Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Scotoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Scotoma:

Name: Scotoma 12 74 15
Generalized Visual Field Contraction or Constriction 12
Sector or Arcuate Visual Field Defects 12
Enlarged Paracaecal Scotoma 12
Scotoma of Blind Spot Area 12
Blind Spot Area Scotoma 12
Enlarged Angioscotoma 12
Enlarged Blind Spot 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9335
ICD9CM 34 368.42 368.44
SNOMED-CT 67 33970004
ICD10 32 H53.42 H53.45
UMLS 71 C0029657 C0152192

Summaries for Scotoma

MalaCards based summary : Scotoma, also known as generalized visual field contraction or constriction, is related to optic atrophy 7 with or without auditory neuropathy and optic atrophy 5. An important gene associated with Scotoma is ABCA4 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Phototransduction and Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins. The drugs Ranibizumab and Verteporfin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, testes and cortex, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Wikipedia : 74 A scotoma is an area of partial alteration in the field of vision consisting of a partially diminished... more...

Related Diseases for Scotoma

Diseases related to Scotoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 228)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 optic atrophy 7 with or without auditory neuropathy 32.5 TMEM126A OPA3 MT-ND6
2 optic atrophy 5 32.0 TMEM126A OPA3 OPA1 MT-ND6 MT-ND4 DNM1L
3 intraocular pressure quantitative trait locus 31.1 VEGFA OPA1 AQP4
4 cone-rod dystrophy 2 31.0 RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D CYP4V2 CNGB3
5 acute retrobulbar neuritis 30.9 MT-ND4 AQP4
6 macular holes 30.6 VEGFA RPE65 KCNMA1
7 optic neuritis 30.6 VEGFA MT-ND6 MT-ND4 AQP4
8 macular retinal edema 30.5 VEGFA RHO KCNMA1
9 optic disk drusen 30.3 RPGR RHO KCNMA1
10 retinitis 30.0 RPGR RPE65 RHO EYS ABCA4
11 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 30.0 VEGFA RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D ABCA4
12 toxic optic neuropathy 29.8 TMEM126A OPA3 MT-ND6 MT-ND4 AQP4
13 tritanopia 29.8 TMEM126A RHO OPN4 OPA3 MT-ND4
14 retinal disease 29.5 RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D EYS CNGB3
15 optic nerve disease 29.5 VEGFA TMEM126A OPN4 OPA3 OPA1 MT-ND6
16 pathologic nystagmus 29.4 RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D CNGB3 ABCA4
17 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type iii 29.4 TMEM126A OPN4 OPA3 OPA1 MT-ND6 MT-ND4
18 stargardt disease 29.4 RPGR RPE65 RHO KCNMA1 GUCY2D EYS
19 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 29.3 VEGFA RPGR RPE65 RHO RCVRN OPN4
20 night blindness 29.3 RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D CYP4V2 ABCA4
21 cone dystrophy 29.3 RPGR RPE65 RHO GUCY2D EYS CNGB3
22 retinal degeneration 28.6 RPGR RPE65 RHO RCVRN OPN4 GUCY2D
23 eye disease 28.1 VEGFA RPGR RPE65 RHO RCVRN OPN4
24 leber optic atrophy 28.0 TMEM126A RPGR RPE65 OPN4 OPA3 OPA1
25 retinitis pigmentosa 27.2 VEGFA RPGR RPE65 RHO RCVRN OPN4
26 migraine with or without aura 1 11.5
27 optic atrophy 1 11.4
28 citrullinemia, classic 11.1
29 mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome 11.1
30 birdshot chorioretinopathy 11.1
31 optic atrophy 9 11.1
32 familial hemiplegic migraine 11.1
33 sporadic hemiplegic migraine 11.1
34 nutritional optic neuropathy 10.5 OPA3 MT-ND4
35 optic atrophy with or without deafness, ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, ataxia, and neuropathy 10.5 OPA1 DNM1L
36 stargardt macular degeneration 10.5 RHO ABCA4
37 interval angle-closure glaucoma 10.5 RCVRN ABCA4
38 solar retinopathy 10.5 RHO ABCA4
39 suppression amblyopia 10.4
40 amblyopia 10.4
41 partial central choroid dystrophy 10.4 GUCY2D ABCA4
42 hereditary choroidal atrophy 10.4 GUCY2D ABCA4
43 drug-induced hearing loss 10.4 MT-ND6 MT-ND4
44 patterned macular dystrophy 10.4 VEGFA RHO
45 strabismus 10.4
46 mechanical strabismus 10.4
47 optic atrophy 2 10.4 TMEM126A OPA3
48 optic atrophy 8 10.4 TMEM126A OPA3 MT-ND4
49 behr syndrome 10.4 TMEM126A OPA3 OPA1
50 cone-rod dystrophy 5 10.4 RCVRN GUCY2D

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Scotoma:

Diseases related to Scotoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Scotoma

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Scotoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 13)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-1 10.09 GUCY2D
2 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 10.09 GUCY2D
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 10.09 GUCY2D
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 10.09 GUCY2D
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 10.09 GUCY2D
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 10.09 GUCY2D
7 Decreased viability GR00240-S-1 10.09 GUCY2D
8 Decreased viability GR00249-S 10.09 CYP4V2 DNM1L EYS GUCY2D OPN4 PLAAT3
9 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 10.09 DNM1L OPA1 OPN4
10 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 10.09 OPN4
11 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 10.09 DNM1L GUCY2D OPA1 PLAAT3
12 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 10.09 CYP4V2 GUCY2D MT-ND6 PLAAT3 RHO
13 Increased the percentage of infected cells GR00402-S-1 8.32 CYP4V2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Scotoma:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.1 ABCA4 AQP4 CYP4V2 DNM1L GUCY2D MT-ND6
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.02 ABCA4 AQP4 DNM1L KCNMA1 MT-ND6 OPA1
3 nervous system MP:0003631 9.8 ABCA4 AQP4 CNGB3 DNM1L GUCY2D KCNMA1
4 muscle MP:0005369 9.7 DNM1L KCNMA1 MT-ND6 OPA1 OPA3 RPGR
5 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.5 ABCA4 AQP4 CNGB3 CYP4V2 DNM1L GUCY2D

Drugs & Therapeutics for Scotoma

Drugs for Scotoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 24)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4 347396-82-1 459903
Verteporfin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129497-78-5
3 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4
Latanoprost Approved, Investigational 130209-82-4 5311221 5282380
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational 68-04-2
Dipivefrin Approved 52365-63-6 3105
Nortriptyline Approved 72-69-5 4543
Topiramate Approved 97240-79-4 5284627
Lutein Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 127-40-2 6433159
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 77-92-9 311
11 Anesthetics
12 Proxymetacaine
13 Citrate
14 Insulin, Globin Zinc
15 Mitogens
16 insulin
17 Omega 3 Fatty Acid
18 Antidepressive Agents
19 Hypoglycemic Agents
20 Adrenergic Agents
21 Psychotropic Drugs
22 Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
23 Anticonvulsants
24 Neurotransmitter Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 38)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of Lucentis (Ranibizumab) in Patients With CNV Due to Causes Other Than AMD and in Patients Where Pigment Epithelial Detachments Are the Primary Manifestation of Their AMD. Completed NCT01628354 Phase 4 Ranibizumab
2 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Multicentre Trial Comparing Half-dose Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) With High-density Subthreshold Micropulse Laser Treatment in Patients With Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC) Completed NCT01797861 Phase 4
3 Serial Retinal Thickness Changes And Scotoma Size Measured With Lucentis Therapy Measured Using The Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) And The Foresee Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter Unknown status NCT01255774 Phase 3 ranibizumab
4 A Phase I/II Study to Evaluate Scotoma Reduction in And Limited Visual Acuity in aGe Related Macular Degeneration Patients Treated With Intravitreal Lucentis Completed NCT00467935 Phase 1, Phase 2 intravitreal injection Lucentis (ranibizumab)
5 Evaluation of Eye Movement Tracking Systems for Visual Rehabilitation Completed NCT00013429 Phase 2
6 Paraorbital-Occipital Alternating Current Stimulation Therapy of Patients With Post-Chiasmatic Lesions Completed NCT01418820 Phase 2
7 Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) in Patients With Idiopathic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00987077 Phase 2
8 Detection of Visual Field Defects and Scotoma Progression in Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy, Using Short-term Intervals With Automated Scotoma-oriented Perimetry (SCOPE) and the Fast Thresholding Strategy GATE (German Adaptive Threshold Estimation) Unknown status NCT01068938
9 Pilot Study to Compare the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 30-2 Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA) Standard Perimetry With the New Scotoma-Oriented Perimetry (SCOPE), Using a New Fast GATE (German Adaptive Threshold Estimation) in Glaucoma Patients Under Topic Therapy Unknown status NCT00902109
10 Selective RPE Laser Treatment (SRT) for Various Macular Diseases Unknown status NCT00403884
11 A Study to Develop Both a Novel Method for Evaluating the True Size of a Retinal Object on Fundus Photographs and a New Reaction-time Based Method for Studying the Visual Field on Healthy Volunteers Completed NCT01843582
12 Evaluation of Near Visual Acuity With ODYSIGHT, a Smartphone Based Medical Application in Comparison to a Standardized Method Completed NCT03457441
13 Visuomotor Rehabilitation Training for Manual Task Deficits From Macular Scotomas Completed NCT01691027
14 Detection of Topographic Residual Acuity in Patients With Age Related Macular Degeneration Completed NCT00329277
15 Effectiveness of Training in Reading Rehabilitation for Patients With Diabetic Macular Oedema (DMO)- Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02457884
16 Effects of Lutein Supplementation on Macular Pigment Optical Density and Visual Acuity in Patients With Age-related Macular Degeneration Completed NCT00879671
17 Sparing of the Fovea in Geographic Atrophy Progression Completed NCT02332343
18 Management of Deep Retinal Capillary Ischemia by Electromagnetic Stimulation and Platelet- Rich Plasma Completed NCT04242719
19 Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effects of 577nm Micropulse Laser vs Traditional Laser Therapy on Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Completed NCT02784665
20 Pigment Dispersion Syndrome With and Without Glaucoma Completed NCT00001152
21 Treatment of Chronic Recalcitrant or Unresponsive Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Via Electromagnetic Stimulation And Platelet- Rich Plasma Completed NCT04224831
22 Measuring Reading Rehabilitation Outcomes Completed NCT00125632
23 A Multi-Center Study of Reading Rehabilitation in Macular Disease Completed NCT00746668
24 The Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) to Enhance the Rehabilitative Effect of Vision Restoration Therapy Completed NCT00921427 Early Phase 1
25 Observational Prospective Monocentric Study Evaluating "Sweeper" Use During Epiretinal Membrane Surgery Recruiting NCT03350607
26 Head Mounted Eye Tracking Aide for Loss of Central Vision Recruiting NCT02829606
27 Validation of a Smartphone-Based Flicker Fusion Test Recruiting NCT03475147
28 Comparison of Quantitative Metamorphopsia- Measurements in Patients With mCNV Recruiting NCT04112524
29 Pilot Study of the Effect on the Retinal Sensitivity of the Membrane Blue Dual® Dye Used for Peeling of the Internal Limiting Membrane in Macular Hole Surgery Recruiting NCT02894424
30 Factors Limiting Peripheral Reading Enrolling by invitation NCT03640130
31 Assessing Impact of Surgically-induced Deficits on Patient Functioning and Quality of Life (SIND Study) Not yet recruiting NCT04007185
32 Remapping the Visual Field to Aid Reading With Central Scotomas Not yet recruiting NCT03848663
33 Evaluation of Multifocal ERG and Visual Field Changes After Vitrectomy and ILM Peeling Not yet recruiting NCT04281173
34 Evaluation of OCT and Visual Field Changes After Vitrectomy and ILM Peeling Not yet recruiting NCT04312620
35 Rehabilitation of Visual Function After Brain Injury - Effect of Neuro Vision Technology (NVT) Not yet recruiting NCT03160131
36 Effect of Omega-6:Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio on Delaying Progression of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Moderate to High Risk Individuals. Terminated NCT00987129
37 A Prospective Randomized Cross-over Trial of Nortryptyline and Topiramate in the Initial Treatment of Vestibular Migraine. Terminated NCT02169830 nortriptyline;Topiramate
38 Manchester Pascal Endpoint Management Laser Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Oedema (DMO): A Safety and Efficacy Study Withdrawn NCT02309476

Search NIH Clinical Center for Scotoma

Genetic Tests for Scotoma

Anatomical Context for Scotoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Scotoma:

Eye, Testes, Cortex, Retina, Brain, Occipital Lobe, Pituitary

Publications for Scotoma

Articles related to Scotoma:

(show top 50) (show all 2187)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Branch retinal artery occlusion secondary to Bartonella henselae infection in a 13 year-old. 61
32435719 2020
Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of choroidal neovascularization secondary to laser injury: A case report. 61
32548336 2020
Severity of visual field defects in primary congenital glaucoma and their risk factors. 61
32296990 2020
MORPHOFUNCTIONAL EVALUATION OF MACULAR-FOVEAL CAPILLARIES: A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Microperimetry Study. 61
31274711 2020
Suprasellar meningioma presenting with glaucomatous type cupping. 61
32564613 2020
Macular Infarction in a Patient with Sickle Cell Trait. 61
32541442 2020
Multimodal Imaging Characteristics and Functional Test Findings in a Case of Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy Accompanied by Behçet Disease. 61
32510267 2020
Suprasellar arachnoid cyst causing reversible junctional scotoma. 61
32382687 2020
Bilateral Central Scotoma in a Middle-aged Man. 61
32496510 2020
Using eye movements to detect visual field loss: a pragmatic assessment using simulated scotoma. 61
32555198 2020
Longitudinal Microperimetric Changes of Macular Sensitivity in Stargardt Disease After 12 Months: ProgStar Report No. 13. 61
32463436 2020
A central nervous system metastasis of melanoma with stroke-like onset of left-lower quadrantanopsia. 61
32489760 2020
Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome: A Case Report and Experience with Corticosteroid Therapy. 61
32534516 2020
Prevalence of Orthostatic Hypotension and the Distribution of Pressure Variation in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. 61
32401848 2020
The dark side of the Sun: multimodal imaging of a solar retinopathy case 61
32323967 2020
Abnormal Visual Function Outside the Area of Atrophy Defined by Short-Wavelength Fundus Autofluorescence in Stargardt Disease. 61
32334431 2020
Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in the Junctional Scotoma of Traquair. 61
32358435 2020
Defective angles of localized retinal nerve fiber layer reflect the severity of visual field defect- a cross-sectional analysis. 61
32272929 2020
Bilateral Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy in a Young Patient: Imaging and Visual Field during Two-Year-Follow-Up. 61
32354001 2020
The Effect of Simulated Central Field Loss on Street-crossing Decision-Making in Young Adult Pedestrians. 61
32304532 2020
[Interactive training using a smartphone video retinoscope : Video article]. 61
32052133 2020
Stronger perceptual filling-in of spatiotemporal information in the blind spot compared with artificial gaps. 61
32343777 2020
Bilateral and multiple sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhages in a familial retinal arteriolar tortuosity patient by Valsalva-like mechanism: an observational case report. 61
32293357 2020
32271274 2020
'Ring scotoma of ophthalmologists': a direct ophthalmoscopy view. 61
32317367 2020
Asymmetries of reading eye movements in simulated central vision loss. 61
32276109 2020
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy plus dystonia, and transverse myelitis due to double mutations in MT-ND4 and MT-ND6. 61
31776719 2020
Bilateral retinitis after influenza virus infection in a case report. 61
31956727 2020
Faster Sensitivity Loss around Dense Scotomas than for Overall Macular Sensitivity in Stargardt Disease: ProgStar Report No. 14. 61
32222369 2020
Reading in the presence of macular disease: a mini-review. 61
31925832 2020
Solar retinal phototoxicity masquerading as self-inflicted handheld laser-induced lesions. 61
31909293 2020
32032287 2020
Patchy Scotoma Observed in Chorioretinal Patchy Atrophy of Myopic Macular Degeneration. 61
32053726 2020
Photovoltaic Restoration of Central Vision in Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration. 61
32249038 2020
[Analysis of Glaucomatous Changes of the Macula Using Optical Coherence Tomography]. 61
30736078 2020
Case Report: New-Onset Retinal Migraine After Transseptal Catheterization. 61
31889309 2020
A Mysterious Central Scotoma in a Teenage Male Patient. 61
32053180 2020
Rare Optic Neuropathy in a Jamaican Couple Linked to Cassava Root Consumption. 61
32076451 2020
Reproducibility of Microperimeter 3 (MP-3) Microperimetry in Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients. 61
31430750 2020
[Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: Topography of breaks and agreement with lincoff's rules]. 61
31761318 2020
CMT2A Harboring Mitofusin 2 Mutation with Optic Nerve Atrophy and Normal Visual Acuity. 61
32110117 2020
32141847 2020
Multimodal imaging in a young male with osteogenesis imperfecta complicated with choroidal neovascularization. 61
30409043 2020
Correlating Adaptive Optics Images to Clinical Findings in Juvenile Macular Dystrophy with Hypotrichosis in Siblings with Homozygous CDH3 Pathogenic Variation. 61
31927556 2020
Amsler grid test for detection of advanced glaucoma in Ethiopia. 61
32155202 2020
29252913 2020
Left-Right and Upper-Lower Light Sensitivity Asymmetry in Visual Field Defects Caused by Pituitary Adenoma: A Retrospective Observational Study. 61
32099316 2020
Children with Dyslexia Have Altered Cross-Modal Processing Linked to Binocular Fusion. A Pilot Study. 61
32103890 2020
Morpho-Functional Evaluation of Full-Thickness Macular Holes by the Integration of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Microperimetry. 61
31952306 2020
A multifocal electroretinography study to evaluate risk of developing macular hole in the fellow eye of patients suffering with unilateral macular hole. 61
32154503 2020

Variations for Scotoma

Expression for Scotoma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Scotoma.

Pathways for Scotoma

GO Terms for Scotoma

Cellular components related to Scotoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.13 TMEM126A RHO PLAAT3 OPN4 OPA1 MT-ND6
2 membrane GO:0016020 10.09 VEGFA TMEM126A RPE65 RHO RCVRN PLAAT3
3 cell projection GO:0042995 9.88 RPGR RHO RCVRN GUCY2D EYS AQP4
4 mitochondrial membrane GO:0031966 9.56 OPA1 MT-ND6 MT-ND4 DNM1L
5 photoreceptor outer segment membrane GO:0042622 9.37 RHO GUCY2D
6 photoreceptor disc membrane GO:0097381 9.26 RHO OPN4 GUCY2D ABCA4
7 photoreceptor outer segment GO:0001750 9.17 RPGR RHO RCVRN GUCY2D EYS CNGB3

Biological processes related to Scotoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to stimulus GO:0050896 9.73 RPGR RPE65 RHO RCVRN OPN4 OPA3
2 retina development in camera-type eye GO:0060041 9.65 RPE65 RHO OPA1
3 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I assembly GO:0032981 9.58 TMEM126A MT-ND6 MT-ND4
4 protein complex oligomerization GO:0051259 9.56 OPA1 DNM1L
5 detection of light stimulus involved in visual perception GO:0050908 9.55 RPE65 EYS
6 mitochondrial fission GO:0000266 9.54 OPA1 DNM1L
7 cellular response to light stimulus GO:0071482 9.52 RHO OPN4
8 protein-chromophore linkage GO:0018298 9.51 RHO OPN4
9 phototransduction GO:0007602 9.5 RHO RCVRN OPN4
10 phototransduction, visible light GO:0007603 9.49 RHO ABCA4
11 intracellular distribution of mitochondria GO:0048312 9.46 OPA1 DNM1L
12 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 9.46 RPE65 RHO CYP4V2 ABCA4
13 dynamin family protein polymerization involved in mitochondrial fission GO:0003374 9.43 OPA1 DNM1L
14 mitochondrion morphogenesis GO:0070584 9.43 OPA3 OPA1 DNM1L
15 visual perception GO:0007601 9.4 RPGR RPE65 RHO RCVRN OPN4 OPA3
16 organelle fission GO:0048285 9.37 OPA1 DNM1L

Molecular functions related to Scotoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled photoreceptor activity GO:0008020 9.26 RHO OPN4
2 photoreceptor activity GO:0009881 9.16 RHO OPN4
3 cardiolipin binding GO:1901612 8.96 RPE65 OPA1
4 11-cis retinal binding GO:0005502 8.62 RHO OPN4

Sources for Scotoma

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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