800mg a day
41 Effect of Addition of Modafinil on the Tolerability and Efficacy for Cognition of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients With Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder Completed NCT00373672 Phase 4 armodafinil (Nuvigil);placebo
42 Effect of Nicotine Agonist Galantamine Added to High Potency Medications for Cognitive Function in Patients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder Completed NCT00320736 Phase 4 galantamine
43 Nicotine Replacement Therapy Added to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Major Mental Illness Completed NCT00320723 Phase 4 bupropion, transdermal nicotine patch
44 Early Pharmacological and Psychological Intervention for Late Prodromal States of Psychosis Completed NCT00204061 Phase 4 Amisulpride
45 Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Abuse in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00145847 Phase 4 Naltrexone or Placebo
46 A Double-Blind, Randomised, Parallel-Group Comparison of Ethyl-Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Ethyl-EPA) Versus Placebo as Add-on Medication in Patients With Established Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00114595 Phase 4 eicosapentaenoic acid
47 Metabolic Effects of Melatonin in Patients Treated With Second Generation Antipsychotics Completed NCT01811160 Phase 4 Melatonin;Placebo
48 Multicentre Randomised Double-blind, Placebo-controlled 2x2 Factorial Trial Investigating the Effects of Adding Mirtazapine and Folic Acid to Existing Therapy for Patients With Schizophrenia Completed NCT01263080 Phase 4 mirtazapine;folic acid placebo;mirtazapine placebo;folic acid
49 A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Study of Aripiprazole Augmentation for Clozapine-Treated Patients With Refractory Schizophrenia Completed NCT00328367 Phase 4 aripiprazole;placebo
50 Risperidone Long Acting: A Healthcare Resource Utilization Pilot Study Completed NCT00272597 Phase 4 Risperidone

Search NIH Clinical Center for Schizophrenia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


acetophenazine
Acetophenazine maleate
aripiprazole
aripiprazole lauroxil
Carbamazepine
Chlorpromazine
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride
Clonazepam
Clozapine
CLOZAPINE (CARACO)
CLOZAPINE (CLOZARIL)
CLOZAPINE (IVAX)
CLOZAPINE (TEVA)
CLOZAPINE (VERSACLOZ)
Cyproheptadine
Cyproheptadine hydrochloride
CYPROHEPTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE
deserpidine
Fazaclo
Fluphenazine
fluphenazine decanoate
Fluphenazine enanthate
Fluphenazine Hydrochloride
Haloperidol
haloperidol decanoate
Haloperidol lactate
Mesoridazine
Mesoridazine besylate
Molindone
Molindone Hydrochloride
Mylan brand of clozapine
olanzapine
Perphenazine
piperacetazine
Reserpine
Risperidone
Selegiline
selegiline hydrochloride
Thioridazine
Thioridazine Hydrochloride
Thiothixene
Thiothixene hydrochloride
Trifluoperazine
Trifluoperazine hydrochloride
UDL brand of clozapine
ziprasidone
ziprasidone hydrochloride
Ziprasidone mesylate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: schizophrenia

Genetic Tests for Schizophrenia

Genetic tests related to Schizophrenia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Schizophrenia 29 APOL2 APOL4 CHI3L1 COMT DAOA DISC2 DRD3 HTR2A MTHFR RTN4R SYN2

Anatomical Context for Schizophrenia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Schizophrenia:

40
Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Eye, Amygdala, Cingulate Cortex, Bone

Publications for Schizophrenia

Articles related to Schizophrenia:

(show top 50) (show all 32323)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Mutations of the Nogo-66 receptor (RTN4R) gene in schizophrenia. 6 54 57 61
15532024 2004
2
Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database. 6 57
18583979 2008
3
Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. 54 61 57
19571808 2009
4
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1): association with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder. 57 54 61
15386212 2004
5
Gene expression analysis in schizophrenia: reproducible up-regulation of several members of the apolipoprotein L family located in a high-susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 22. 61 57 54
11930015 2002
6
Association between schizophrenia and T102C polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2a-receptor gene. European Multicentre Association Study of Schizophrenia (EMASS) Group. 6 61 54
8622505 1996
7
Genetics of schizophrenia in the South African Xhosa. 61 57
32001654 2020
8
Comparative Analyses of Copy-Number Variation in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia Reveal Etiological Overlap and Biological Insights. 6 61
30208311 2018
9
Rare loss-of-function variants in SETD1A are associated with schizophrenia and developmental disorders. 61 6
26974950 2016
10
Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. 57 61
25056061 2014
11
A polygenic burden of rare disruptive mutations in schizophrenia. 57 61
24463508 2014
12
De novo mutations in schizophrenia implicate synaptic networks. 61 57
24463507 2014
13
De novo gene mutations highlight patterns of genetic and neural complexity in schizophrenia. 57 61
23042115 2012
14
Exome sequencing supports a de novo mutational paradigm for schizophrenia. 61 57
21822266 2011
15
Increased exonic de novo mutation rate in individuals with schizophrenia. 61 57
21743468 2011
16
Modelling schizophrenia using human induced pluripotent stem cells. 61 57
21490598 2011
17
Direct measure of the de novo mutation rate in autism and schizophrenia cohorts. 61 57
20797689 2010
18
Support for the involvement of large copy number variants in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. 61 57
19181681 2009
19
Evidence for a role of the NOS1AP (CAPON) gene in schizophrenia and its clinical dimensions: an association study in a South American population isolate. 57 54
19077434 2009
20
Identification of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. 57 61
18658164 2008
21
Identification of loci associated with schizophrenia by genome-wide association and follow-up. 57 61
18677311 2008
22
Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia. 57 61
18668039 2008
23
Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia. 57 61
18668038 2008
24
The DISC locus in psychiatric illness. 57 54
17912248 2008
25
Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. 57 54
16767099 2006
26
DRD2 promoter region variation as a predictor of sustained response to antipsychotic medication in first-episode schizophrenia patients. 57 54
16513877 2006
27
DISC1 and PDE4B are interacting genetic factors in schizophrenia that regulate cAMP signaling. 57 54
16293762 2005
28
Failure to confirm association between RGS4 haplotypes and schizophrenia in Caucasians. 54 57
16082709 2005
29
Increased expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of CAPON in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. 54 57
16146415 2005
30
Hyperhomocysteinemia, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype, and the risk for schizophrenia: a Dutch population based case-control study. 54 57
15806605 2005
31
Association of the carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene with schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. 54 57
15707951 2005
32
Association of Ala72Ser polymorphism with COMT enzyme activity and the risk of schizophrenia in Koreans. 6 54
15645182 2005
33
BDNF gene is a risk factor for schizophrenia in a Scottish population. 57 54
15630410 2005
34
Genetic polymorphisms of the RGS4 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex morphometry among first episode schizophrenia patients. 54 57
15381923 2005
35
Association of the DTNBP1 locus with schizophrenia in a U.S. population. 54 57
15362017 2004
36
Replication of 1q42 linkage in Finnish schizophrenia pedigrees. 57 54
15197400 2004
37
Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) gene is associated with schizophrenia in Irish high density families. 54 57
15274033 2004
38
Linkage disequilibrium mapping of schizophrenia susceptibility to the CAPON region of chromosome 1q22. 57 54
15065015 2004
39
Confirming RGS4 as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. 57 54
14755443 2004
40
Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects. 57 54
14532331 2003
41
Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part II: Schizophrenia. 61 57
12802786 2003
42
Association between a functional catechol O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and schizophrenia: meta-analysis of case-control and family-based studies. 54 57
12611827 2003
43
A highly significant association between a COMT haplotype and schizophrenia. 54 57
12402217 2002
44
Association and linkage analyses of RGS4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia. 57 54
12023979 2002
45
Genomewide multipoint linkage analysis of seven extended Palauan pedigrees with schizophrenia, by a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method. 57 61
11668428 2001
46
Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene polymorphism is associated with the intensity of eye movement disturbances in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects. 57 54
11673801 2001
47
Chromosome 1 loci in Finnish schizophrenia families. 57 54
11468279 2001
48
Disease-specific changes in regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) expression in schizophrenia. 57 54
11326297 2001
49
Genomewide genetic linkage analysis confirms the presence of susceptibility loci for schizophrenia, on chromosomes 1q32.2, 5q33.2, and 8p21-22 and provides support for linkage to schizophrenia, on chromosomes 11q23.3-24 and 20q12.1-11.23. 57 61
11179014 2001
50
Molecular characterization of schizophrenia viewed by microarray analysis of gene expression in prefrontal cortex. 54 57
11086983 2000

Variations for Schizophrenia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Schizophrenia:

6 (show top 50) (show all 206)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.2171dup (p.Ala725fs) Duplication Pathogenic 224653 rs869312832 GRCh37: 16:30977372-30977373
GRCh38: 16:30966051-30966052
2 overlap with 32 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545187 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:15029830-16415941
3 overlap with 32 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545188 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:15030738-16517711
4 overlap with 44 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545189 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:15085515-18775195
5 overlap with 28 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545190 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:15279737-18291544
6 overlap with 18 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545191 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:15318125-16294378
7 overlap with 40 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545200 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:29480853-30254620
8 overlap with 33 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545202 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:29614026-30184960
9 overlap with 33 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545204 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:29627836-30184960
10 overlap with 33 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545205 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:29640511-30184960
11 NRXN1 NC_000002.12:g.(?_50721552)_(50944617_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545279 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:50721552-50944617
12 overlap with 2 genes NC_000002.12:g.(?_50836961)_(51084060_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545280 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:50836961-51084060
13 overlap with 2 genes NC_000002.12:g.(?_50975328)_(51121693_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545281 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:50975328-51121693
14 overlap with 25 genes NC_000016.10:g.(?_15328439)_(16443962_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545192 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:15328439-16443962
15 overlap with 42 genes NC_000016.10:g.(?_14780667)_(16415941_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545186 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:14780667-16415941
16 overlap with 25 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_30325774)_(32194551_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545177 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:30325774-32194551
17 overlap with 7 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_22770232)_(23126124_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545170 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:22770232-23126124
18 overlap with 7 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_22751662)_(23126124_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545169 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:22751662-23126124
19 overlap with 9 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_22681827)_(23226874_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545168 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:22681827-23226874
20 overlap with 7 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_22673675)_(23126124_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545167 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:22673675-23126124
21 overlap with 9 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_22673143)_(23226874_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545166 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:22673143-23226874
22 overlap with 10 genes NC_000015.10:g.(?_22444190)_(23226874_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545164 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:22444190-23226874
23 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.518-2A>G SNV Pathogenic 224650 rs869312829 GRCh37: 16:30974752-30974752
GRCh38: 16:30963431-30963431
24 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.2209C>T (p.Gln737Ter) SNV Pathogenic 224652 rs869312831 GRCh37: 16:30977411-30977411
GRCh38: 16:30966090-30966090
25 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.1938C>G (p.Tyr646Ter) SNV Pathogenic 224654 rs770913157 GRCh37: 16:30977140-30977140
GRCh38: 16:30965819-30965819
26 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.1272del (p.Tyr425fs) Deletion Pathogenic 224651 rs869312830 GRCh37: 16:30976335-30976335
GRCh38: 16:30965014-30965014
27 overlap with 2 genes NC_000002.12:g.(?_147990605)_(148350066_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545246 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:147990605-148350066
28 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148139385)_(148242336_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545247 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:148139385-148242336
29 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148157591)_(148226058_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545248 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:148157591-148226058
30 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148158424)_(148226279_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545249 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:148158424-148226279
31 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148211972)_(148423169_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545250 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 2:148211972-148423169
32 overlap with 36 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545349 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 7:73312644-74726596
33 overlap with 33 genes NC_000016.10:g.(?_29627836)_(30184960_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545203 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:29627836-30184960
34 overlap with 29 genes NC_000016.10:g.(?_28351819)_(29325073_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545197 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 16:28351819-29325073
35 overlap with 26 genes NC_000017.11:g.(?_36357256)_(37995300_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545220 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 17:36357256-37995300
36 overlap with 88 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18159879)_(21362822_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545256 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18159879-21362822
37 overlap with 89 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18159879)_(21387988_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545257 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18159879-21387988
38 overlap with 86 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18163926)_(21277123_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545258 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18163926-21277123
39 overlap with 79 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18802709)_(21343709_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545259 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18802709-21343709
40 overlap with 76 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18832909)_(21123588_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545260 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18832909-21123588
41 overlap with 78 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18846939)_(21221413_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545261 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18846939-21221413
42 overlap with 56 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18880919)_(20346734_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545262 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18880919-20346734
43 overlap with 76 genes NC_000022.11:g.(?_18880919)_(21123588_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545263 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 22:18880919-21123588
44 overlap with 54 genes NC_000001.11:g.(?_145430995)_(148257619_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545142 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 1:145430995-148257619
45 overlap with 65 genes NC_000001.11:g.(?_145430995)_(148427734_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545143 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 1:145430995-148427734
46 overlap with 71 genes NC_000001.11:g.(?_145580669)_(149095000_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545144 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 1:145580669-149095000
47 overlap with 131 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545171 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:23157975-28774125
48 overlap with 129 genes Duplication Pathogenic 545172 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 15:23319712-28684313
49 overlap with 1297 genes Duplication Pathogenic 488014 GRCh37:
GRCh38: X:1-156040895
50 overlap with 36 genes NC_000003.12:g.(?_195990063)_(197617301_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 545294 GRCh37:
GRCh38: 3:195990063-197617301

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Schizophrenia:

72
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 RTN4R p.Arg119Trp VAR_079154 rs74315508
2 RTN4R p.Arg196His VAR_079155 rs74315509
3 RTN4R p.Arg292His VAR_079231 rs143203356
4 RTN4R p.Arg377Gln VAR_079235 rs779384862
5 RTN4R p.Arg377Trp VAR_079236 rs748655075

Copy number variations for Schizophrenia from CNVD:

7 (show top 50) (show all 5299)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 13368 1 1 16700000 Deletion Schizophrenia
2 13397 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F16 Schizophrenia
3 13398 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F29 Schizophrenia
4 13399 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F3 Schizophrenia
5 13400 1 1 2300000 Gain OR4F5 Schizophrenia
6 13737 1 1 247249719 Deletion Schizophrenia
7 13808 1 1 6300000 Copy number Schizophrenia
8 13997 1 102428272 102625426 Deletion Schizophrenia
9 14001 1 102628520 102630703 Deletion Schizophrenia
10 14084 1 103900163 104069733 Duplication Schizophrenia
11 14085 1 103904299 104069733 Duplication Schizophrenia
12 14102 1 103957313 104069733 Deletion Schizophrenia
13 14103 1 103957313 104069733 Duplication Schizophrenia
14 14105 1 103958672 104069733 Deletion Schizophrenia
15 14106 1 103959820 104069733 Deletion Schizophrenia
16 14107 1 103960858 104069733 Deletion Schizophrenia
17 14335 1 107200000 111800000 Copy number Schizophrenia
18 14450 1 108512791 108702882 Deletion Schizophrenia
19 15499 1 1161232 1266721 Deletion Schizophrenia
20 15950 1 120437237 120490996 Duplication Schizophrenia
21 15994 1 120870371 121045604 Duplication Schizophrenia
22 16564 1 12768438 12920855 Deletion Schizophrenia
23 16565 1 12768438 13081658 Deletion Schizophrenia
24 16566 1 12768438 13304227 Deletion Schizophrenia
25 16576 1 12775335 12920855 Deletion Schizophrenia
26 17280 1 142400000 148000000 Copy number Schizophrenia
27 17281 1 142400000 148000000 Copy number Schizophrenia
28 17287 1 142400000 148000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
29 17288 1 142400000 148000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
30 17289 1 142400000 148000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
31 17290 1 142400000 148000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
32 17291 1 142400000 148000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
33 17292 1 142400000 148000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
34 17311 1 142400000 148000000 Gain FCGR1A Schizophrenia
35 17313 1 142400000 148000000 Gain H2BC18 Schizophrenia
36 17315 1 142400000 148000000 Gain PPIAL4A Schizophrenia
37 17331 1 142400000 148000000 Microduplication Schizophrenia
38 17358 1 142557948 142697860 Duplication Schizophrenia
39 17373 1 142600000 147000000 Copy number Schizophrenia
40 17379 1 142600000 147000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
41 17380 1 142600000 147000000 Deletion Schizophrenia
42 17381 1 142600000