Schizophrenia (SCZD)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Schizophrenia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Schizophrenia:

Name: Schizophrenia 56 12 74 25 73 36 29 13 54 6 42 43 15 37 39 17 71 32
Schizophrenia with or Without an Affective Disorder 56 73
Schizophrenia, Susceptibility to 56 6
Schizophrenia 12 56 71
Sczd 56 73
Dementia Praecox 25
Schizophrenia 1 71
Schizophrenia-1 12



autosomal dominant

genetic heterogeneity
onset often in late adolescence
symptoms must occur for 6 months including 1 month of characteristic symptoms (e.g. delusions) to make diagnosis
multiple gene loci involved in causation of schizophrenia


Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance heterogeneous


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:5419
OMIM 56 181500
KEGG 36 H01649
ICD9CM 34 295
MeSH 43 D012559
NCIt 49 C3362
SNOMED-CT 67 58214004
ICD10 32 F20 F20.9
UMLS 71 C0036341 C0220702 C1837893

Summaries for Schizophrenia

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, which means that it affects a person's thinking, sense of self, and perceptions. The disorder typically becomes evident during late adolescence or early adulthood. Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia include false perceptions called hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations of voices are the most common hallucinations in schizophrenia, but affected individuals can also experience hallucinations of visions, smells, or touch (tactile) sensations. Strongly held false beliefs (delusions) are also characteristic of schizophrenia. For example, affected individuals may be certain that they are a particular historical figure or that they are being plotted against or controlled by others. People with schizophrenia often have decreased ability to function at school, at work, and in social settings. Disordered thinking and concentration, inappropriate emotional responses, erratic speech and behavior, and difficulty with personal hygiene and everyday tasks can also occur. People with schizophrenia may have diminished facial expression and animation (flat affect), and in some cases become unresponsive (catatonic). Substance abuse and suicidal thoughts and actions are common in people with schizophrenia. Certain movement problems such as tremors, facial tics, rigidity, and unusually slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia) are common in people with schizophrenia. In most cases these are side effects of medicines prescribed to help control the disorder. However, some affected individuals exhibit movement abnormalities before beginning treatment with medication. Some people with schizophrenia have mild impairment of intellectual function, but schizophrenia is not associated with the same types of physical changes in the brain that occur in people with dementias such as Alzheimer disease. Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are different from mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder, which primarily affect emotions. However, these disorders often occur together. Individuals who exhibit strong features of both schizophrenia and mood disorders are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder.

MalaCards based summary : Schizophrenia, also known as schizophrenia with or without an affective disorder, is related to schizoaffective disorder and paranoid schizophrenia, and has symptoms including photophobia, restlessness and personality changes. An important gene associated with Schizophrenia is RTN4R (Reticulon 4 Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Dopaminergic synapse and Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. The drugs Huperzine A and Linagliptin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and cortex, and related phenotypes are eeg abnormality and hallucinations

Disease Ontology : 12 A psychotic disorder that is characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.

OMIM : 56 Schizophrenia is a psychosis, a disorder of thought and sense of self. Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. There is no characteristic pathology, such as neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (104300). Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1%. It is highly heritable but the genetics are complex. This may not be a single entity. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (see 125480) are generally considered to be separate entities, but patients who exhibit multiple symptoms of both disorders are often given the hybrid diagnosis schizoaffective disorder (Blacker and Tsuang, 1992). (181500)

MedlinePlus : 42 Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. They may think other people are trying to hurt them. Sometimes they don't make sense when they talk. The disorder makes it hard for them to keep a job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men often develop symptoms at a younger age than women. People usually do not get schizophrenia after age 45. There are three types of symptoms: Psychotic symptoms distort a person's thinking. These include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (beliefs that are not true), trouble organizing thoughts, and strange movements. "Negative" symptoms make it difficult to show emotions and to function normally. A person may seem depressed and withdrawn. Cognitive symptoms affect the thought process. These include trouble using information, making decisions, and paying attention. No one is sure what causes schizophrenia. Your genes, environment, and brain chemistry may play a role. There is no cure. Medicine can help control many of the symptoms. You may need to try different medicines to see which works best. You should stay on your medicine for as long as your doctor recommends. Additional treatments can help you deal with your illness from day to day. These include therapy, family education, rehabilitation, and skills training. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

KEGG : 36 Schizophrenia is a common serious psychotic illness that typically emerges in late adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by hallucinations and delusions (commonly known as positive symptoms), social withdrawal, alogia, and flat affect (negative symptoms), and cognitive disabilities. While treatments exist for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, there is no effective therapy to prevent the cognitive impairments. The disorder is substantially heritable, but expression of the clinical phenotype is likely to involve the interplay of multiple susceptibility variants, epigenetic factors, and environmental influences. Although it has been suggested that many of the promising candidate genes are involved in the development and maintenance of synaptic function, the most of them remains to be identified. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying schizophrenia are unknown, but observers have repeatedly noted pathological features involving excessive loss of gray matter and reduced numbers of synaptic structures on neurons. Recently, it has been found that alleles of the C4 genes are associated with schizophrenia in proportion to their tendency to promote greater expression of C4A in the brain.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Schizophrenia: A complex, multifactorial psychotic disorder or group of disorders characterized by disturbances in the form and content of thought (e.g. delusions, hallucinations), in mood (e.g. inappropriate affect), in sense of self and relationship to the external world (e.g. loss of ego boundaries, withdrawal), and in behavior (e.g bizarre or apparently purposeless behavior). Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. Some patients manifest schizophrenic as well as bipolar disorder symptoms and are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder.

Wikipedia : 74 Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis. Major... more...

Related Diseases for Schizophrenia

Diseases in the Schizophrenia family:

Schizophrenia 1 Schizophrenia 3
Schizophrenia 4 Schizophrenia 6
Schizophrenia 5 Schizophrenia 7
Schizophrenia 8 Schizophrenia 2
Schizophrenia 9 Schizophrenia 10
Schizophrenia 11 Schizophrenia 12
Schizophrenia 14 Schizophrenia 13
Schizophrenia 15 Schizophrenia 16
Schizophrenia 18 Schizophrenia 19
Early-Onset Schizophrenia

Diseases related to Schizophrenia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1166)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 schizoaffective disorder 36.2 RTN4R NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2
2 paranoid schizophrenia 36.2 NRXN1 MIAT HTR2A DISC1 COMT
3 psychotic disorder 35.2 SYN2 RTN4R NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3
4 schizophrenia 2 35.1 DISC2 DISC1
5 bipolar disorder 34.3 SYN2 NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2
6 schizophreniform disorder 34.3 HTR2A DRD3 DISC1 COMT
7 velocardiofacial syndrome 33.7 NRXN1 DISC1 COMT
8 asperger syndrome 33.5 NRXN1 DISC1 COMT
9 autism 33.4 SYN2 NRXN1 MTHFR MBD5 HTR2A EHMT1
10 mood disorder 33.4 HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 DAOA COMT
11 autism spectrum disorder 33.4 NRXN1 MTHFR MC4R MBD5 HTR2A EHMT1
12 schizotypal personality disorder 33.3 DISC1 DAOA COMT
13 major depressive disorder 33.3 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 DISC2 DISC1 COMT
14 substance abuse 33.1 MIAT HTR2A DRD3 COMT
15 mental depression 33.1 HTR2A DRD3 DISC1 COMT
16 tardive dyskinesia 33.0 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
17 personality disorder 32.9 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
18 tobacco addiction 32.8 NRXN1 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 COMT
19 alcohol use disorder 32.7 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 COMT
20 delusional disorder 32.7 HTR2A DRD3
21 disease of mental health 32.7 NRXN1 HTR2A DRD3 DISC1 COMT
22 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 32.6 MTHFR MC4R HTR2A DRD3 COMT
23 bipolar i disorder 32.5 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
24 pervasive developmental disorder 32.2 NRXN1 MBD5 HTR2A EHMT1 DRD3 DISC1
25 panic disorder 32.2 HTR2A DRD3 DAOA COMT
26 eating disorder 32.2 MC4R HTR2A DRD3 COMT
27 cyclothymic disorder 32.0 HTR2A DISC1 DAOA COMT
28 tic disorder 31.9 NRXN1 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
29 gilles de la tourette syndrome 31.9 NRXN1 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
30 migraine with or without aura 1 31.8 MTHFR HTR2A DRD3 COMT
31 cocaine dependence 31.8 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
32 substance-induced psychosis 31.8 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
33 pathological gambling 31.5 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
34 anorexia nervosa 31.5 MC4R HTR2A COMT
35 bulimia nervosa 31.4 MC4R HTR2A COMT
36 impulse control disorder 31.2 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
37 pitt-hopkins syndrome 31.2 NRXN1 MBD5 EHMT1
38 polysubstance abuse 31.0 DRD3 COMT
39 drug psychosis 30.9 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
40 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 30.9 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
41 hypertension, essential 30.9 MTHFR MIR30E MC4R HTR2A DRD3 COMT
42 intermittent explosive disorder 30.8 HTR2A COMT
43 schizophrenia 15 12.7
44 schizophrenia 4 12.7
45 schizophrenia 18 12.7
46 schizophrenia 9 12.7
47 childhood-onset schizophrenia 12.6
48 schizophrenia 1 12.6
49 schizophrenia 6 12.6
50 schizophrenia 13 12.6

Comorbidity relations with Schizophrenia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 16)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Alzheimer Disease Bipolar Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease Hypothyroidism
Iron Deficiency Anemia Major Depressive Disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Tardive Dyskinesia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Schizophrenia:

Diseases related to Schizophrenia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Schizophrenia

Human phenotypes related to Schizophrenia:

31 (show all 6)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 eeg abnormality 31 very rare (1%) HP:0002353
2 hallucinations 31 HP:0000738
3 schizophrenia 31 HP:0100753
4 delusions 31 HP:0000746
5 social and occupational deterioration 31 HP:0007086
6 negativism 31 HP:0410291

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

Neurologic Central Nervous System:
social and occupational deterioration
disorganized speech
Laboratory Abnormalities:
abnormal eeg in 25% hospitalized patients

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Schizophrenia:

photophobia, restlessness, personality changes, pseudobulbar behavioral symptoms, sleep disturbances

Drugs & Therapeutics for Schizophrenia

Drugs for Schizophrenia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 599)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Huperzine A Approved, Experimental Phase 4 102518-79-6
Linagliptin Approved Phase 4 668270-12-0 10096344
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
Famotidine Approved Phase 4 76824-35-6 3325
Asenapine Approved Phase 4 65576-45-6, 85650-56-2 3001386
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
Nizatidine Approved Phase 4 76963-41-2 3033637
Carbon monoxide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 630-08-0 281
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 161796-78-7, 119141-88-7, 161973-10-0 9568614 4594
Flunarizine Approved Phase 4 52468-60-7 941361
Telmisartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 144701-48-4 65999
Molindone Approved Phase 4 7416-34-4 23897
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 5311068 68602
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
Curcumin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 458-37-7 969516
Trifluoperazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 117-89-5 5566
20 Coconut Approved Phase 4
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1744-22-5 5070
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
Rasagiline Approved Phase 4 136236-51-6 3052776
Pramlintide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 151126-32-8
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 122320-73-4 77999
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 1302 156391
Brexpiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 913611-97-9 11978813
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
Aripiprazole lauroxil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1259305-29-7 49831411
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10118-90-8 5281021
gamma-Aminobutyric acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-12-2 119
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 50-36-2 446220 5760
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
Bazedoxifene Approved, Investigational Phase 4 198481-32-2
Loxapine Approved Phase 4 1977-10-2 3964
Infliximab Approved Phase 4 170277-31-3
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Sulfamethazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-68-1 5327
Vortioxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 508233-74-7 9966051
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 4474-91-3, 11128-99-7, 68521-88-0 172198
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Amantadine Approved Phase 4 768-94-5 2130
Iloperidone Approved Phase 4 133454-47-4 71360
Chlorpromazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-53-3 2726

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 3291)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 4 Study of Efficacy and Safety of Tandospirone Combined With Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs to Improve Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02040883 Phase 4 Risperidone/Olanzapine/Quetiapine/Ziprasidone/Aripiprazole;Tandospirone
2 Donepezil Adjunctive Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01490567 Phase 4 Donepezil;placebo
3 Switch Risperidone to Aripiprazole in Early Stage of Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00352339 Phase 4 Rispridoen and Aripiprazole;Risperidne;Abilify
4 Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Clozapine and Aripiprazole Versus Clozapine and Haloperidol in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. An Independent, Pragmatic, Multicentre, Parallel-Group, Superiority Trial. Unknown status NCT00395915 Phase 4 aripiprazole
5 Identifying Predictors of Response in 12 Weeks of Treatment With Antipsychotics Using a Treatment Algorithm for Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01016145 Phase 4 Antipsychotics;Antipsychotics
6 A Randomized, Multi-site, Parallel-group, Rater-blind Study Comparing Response With Aripiprazole Once Monthly and Standard of Care Oral Antipsychotics in Non-adherent Outpatients With Schizophrenia Identified Using the Brief Adherence Rating Scale Unknown status NCT02282085 Phase 4 Aripiprazole Once-Monthly;Oral Antipsychotic (i.e. aripiprazole, risperidone, lurasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, etc)
7 A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Guanfacine Adjunctive Treatment to Atypical Antipsychotics for Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00469664 Phase 4 Guanfacine/Tenex
8 Double-blind Clinical Trial Controlled With Placebo of the Efficacy of Reboxetine and Citalopram as an Adjunct Treatment to Second Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01300364 Phase 4 Reboxetine;citalopram (SSRI)
9 Omega-3 Fatty Acids in First-episode Schizophrenia - a Randomized Controlled Study of Efficacy and Relapse Prevention (OFFER). Rationale, Design, and Methods. Unknown status NCT02210962 Phase 4
10 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
11 Identification and Treatment of the Liability to Develop Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00305474 Phase 4 Risperidone
12 Contrasting the Brain Effects of Risperidone and Invega With fMRI and PET Scanning Unknown status NCT00937261 Phase 4 Risperidone;Paliperidone
13 Minocycline as an Adjunctive Therapy for Schizophrenia: a Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT01133080 Phase 4 Minocycline;placebo
14 Pilot Double Blind, Placebo Controlled and Randomized Study to Assess Electroconvulsive Therapy Efficacy as Augmenting Strategy to Clozapine in Super-refractory Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT02049021 Phase 4
15 Clinical Evaluation of Acupuncture Treatment for Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT03802838 Phase 4 Amisulpride
16 Huperzine-A for Cognitive Dysfunction and Functional Status in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT01012830 Phase 4 Huperzine A
17 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Used to Treat Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00186771 Phase 4
18 A Five Year, Prospective, Randomized, Blinded, Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Modified Diabetes Prevention Protocol and the Standard Comprehensive Outpatient Care in Lowering the Incidence of New Onset Diabetes Among People Treated for Schizophrenia and Are at Risk to Develop Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Unknown status NCT00182494 Phase 4
19 Donepezil Double Blind Trial for ECT Memory Disfunction Unknown status NCT00465283 Phase 4 Donepezil
20 Tolerability And Efficacy Of High Dose Escitalopram In The Treatment Of Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - An Open Label Study Unknown status NCT00708396 Phase 4 Escitalopram
21 The Effect of a Community-based Long-acting Antipsychotic-treated Management Model on the Violence Risk of Patients With Schizophrenia: a 1-year, Open-label Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT03080194 Phase 4 paliperidone palmitate;control group
22 Optimization of Acute Treatment in First Episode Schizophrenic Patients by New Pharmacological Treatments Unknown status NCT00157378 Phase 4 Risperidone, Haloperidol
23 A Pilot Study to Determine How Frequency of Administration Modifies Steady-State Plasma Concentrations of Orally Administered Clozapine Unknown status NCT02286206 Phase 4 Clozapine
24 An Open-label Switch Study to Asenapine in the Early Stage of Psychosis Unknown status NCT01968161 Phase 4 Asenapine
25 Linagliptin and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02442817 Phase 4 Linagliptin
26 Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Quetiapine Fumarate Instant-Release (Seroquel IR) in Controlling Agitation and Aggressive Symptoms in the Acute Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00838032 Phase 4 Quetiapine fumarate;Haloperidol
27 Association of the Amisulpride Treatment Response in Patients With Schizophrenia With the Findings of Brain Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unknown status NCT02095938 Phase 4 amisulpride
28 Effectiveness of Long-Acting Risperidone in the Maintenance Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia Unknown status NCT00220714 Phase 4 atypical antipsychotics:oral vs. long-acting route
29 Comparison of Cognitive Functions of Schizophrenic Patients Treated With Sertindole Versus Risperidone Unknown status NCT00480844 Phase 4 Sertindole;Risperidone
30 Are Antipsychotics Neurotoxic or Neuroprotective? A Long-term Comparison of Two Treatment Strategies Unknown status NCT02435095 Phase 4 Maintenance treatment;Intermittent treatment
31 A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial on Comparing Escitalopram and Duloxetine add-on for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenic Subjects With Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) Risk Genotype Unknown status NCT01078870 Phase 4 Lexapro;Cymbalta;Placebo
32 A Study on the Efficacy, Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Effects of Paliperidone ER Unknown status NCT02433717 Phase 4 Paliperidone ER
33 Changes of Heart Rate Variability in Schizophrenic and Bipolar Patients Under the Medication of Aripiprazole and Quetiapine Unknown status NCT01047215 Phase 4 Aripiprazole; Quetiapine
34 Determining the Efficacy and Tolerance of Quetiapine Extended Release (XR) for the Management of Psychotic Aggression or Agitation in Adult Acute Psychiatry Unknown status NCT00986167 Phase 4 Quetiapine XR
35 A Multi-Center,Open-Labeled,Intervention Study:The Efficacy And Safety Of Intramuscular Ziprasidone For Three Days In Patients With Psychotic Agitation Unknown status NCT02935998 Phase 4 Ziprasidone
36 The Monitor of Serum Prolactin Level and Related Clinical Observations Among Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Illnesses in a 3 Months Aripiprazole Trial Unknown status NCT00468533 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
37 Clinical Psychopharmacology Division Institute of Mental Health, Peking University Unknown status NCT03148509 Phase 4 risperidone;aripiprazole;bupropion
38 Phase IV Study of Effects of 'Seroquel-XR' on the Improvement of Neurocognitive Function in People At-risk Mental States(ARMS) Unknown status NCT01250847 Phase 4 Quetiapine(Seroquel-XR) 50~800mg a day
39 An Open Label, Multicenter, Single Arm, 4-Week Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Flexible Dose of Quetiapine Fumarate (Seroquel) Switching From Other Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Manic Patients With Bipolar Disorder Unknown status NCT00837343 Phase 4 quetiapine fumarate tablet (Seroquel)
40 Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk in Severe Mental Illness Prescribing and Using Better and More Appropriated Drugs Unknown status NCT01182012 Phase 4
41 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia by Aripiprazole Add-on Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Open-Label Trial Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
42 Assessment and Follow Up Study of Children and Adolescent With Bipolar Disorder Unknown status NCT01000402 Phase 4 Psychopharmacotherapy
43 Integrated Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers With Serious Mental Illness Unknown status NCT02845440 Phase 4
44 Open Label Prophylaxis Study of Lithium Plus Extended- Release Carbamazepine (Equetro®) Combination for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder Unknown status NCT00325286 Phase 4 Lithium Plus Extended- Release Carbamazepine
45 Evaluation Whether Higher Retention Rate is in Those of Combined Methadone With N-Acetyl-Cysteine Compared to Those With Methadone Alone During a Six-month Study Unknown status NCT01047956 Phase 4 Methadone; NAC;Methadone
46 Post Marketing Clinical Study of Aripiprazole in Patients With Schizophrenia - Effects on Glucose Metabolism- Completed NCT00392197 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
47 The Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Cortical Erosion in Early Stage Schizophrenia Completed NCT01339858 Phase 4 N-Acetyl Cysteine
48 Safety and Efficacy of Seroquel in First Episode Schizophrenia Completed NCT00254241 Phase 4 Seroquel and Risperidone
49 Olanzapine Versus An Active Comparator in the Treatment of Schizophrenia Completed NCT00036088 Phase 4 Olanzapine
50 Phase 4 Memantine as Adjunctive Therapy for Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms in Patients Using Clozapine. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controled Study Completed NCT00757978 Phase 4 memantine;placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Schizophrenia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Acetophenazine maleate
aripiprazole lauroxil
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride
Cyproheptadine hydrochloride
fluphenazine decanoate
Fluphenazine enanthate
Fluphenazine Hydrochloride
haloperidol decanoate
Haloperidol lactate
Mesoridazine besylate
Molindone Hydrochloride
Mylan brand of clozapine
selegiline hydrochloride
Thioridazine Hydrochloride
Thiothixene hydrochloride
Trifluoperazine hydrochloride
UDL brand of clozapine
ziprasidone hydrochloride
Ziprasidone mesylate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: schizophrenia

Genetic Tests for Schizophrenia

Genetic tests related to Schizophrenia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes

Anatomical Context for Schizophrenia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Schizophrenia:

Brain, Testes, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Eye, Temporal Lobe, Heart

Publications for Schizophrenia

Articles related to Schizophrenia:

(show top 50) (show all 32121)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Mutations of the Nogo-66 receptor (RTN4R) gene in schizophrenia. 61 54 6 56
15532024 2004
Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database. 6 56
18583979 2008
Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. 61 54 56
19571808 2009
Replication of 1q42 linkage in Finnish schizophrenia pedigrees. 54 56 61
15197400 2004
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1): association with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder. 61 54 56
15386212 2004
Confirming RGS4 as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. 56 61 54
14755443 2004
A highly significant association between a COMT haplotype and schizophrenia. 61 54 56
12402217 2002
Association and linkage analyses of RGS4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia. 61 54 56
12023979 2002
Gene expression analysis in schizophrenia: reproducible up-regulation of several members of the apolipoprotein L family located in a high-susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 22. 56 54 61
11930015 2002
Chromosome 1 loci in Finnish schizophrenia families. 54 56 61
11468279 2001
Association between schizophrenia and T102C polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2a-receptor gene. European Multicentre Association Study of Schizophrenia (EMASS) Group. 54 61 6
8622505 1996
Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. 61 56
25056061 2014
De novo mutations in schizophrenia implicate synaptic networks. 61 56
24463507 2014
A polygenic burden of rare disruptive mutations in schizophrenia. 61 56
24463508 2014
Exome sequencing supports a de novo mutational paradigm for schizophrenia. 56 61
21822266 2011
Increased exonic de novo mutation rate in individuals with schizophrenia. 56 61
21743468 2011
Modelling schizophrenia using human induced pluripotent stem cells. 61 56
21490598 2011
Microdeletions of 3q29 confer high risk for schizophrenia. 56 61
20691406 2010
Schizophrenia. 56 61
19700006 2009
Identification of a schizophrenia-associated functional noncoding variant in NOS1AP. 61 56
19255043 2009
Evidence for a role of the NOS1AP (CAPON) gene in schizophrenia and its clinical dimensions: an association study in a South American population isolate. 54 56
19077434 2009
Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia. 56 61
18668038 2008
Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia. 56 61
18668039 2008
The DISC locus in psychiatric illness. 54 56
17912248 2008
HLA-B maternal-fetal genotype matching increases risk of schizophrenia. 56 61
16960807 2006
Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. 54 56
16767099 2006
DRD2 promoter region variation as a predictor of sustained response to antipsychotic medication in first-episode schizophrenia patients. 56 54
16513877 2006
Failure to confirm association between RGS4 haplotypes and schizophrenia in Caucasians. 56 54
16082709 2005
DISC1 and PDE4B are interacting genetic factors in schizophrenia that regulate cAMP signaling. 56 54
16293762 2005
Increased expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of CAPON in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. 56 54
16146415 2005
Hyperhomocysteinemia, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype, and the risk for schizophrenia: a Dutch population based case-control study. 54 56
15806605 2005
Association of the carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene with schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. 56 54
15707951 2005
Association of Ala72Ser polymorphism with COMT enzyme activity and the risk of schizophrenia in Koreans. 6 54
15645182 2005
BDNF gene is a risk factor for schizophrenia in a Scottish population. 54 56
15630410 2005
Genetic polymorphisms of the RGS4 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex morphometry among first episode schizophrenia patients. 54 56
15381923 2005
Family-based association study of synapsin II and schizophrenia. 61 56
15449241 2004
Association of the DTNBP1 locus with schizophrenia in a U.S. population. 54 56
15362017 2004
Positive association between synapsin II and schizophrenia. 61 56
15271586 2004
Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) gene is associated with schizophrenia in Irish high density families. 54 56
15274033 2004
Multicenter linkage study of schizophrenia loci on chromosome 22q. 61 56
15007391 2004
Linkage disequilibrium mapping of schizophrenia susceptibility to the CAPON region of chromosome 1q22. 56 54
15065015 2004
Getting our AKT together in schizophrenia? 56 61
14752519 2004
Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. 56 61
14745448 2004
Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects. 54 56
14532331 2003
Recent advances in the genetics of schizophrenia. 56 61
12952866 2003
The schizophrenia phenotype in 22q11 deletion syndrome. 61 56
12944331 2003
Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part II: Schizophrenia. 56 61
12802786 2003
Association between a functional catechol O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and schizophrenia: meta-analysis of case-control and family-based studies. 56 54
12611827 2003
RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility increases schizophrenia susceptibility. 56 61
12439825 2002
Is schizophrenia linked to chromosome 1q? 56 61
12493873 2002

Variations for Schizophrenia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Schizophrenia:

6 (show top 50) (show all 208) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 COMT NM_000754.3(COMT):c.214G>T (p.Ala72Ser)SNV drug response,risk factor 17592 rs6267 22:19950263-19950263 22:19962740-19962740
2 MC4R NM_005912.2(MC4R):c.105C>A (p.Tyr35Ter)SNV Pathogenic 14318 rs13447324 18:58039478-58039478 18:60372245-60372245
3 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.2171dup (p.Ala725fs)duplication Pathogenic 224653 rs869312832 16:30977372-30977373 16:30966051-30966052
4 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.518-2A>GSNV Pathogenic 224650 rs869312829 16:30974752-30974752 16:30963431-30963431
5 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.1272del (p.Tyr425fs)deletion Pathogenic 224651 rs869312830 16:30976335-30976335 16:30965014-30965014
6 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.1938C>G (p.Tyr646Ter)SNV Pathogenic 224654 rs770913157 16:30977140-30977140 16:30965819-30965819
7 SETD1A NM_014712.3(SETD1A):c.2209C>T (p.Gln737Ter)SNV Pathogenic 224652 rs869312831 16:30977411-30977411 16:30966090-30966090
8 MBD5 , ORC4 NC_000002.12:g.(?_147990605)_(148350066_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545246 2:147990605-148350066
9 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148139385)_(148242336_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545247 2:148139385-148242336
10 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148157591)_(148226058_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545248 2:148157591-148226058
11 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148158424)_(148226279_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545249 2:148158424-148226279
12 MBD5 NC_000002.12:g.(?_148211972)_(148423169_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545250 2:148211972-148423169
13 NRXN1 NC_000002.12:g.(?_50721552)_(50944617_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545279 2:50721552-50944617
14 LOC730100 , NRXN1 NC_000002.12:g.(?_50836961)_(51084060_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545280 2:50836961-51084060
15 LOC730100 , NRXN1 NC_000002.12:g.(?_50975328)_(51121693_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545281 2:50975328-51121693
16 subset of 29 genes: SH2B1 NC_000016.10:g.(?_28351819)_(29325073_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545197 16:28351819-29325073
17 subset of 40 genes: PRRT2 duplication Pathogenic 545200 16:29480853-30254620
18 subset of 33 genes: PRRT2 duplication Pathogenic 545202 16:29614026-30184960
19 subset of 33 genes: PRRT2 NC_000016.10:g.(?_29627836)_(30184960_?)deldeletion Pathogenic 545203 16:29627836-30184960
20 subset of 33 genes: PRRT2 duplication Pathogenic 545204 16:29627836-30184960
21 subset of 1263 genes: ABCD1 , ACSL4 , AFF2 , ANOS1 , AP1S2 , AR , ARHGEF9 , ARSL , ARX , ATP7A , ATRX , AVPR2 , BCOR , BRWD3 , BTK , CASK , CCNQ , CD40LG , CDKL5 , CHM , CHRDL1 , CLCN4 , CLCN5 , CNKSR2 , COL4A5 , CUL4B , CYBB , DCX , DDX3X , DKC1 , DLG3 , DMD ,