Sickle Cell Anemia (SKCA)

Categories: Blood diseases, Bone diseases, Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Nephrological diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Sickle Cell Anemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Sickle Cell Anemia:

Name: Sickle Cell Anemia 56 12 74 74 52 58 73 36 13 15 37 62
Hemoglobin Sc Disease 12 74 52 43 17 71
Anemia, Sickle Cell 43 39 71
Sickle Cell-Hemoglobin C Disease Syndrome 52 58
Sickle Cell Disease 58 73
Hbsc Disease 52 58
Sickle-Cell/hb-C Disease Without Crisis 12
Sickling Disorder Due to Hemoglobin S 52
Hemoglobin S Disease Without Crisis 12
Sickle Cell - Hemoglobin C Disease 52
Sickle Cell-Hemoglobin C Disease 29
Hb-Ss Disease Without Crisis 12
Hemoglobin S Disease 52
Hb-S/hb-C Disease 12
Sickle Cell Trait 71
Drepanocytosis 12
Hb Sc Disease 12
Hbs Disease 52
Skca 73


Orphanet epidemiological data:

sickle cell anemia
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive; Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (France),1-5/10000 (United States),1-5/10000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: adult,early childhood,infantile;
sickle cell-hemoglobin c disease syndrome
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive; Age of onset: All ages;


autosomal recessive

persistence of fetal hemoglobin can ameliorate many disease aspects
presence of comorbid alpha-thalassemia may have beneficial effects


sickle cell anemia:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare renal diseases
Rare infertility disorders
Rare gynaecological and obstetric diseases
Rare systemic and rhumatological diseases
Rare bone diseases
Rare endocrine diseases
Rare haematological diseases

Summaries for Sickle Cell Anemia

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Hemoglobin SC disease , is a type of sickle cell disease , which means it affects the shape of the red blood cells . Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin , which is responsible for carrying blood throughout the body. People with hemoglobin SC disease have red blood cells that are differently shaped and therefore do not carry oxygen as effectively. Symptoms of hemoglobin SC disease include anemia and episodes of fatigue and extreme pain (vaso-occlusive crisis ). The severity of the symptoms can vary from person to person. Hemoglobin SC disease is caused by mutations in the gene that tells our bodies how to make hemoglobin. These mutations cause changes in the shape of the red blood cells. People affected by hemoglobin SC disease need to be especially careful to avoid infection and should be checked regularly by doctors to make sure all of the organs in the body are functioning properly. In times when the anemia becomes severe, a person affected by hemoglobin SC disease may require a blood transfusion . A bone marrow transplant may also be recommended depending on the severity of the symptoms.

MalaCards based summary : Sickle Cell Anemia, also known as hemoglobin sc disease, is related to acute chest syndrome and deficiency anemia, and has symptoms including angina pectoris, abdominal pain and edema. An important gene associated with Sickle Cell Anemia is HBB (Hemoglobin Subunit Beta), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Folate Metabolism and Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling. The drugs Ribavirin and Peginterferon alfa-2a have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Blood, bone and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are chronic hemolytic anemia and recurrent infections

Disease Ontology : 12 A blood protein disease that is characterized by low number of red blood cells, repeated infections, and periodic episodes of pain, resulting from atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape.

OMIM : 56 Sickle cell anemia is a multisystem disease associated with episodes of acute illness and progressive organ damage. Hemoglobin polymerization, leading to erythrocyte rigidity and vasoocclusion, is central to the pathophysiology of the disease, but the importance of chronic anemia, hemolysis, and vasculopathy has been established. The most common cause of sickle cell anemia is the HbS variant (141900.0243), with hemoglobin SS disease being most prevalent in Africans (review by Rees et al., 2010). See review of infection in sickle cell disease by Booth et al. (2010). Piel et al. (2017) reviewed the genetic and nongenetic modifiers of the severity of sickle cell disease. (603903)

KEGG : 36 Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a recessive genetic disease caused by a single-point mutation in the beta globin gene in codon 6 (Glu6Val) that specifies one of the chains of haemoglobin. The disease is characterized by a chronic haemolytic anaemia with the sickle cells which show abnormal morphology due to the damage of the membrane skeletons and agglutinate under deoxygenated conditions.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Sickle cell anemia: Characterized by abnormally shaped red cells resulting in chronic anemia and periodic episodes of pain, serious infections and damage to vital organs. Normal red blood cells are round and flexible and flow easily through blood vessels, but in sickle cell anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin (called Hb S) causes red blood cells to become stiff. They are C-shaped and resembles a sickle. These stiffer red blood cells can led to microvascular occlusion thus cutting off the blood supply to nearby tissues.

PubMed Health : 62 About sickle cell anemia: Sickle cell anemia (uh-NEE-me-uh) is the most common form of sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD is a serious disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. “Sickle-shaped” means that the red blood cells are shaped like a crescent. Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped and look like doughnuts without holes in the center. They move easily through your blood vessels. Red blood cells contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). This protein carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin called sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. Sickle hemoglobin causes the cells to develop a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickle cells are stiff and sticky. They tend to block blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs. Blocked blood flow can cause pain and organ damage. It can also raise the risk for infection.

Wikipedia : 74 Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents. The... more...

Related Diseases for Sickle Cell Anemia

Diseases related to Sickle Cell Anemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 993)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 acute chest syndrome 33.3 VCAM1 HMOX1 HBB G6PD CD40LG
2 deficiency anemia 32.6 TNF HMOX1 HBS1L HBG2 HBG1 HBB
3 cholelithiasis 31.8 UGT1A1 HBB CD40LG
4 sickle cell disease 31.6 VCAM1 HBS1L HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2
5 splenic sequestration 31.5 HBB F2 EPO CD40LG
6 iron metabolism disease 31.5 HBB HBA2 EPO
7 cerebrovascular disease 31.4 VCAM1 TNF F2 CD40LG
8 glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 31.2 UGT1A1 HBG2 HBB G6PD
9 sleep apnea 31.2 VCAM1 TNF EPO
10 iron deficiency anemia 31.1 TNF HBA1 G6PD EPO
11 fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus 1 31.1 HBG2 HBG1 HBB
12 hemoglobinopathy 31.1 VCAM1 UGT1A1 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
13 hemoglobinuria 31.1 G6PD F2 EPO
14 splenic infarction 31.0 HBB F2 CD40LG
15 gilbert syndrome 31.0 UGT1A1 HMOX1 G6PD
16 acute cystitis 30.9 TNF F2 CD40LG
17 plasmodium falciparum malaria 30.9 TNF HBB G6PD CD40LG
18 thalassemia 30.9 UGT1A1 HBS1L HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2
19 splenic abscess 30.9 F2 CD40LG
20 erythroleukemia, familial 30.9 HBG1 HBB EPO
21 hemochromatosis, type 1 30.9 HMOX1 HBS1L HBB EPO
22 thrombosis 30.8 VCAM1 F2 EPO CD40LG
23 pulmonary edema 30.8 TNF HMOX1 F2 EPO
24 alpha-thalassemia 30.8 VCAM1 UGT1A1 TNF HBG2 HBG1 HBB
25 exanthem 30.8 TNF F2 CD40LG
26 vascular disease 30.7 VCAM1 TNF HMOX1 F2 EPO CD40LG
27 optic neuritis 30.6 VCAM1 TNF CCR5
28 neuritis 30.6 VCAM1 TNF CCR5
29 central retinal artery occlusion 30.6 HMOX1 F2 CD40LG
30 endocarditis 30.6 VCAM1 TNF F2
31 bilirubin metabolic disorder 30.6 UGT1A1 HMOX1 HBG2 G6PD F2 CD40LG
32 purpura 30.6 TNF F2 CD40LG
33 cholangitis 30.6 TNF F2 CD40LG CCR5
34 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.6 TNF F2 CD40LG
35 hemolytic anemia 30.6 UGT1A1 HMOX1 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2
36 pyridoxine deficiency anemia 30.6 VCAM1 F2
37 pre-eclampsia 30.6 VCAM1 TNF HMOX1 F2 CD40LG
38 autoimmune hepatitis 30.6 TNF F2 CD40LG
39 polycythemia 30.5 HBB HBA2 EPO
40 erythema infectiosum 30.5 EPO CD40LG
41 hereditary spherocytosis 30.5 UGT1A1 HBG2 HBG1 HBB G6PD BCL11A
42 viral hepatitis 30.5 TNF G6PD F2 CD40LG
43 portal hypertension 30.5 TNF F2 CD40LG
44 beta-thalassemia 30.5 UGT1A1 HBS1L HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2
45 hydrops fetalis, nonimmune 30.5 HBB HBA2 HBA1
46 hemoglobin e disease 30.5 HBB F2
47 antiphospholipid syndrome 30.5 VCAM1 TNF F2 CD40LG
48 hypochromic microcytic anemia 30.5 HBB HBA2 HBA1
49 retinal vein occlusion 30.5 TNF F2 CD40LG
50 hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-sickle cell disease syndrome 30.5 HBG2 HBG1 HBB BCL11A

Comorbidity relations with Sickle Cell Anemia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Deficiency Anemia
Hypertension, Essential Iron Deficiency Anemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Sickle Cell Anemia:

Diseases related to Sickle Cell Anemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Sickle Cell Anemia

Human phenotypes related to Sickle Cell Anemia:

58 31 (show all 40)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 chronic hemolytic anemia 58 31 obligate (100%) Obligate (100%) HP:0004870
2 recurrent infections 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002719
3 osteoporosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000939
4 osteomyelitis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002754
5 chest pain 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100749
6 abnormality of the spleen 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001743
7 iron deficiency anemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001891
8 thrombocytosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001894
9 reticulocytosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001923
10 leukocytosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001974
11 pigment gallstones 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011981
12 avascular necrosis 31 frequent (33%) HP:0010885
13 abnormality of the nervous system 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000707
14 cholestasis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001396
15 elevated serum creatinine 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003259
16 unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0008282
17 persistence of hemoglobin f 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0011904
18 hypoxemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012418
19 increased lactate dehydrogenase activity 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0025435
20 microcytic anemia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001935
21 increased mean corpuscular volume 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0005518
22 hemolytic anemia 58 31 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001878
23 hypertension 31 HP:0000822
24 splenomegaly 31 HP:0001744
25 hepatomegaly 31 HP:0002240
26 aseptic necrosis 58 Frequent (79-30%)
27 renal insufficiency 31 HP:0000083
28 retinopathy 31 HP:0000488
29 cardiomegaly 31 HP:0001640
30 abdominal pain 31 HP:0002027
31 hematuria 31 HP:0000790
32 cholelithiasis 31 HP:0001081
33 jaundice 31 HP:0000952
34 pain 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
35 abnormality of the vasculature 58 Occasional (29-5%)
36 hypochromic anemia 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
37 stroke 31 HP:0001297
38 recurrent bacterial infections 31 HP:0002718
39 priapism 31 HP:0200023
40 increased red cell sickling tendency 31 HP:0008346

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

abdominal pain

Neurologic Central Nervous System:
pain, secondary to vasoocclusion

Cardiovascular Vascular:
pulmonary hypertension
microcirculatory occlusion

Abdomen Spleen:
functional asplenia

Skeletal Limbs:
avascular joint necrosis
joint and leg pain

sickle cell anemia
anemia, chronic

Genitourinary External Genitalia Male:

Genitourinary Kidneys:
renal failure

Respiratory Lung:
acute chest syndrome

increased susceptibility to bacterial infections
resistance to falciparum malaria infection

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Sickle Cell Anemia:

angina pectoris, abdominal pain, edema, chest pain

Drugs & Therapeutics for Sickle Cell Anemia

PubMed Health treatment related to Sickle Cell Anemia: 62

Sickle cell anemia has no widely available cure. However, treatments can help relieve symptoms and treat complications. The goals of treating sickle cell anemia are to relieve pain; prevent infections, organ damage, and strokes ; and control complications (if they occur). Blood and marrow stem cell transplants may offer a cure for a small number of people who have sickle cell anemia . Researchers continue to look for new treatments for the disease. Infants who have been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia through newborn screening are treated with antibiotics to prevent infections and receive needed vaccinations. Their parents are educated about the disease and how to manage it. These initial treatment steps have greatly improved the outcome for children who have sickle cell anemia.

Drugs for Sickle Cell Anemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 417)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
Peginterferon alfa-2a Approved, Investigational Phase 4 198153-51-4 5360545
Peginterferon alfa-2b Approved Phase 4 215647-85-1, 99210-65-8
Atorvastatin Approved Phase 4 134523-00-5 60823
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Riociguat Approved Phase 4 625115-55-1
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Proguanil Approved Phase 4 500-92-5 4923
Sulfadoxine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2447-57-6 17134
Pyrimethamine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 58-14-0 4993
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
Amodiaquine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 86-42-0 2165
Desogestrel Approved Phase 4 54024-22-5 40973
Etonogestrel Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54048-10-1 40976 6917715
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
Deferiprone Approved Phase 4 30652-11-0 2972
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
Calcifediol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 19356-17-3 6433735 5283731
Piperaquine Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 4085-31-8 5079497
Dihydroartemisinin Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 71939-50-9 6918483
29 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 4 6829-55-6
30 Amodiaquine, artesunate drug combination Phase 4
31 interferons Phase 4
32 Interferon alpha-2 Phase 4
33 Interferon-alpha Phase 4
34 Anticoagulants Phase 4
35 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
36 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
37 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
38 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
39 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
40 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
41 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
42 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 4
43 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
44 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
45 Performance-Enhancing Substances Phase 4
46 Anesthetics Phase 4
47 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
48 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
49 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
50 Antimalarials Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 838)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effect of Mobile-Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) on Adherence to Hydroxyurea Treatment in Adult HbSS Patients at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania: a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02844673 Phase 4 Hydroxyurea
2 A Randomized, Double Blind Trial on the Efficacy and Safety of Amodiaquine-Artesunate and Amodiaquine Alone in the Treatment of Children With Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria Unknown status NCT00238017 Phase 4 amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine
3 Phase IV Study of Effectiveness of Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment in Thalassemia Major Patients With Chronic Viral Hepatitis C Unknown status NCT00887081 Phase 4 PEG-IFN alpha2a or PEG-IFN alpha2b and Ribavirin
4 Future of Spermatogenesis in Men With Sickle Cell Disease Medically Treated. Completed NCT01609192 Phase 4 Hydrea® (hydroxyurea )
5 Evaluation of the Impact of Renal Function on the Pharmacokinetics of Hydroxyurea (SIKLOS ®) in Normal-renal Function, Hyperfiltrating and Renal Failure Sickle Cell Disease Patients (DARH) Completed NCT02522104 Phase 4 Siklos
6 Intranasal Fentanyl for Initial Treatment of a Vaso-occlusive Crisis: A Randomized, Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial Completed NCT01482091 Phase 4 Fentanyl Citrate;Normal Saline
7 Rejuvesol® Washed RBC in Sickle Cell Patients Requiring Frequent Transfusions Completed NCT02731157 Phase 4 Rejuvesol
8 Comparing Acute Pain Management Protocols for Patients With Sickle Cell Disease Completed NCT02222246 Phase 4 Hydromorphone (Standardized, weight-based dosing);Morphine Sulfate (Standardized, weight-based dosing);Hydromorphone (Patient Specific dosing);Morphine Sulfate (Patient Specific dosing)
9 Intranasal Fentanyl Versus Intravenous Morphine in the Emergency Department Treatment of Severe Painful Sickle Cell Crises in Children Completed NCT03682211 Phase 4 Fentanyl Citrate;Morphine sulphate
10 Pilot Pharmacokinetic Study In Patients With Inadequate Response To Deferasirox (Exjade) Completed NCT00749515 Phase 4 Deferoxamine;Deferasirox
11 Low-dose Ketamine Versus Morphine for Severe Painful Sickle Cell Crises in Children at Mulago Hospital: A Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT02434939 Phase 4 Low dose ketamine;Morphine
12 Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Lidocaine, Magnesium Sulphate and Remifentanil Perioperatively in Patients Undergoing Mastectomy: a Prospective, Randomized and Double-blind Study Completed NCT02309879 Phase 4 Remifentanil infusion;Lidocaine infusion;Magnesium sulphate infusion;Magnesium sulphate and Lidocaine infusion
13 A Randomised Controlled Trial of Atorvastatin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Completed NCT01299181 Phase 4 Atorvastatin
14 A Randomised Controlled Trial of Atorvastatin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis in Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Completed NCT01299194 Phase 4 ATORVASTATIN
15 The Effect of Riociguat on Gas Exchange, Exercise Performance, and Pulmonary Artery Pressure During Acute Altitude Exposure Completed NCT02024386 Phase 4 Riociguat
16 Does IV Acetaminophen Reduce Opioid Requirement in Pediatric Emergency Department Patients With Acute Sickle Cell Crises? Recruiting NCT03541980 Phase 4 Acetaminophen;Normal saline
17 Enhancing Preventive Therapy of Malaria In Children With Sickle Cell Anemia in East Africa (EPiTOMISE) Recruiting NCT03178643 Phase 4 Proguanil Oral Tablet;Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethanine-Amodiaquine (SP-AQ);Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine (DP)
18 The Efficacy and Safety of Ferriprox® for the Treatment of Transfusional Iron Overload in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease or Other Anemias Recruiting NCT02041299 Phase 4 Deferiprone;Deferoxamine
19 Comparison of Nebulized Sub-dissociative Dose Ketamine at Three Different Dosing Regimens for Treating Acute Pain in the Pediatric ED: A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind Trial Recruiting NCT03950817 Phase 4 Nebulized Sub-dissociative Dose Ketamine at either 0.75 mg/kg;Nebulized Sub-dissociative Dose Ketamine at 1 mg/kg;Nebulized Sub-dissociative Dose Ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg.
20 Risk Stratification for Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Disease in Nigeria and Assessment of Efficacy and Safety During Treatment With Hydroxyurea Active, not recruiting NCT02149537 Phase 4 hydroxyurea
21 Use of Etonogestrel-releasing Contraceptive Implant in Women With Sickle Cell Disease Active, not recruiting NCT02594462 Phase 4 etonogestrel-releasing implant contraceptive
22 Endothelial Monocyte-activating Polypeptide-II as an Endothelial Dysfunction Marker and Its Relation to the Oxidative Stress in Egyptian Sickle Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03903133 Phase 4 Vitamin E
23 Long-term Safety and Efficacy Study of Ferriprox® for the Treatment of Transfusional Iron Overload in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease or Other Anemias Enrolling by invitation NCT02443545 Phase 4 Deferiprone
24 A Randomized Phase IV Control Trial of Single High Dose Oral Vitamin D3 (Stoss Therapy) in Pediatric Patients Undergoing HSCT to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency During Transplant Enrolling by invitation NCT03176849 Phase 4
25 Early Low-dose Ketamine Infusion Versus Usual Care for Sickle Cell Pain Crisis: a Randomized, Prospective Study. Not yet recruiting NCT04005209 Phase 4 Ketamine
26 Ketorolac Versus Ibuprofen for the Painful Crisis of Sickle Cell Disease - Southwestern Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center Terminated NCT00115336 Phase 4 Intravenous Ketorolac;Ibuprofen
27 An Open, Multicenter Clinical Trial to Investigate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Pneumococcal 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine (PREVENAR) in Sickle Cell Disease Infants. Terminated NCT00368186 Phase 4
28 A Pilot Study on the Effects of Intravenous Ketamine on Acute Pain Crisis in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease Terminated NCT00252122 Phase 4 Ketamine
29 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Ibuprofen and Opioid (Morphine or Diamorphine) for Acute Pain in Sickle Cell Disease: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Randomised Trial Terminated NCT00880373 Phase 4 Ibuprofen;Placebo;Diamorphine or Morphine
30 Endothelial Function in Patients With Sickle Cell Anemia Before and After Sildenafil Withdrawn NCT00937144 Phase 4 Viagra (Sildenafil);placebo
31 Non-Invasive Assessment of Opioid Analgesia in Children With Sickle Cell Disease Withdrawn NCT00513864 Phase 4 Dextromethorphan;Codeine;Morphine
32 A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Autologous Platelet Gel Treatment in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Withdrawn NCT00338702 Phase 4
33 Transfusion Alternatives Pre-Operatively in Sickle Cell Disease Unknown status NCT00512577 Phase 3
34 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Therapy for Prevention of Vaso-occlusive Crisis and Manifestations in Omani Patients With Sickle Cell Disease Unknown status NCT02525107 Phase 3
35 Ketamine as an Adjuvant Therapy for Acute Vaso Occlusive Crisis in Pediatric Patients With Sickle Cell Disease, a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02801292 Phase 3 Ketamine
36 Development of a Ready-to-use Nutraceutical Food for Patients With Sickle Cell Disease (SCD): Testing of Vascular Support Components Unknown status NCT01718054 Phase 2, Phase 3 Chloroquine
37 A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Combined Deferiprone (DFP) and Deferasirox Versus DFP and Desferrioxamine (DFO) Therapy in Diseases With Severe Iron Overload Unknown status NCT01511848 Phase 2, Phase 3 DFP (ferriprox) and deferasirox (ICL 670);DFP, DFO
38 A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Multi-national Study of Therapeutic Anticoagulation Strategy for Acute Chest Syndrome in Adults Unknown status NCT02580773 Phase 3 Prophylactic anticoagulation ( INNOHEP®);Curative anticoagulation ( INNOHEP®)
39 Phase III Randomized Study of Poloxamer 188 for Vaso-Occlusive Crisis of Sickle Cell Disease Completed NCT00004408 Phase 3 poloxamer 188
40 MAST - Magnesium for Sickle Cell Acute Crisis in Children Completed NCT00313963 Phase 3 Magnesium Sulfate;Normal Saline
42 N-Acetylcysteine in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease - Reducing the Incidence of Daily Life Pain Completed NCT01849016 Phase 3 N-Acetylcysteine;Placebo
43 Penicillin Prophylaxis in Sickle Cell Disease (PROPS) Completed NCT00000585 Phase 3 penicillin
44 Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) Completed NCT00006400 Phase 3 Hydroxyurea;Placebo
45 Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP 1) Completed NCT00000592 Phase 3
46 Leukapheresis of Volunteers With Sickle Cell Trait to Evaluate Mobilization of Stem Cells With Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and Stem Cell Collection and Storage for Allogeneic Transplantation Completed NCT00005782 Phase 3 Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
47 Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP 2) Completed NCT00006182 Phase 3
48 A Phase 3, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study of Voxelotor Administered Orally to Patients With Sickle Cell Disease Completed NCT03036813 Phase 3 voxelotor
49 Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Patients With Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH) Completed NCT00000586 Phase 3 hydroxyurea
50 Evaluation of Repeat Administration of Purified Poloxamer 188 in Vaso-Occlusive Crisis of Sickle Cell Disease (EPIC-E): An Open-Label Safety Extension Trial Assessing Repeat Administration of MST-188 (Purified Poloxamer 188) Injection in Subjects With Sickle Cell Disease Experiencing Vaso Occlusive Crisis Completed NCT02449616 Phase 3 MST-188

Search NIH Clinical Center for Sickle Cell Anemia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Sodium phenylbutyrate

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Sickle Cell Anemia cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hemoglobin sc disease

Genetic Tests for Sickle Cell Anemia

Genetic tests related to Sickle Cell Anemia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Sickle Cell-Hemoglobin C Disease 29

Anatomical Context for Sickle Cell Anemia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Sickle Cell Anemia:

Bone, Bone Marrow, Heart, Endothelial, Kidney, Liver, T Cells
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Sickle Cell Anemia:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Blood Peripheral Blood Erythrocytes Affected by disease

Publications for Sickle Cell Anemia

Articles related to Sickle Cell Anemia:

(show top 50) (show all 5995)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Management of sickle cell disease: summary of the 2014 evidence-based report by expert panel members. 61 56 6
25203083 2014
Mortality in sickle cell disease. Life expectancy and risk factors for early death. 61 56 6
7993409 1994
Elderly survivors with homozygous sickle cell disease. 56 6
17287491 2007
Relatively benign sickle-cell anaemia in 60 patients aged over 30 in the West Indies. 56 6
4232783 1968
A Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Voxelotor in Sickle Cell Disease. 61 56
31199090 2019
Hydroxyurea for Children with Sickle Cell Anemia in Sub-Saharan Africa. 61 56
30501550 2019
A Phase 3 Trial of l-Glutamine in Sickle Cell Disease. 61 56
30021096 2018
Fine-mapping at three loci known to affect fetal hemoglobin levels explains additional genetic variation. 61 56
21057501 2010
Genome-wide association study shows BCL11A associated with persistent fetal hemoglobin and amelioration of the phenotype of beta-thalassemia. 61 56
18245381 2008
Treatment of sickle cell anemia mouse model with iPS cells generated from autologous skin. 61 56
18063756 2007
Genetic dissection and prognostic modeling of overt stroke in sickle cell anemia. 61 56
15778708 2005
Impaired vasodilation by red blood cells in sickle cell disease. 61 56
15699345 2005
Arginine supplementation of sickle transgenic mice reduces red cell density and Gardos channel activity. 61 6
11830454 2002
Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene cluster in the Niokholo Mandenka population reveals a recent origin of the beta(S) Senegal mutation. 61 6
11741197 2002
Monoclonal antibodies to alphaVbeta3 (7E3 and LM609) inhibit sickle red blood cell-endothelium interactions induced by platelet-activating factor. 61 56
10627437 2000
First unaffected pregnancy using preimplantation genetic diagnosis for sickle cell anemia. 61 56
10328069 1999
Transgenic knockout mice exclusively expressing human hemoglobin S after transfer of a 240-kb betas-globin yeast artificial chromosome: A mouse model of sickle cell anemia. 61 56
9843985 1998
Ribozyme-mediated repair of sickle beta-globin mRNAs in erythrocyte precursors. 61 56
9616120 1998
Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia. Clinical utility of a myelosuppressive "switching" agent. The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. 61 56
8982148 1996
Sickle cell anemia in septuagenarians. 61 56
7579371 1995
Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. Investigators of the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. 61 56
7715639 1995
Fatal pneumococcal septicemia in hemoglobin SC disease. 61 56
8201467 1994
Sequence of the -530 region of the beta-globin gene of sickle cell anemia patients with the Arabian haplotype. 61 6
8199597 1994
Augmentation by erythropoietin of the fetal-hemoglobin response to hydroxyurea in sickle cell disease. 61 56
7677965 1993
A short-term trial of butyrate to stimulate fetal-globin-gene expression in the beta-globin disorders. 61 56
7677966 1993
Herrick's 1910 case report of sickle cell anemia. The rest of the story. 61 56
2642320 1989
Structural analysis of the 5' flanking region of the beta-globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa. 61 6
2898142 1988
Beta S gene in Sicily is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype: implications for gene flow. 61 6
2893541 1988
Rapid prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anemia by a new method of DNA analysis. 61 6
3821796 1987
Hydroxyurea induction of hemoglobin F production in sickle cell disease: relationship between cytotoxicity and F cell production. 61 56
2418898 1986
Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. 61 56
2999980 1985
Developmental pattern of splenic dysfunction in sickle cell disorders. 61 56
2412200 1985
Hematologically and genetically distinct forms of sickle cell anemia in Africa. The Senegal type and the Benin type. 61 6
2579336 1985
Evidence for the multicentric origin of the sickle cell hemoglobin gene in Africa. 61 6
6584911 1984
Treatment of sickle cell anemia with 5-azacytidine results in increased fetal hemoglobin production and is associated with nonrandom hypomethylation of DNA around the gamma-delta-beta-globin gene complex. 61 56
6192443 1983
Clinical, hematological, and biochemical features of Hb SC disease. 61 56
7137165 1982
Use of restriction endonucleases for mapping the allele for beta s-globin. 61 6
6285354 1982
Direct identification of sickle cell anemia by blot hybridization. 61 6
6272289 1981
Sickle Cell Disease. 56
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EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies. 6
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Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. 6
25355838 2014
An empirical estimate of carrier frequencies for 400+ causal Mendelian variants: results from an ethnically diverse clinical sample of 23,453 individuals. 56
22975760 2013
Sickle cell disease incidence among newborns in New York State by maternal race/ethnicity and nativity. 56
23018751 2013
Hemoglobins S and C interfere with actin remodeling in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. 6
22075726 2011
Correction of sickle cell disease in adult mice by interference with fetal hemoglobin silencing. 56
21998251 2011
Sickle hemoglobin confers tolerance to Plasmodium infection. 6
21529713 2011
Sickle-cell disease. 56
21131035 2010
The inherited diseases of hemoglobin are an emerging global health burden. 56
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Genetic variation in human HBB is associated with Plasmodium falciparum transmission. 6
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Infection in sickle cell disease: a review. 56
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Variations for Sickle Cell Anemia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Sickle Cell Anemia:

6 (show all 20) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.79G>A (p.Glu27Lys)SNV Pathogenic 15161 rs33950507 11:5248173-5248173 11:5226943-5226943
2 HBB NM_000518.4(HBB):c.364G>A (p.Glu122Lys)SNV Pathogenic 15292 rs33946267 11:5246908-5246908 11:5225678-5225678
3 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.20A>T (p.Glu7Val)SNV Pathogenic 15333 rs334 11:5248232-5248232 11:5227002-5227002
4 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.52A>T (p.Lys18Ter)SNV Pathogenic 15401 rs33986703 11:5248200-5248200 11:5226970-5226970
5 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.118C>T (p.Gln40Ter)SNV Pathogenic 15402 rs11549407 11:5248004-5248004 11:5226774-5226774
6 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+1G>ASNV Pathogenic 15436 rs33971440 11:5248159-5248159 11:5226929-5226929
7 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.315+1G>ASNV Pathogenic 15438 rs33945777 11:5247806-5247806 11:5226576-5226576
8 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+5G>CSNV Pathogenic 15447 rs33915217 11:5248155-5248155 11:5226925-5226925
9 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.92+6T>CSNV Pathogenic 15450 rs35724775 11:5248154-5248154 11:5226924-5226924
10 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.93-21G>ASNV Pathogenic 15454 rs35004220 11:5248050-5248050 11:5226820-5226820
11 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.316-106C>GSNV Pathogenic 15457 rs34690599 11:5247062-5247062 11:5225832-5225832
12 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-79A>GSNV Pathogenic 15469 rs34598529 11:5248330-5248330 11:5227100-5227100
13 HBB NM_000518.4(HBB):c.19G>A (p.Glu7Lys)SNV Pathogenic 15126 rs33930165 11:5248233-5248233 11:5227003-5227003
14 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-138C>ASNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 393701 rs33944208 11:5248389-5248389 11:5227159-5227159
15 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.-137C>ASNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 36285 rs33941377 11:5248388-5248388 11:5227158-5227158
16 HBB NM_000518.4(HBB):c.208G>A (p.Gly70Ser)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 15138 rs33947415 11:5247914-5247914 11:5226684-5226684
17 HBB NM_000518.4(HBB):c.364G>C (p.Glu122Gln)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 15152 rs33946267 11:5246908-5246908 11:5225678-5225678
18 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.*56A>TSNV Uncertain significance 305000 rs537944366 11:5246772-5246772 11:5225542-5225542
19 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.*53C>ASNV Uncertain significance 305001 rs886048393 11:5246775-5246775 11:5225545-5225545
20 HBB NM_000518.5(HBB):c.9T>C (p.His3=)SNV Benign 193106 rs713040 11:5248243-5248243 11:5227013-5227013

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Sickle Cell Anemia:

# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 HBB p.Glu7Val VAR_002863 rs334

Expression for Sickle Cell Anemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Sickle Cell Anemia.

Pathways for Sickle Cell Anemia

Pathways related to Sickle Cell Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
10.98 HBB HBA2 HBA1

GO Terms for Sickle Cell Anemia

Cellular components related to Sickle Cell Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.97 VCAM1 TNF HMOX1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.77 VCAM1 TNF F2 CD40LG CCR5
3 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.55 HBG2 HBB HBA2 HBA1 F2
4 endocytic vesicle lumen GO:0071682 9.43 HBB HBA2 HBA1
5 hemoglobin complex GO:0005833 9.35 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
6 haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex GO:0031838 9.02 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1

Biological processes related to Sickle Cell Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 blood coagulation GO:0007596 9.8 HBG2 HBG1 HBB F2
2 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.72 TNF F2 EPO
3 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.72 VCAM1 TNF NANOG HMOX1 CCR5
4 response to nutrient GO:0007584 9.7 VCAM1 UGT1A1 EPO
5 positive regulation of cell death GO:0010942 9.63 HBB HBA2 HBA1
6 bicarbonate transport GO:0015701 9.58 HBB HBA2 HBA1
7 erythrocyte maturation GO:0043249 9.56 G6PD EPO
8 response to hydrogen peroxide GO:0042542 9.56 HMOX1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
9 cellular oxidant detoxification GO:0098869 9.55 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
10 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.54 TNF HMOX1
11 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.54 UGT1A1 F2 EPO
12 response to salt stress GO:0009651 9.51 TNF EPO
13 heme catabolic process GO:0042167 9.48 UGT1A1 HMOX1
14 regulation of immunoglobulin secretion GO:0051023 9.43 TNF CD40LG
15 hydrogen peroxide catabolic process GO:0042744 9.35 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
16 oxygen transport GO:0015671 9.02 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1

Molecular functions related to Sickle Cell Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 heme binding GO:0020037 9.85 HMOX1 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
2 peroxidase activity GO:0004601 9.72 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
3 oxygen binding GO:0019825 9.65 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
4 hemoglobin alpha binding GO:0031721 9.58 HBG2 HBG1 HBB
5 oxygen carrier activity GO:0005344 9.55 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
6 organic acid binding GO:0043177 9.35 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1
7 haptoglobin binding GO:0031720 9.02 HBG2 HBG1 HBB HBA2 HBA1

Sources for Sickle Cell Anemia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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