MCID: SLP001
MIFTS: 49

Sleeping Sickness

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Sleeping Sickness

MalaCards integrated aliases for Sleeping Sickness:

Name: Sleeping Sickness 12 54 59 3 15
African Trypanosomiasis 12 76 59 3 73
African Sleeping Sickness 12
Trypanosomiasis, African 44
Trypanosomiasis African 55

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
african trypanosomiasis
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10112
ICD10 33 B56 B56.9
ICD9CM 35 086.5
MeSH 44 D014353
NCIt 50 C84541
Orphanet 59 ORPHA3385
MESH via Orphanet 45 D014353
UMLS via Orphanet 74 C0041228
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 B56.0 B56.1 B56.9
UMLS 73 C0041228

Summaries for Sleeping Sickness

NINDS : 54 Encephalitis lethargica is a disease characterized by high fever, headache, double vision, delayed physical and mental response, and lethargy. In acute cases, patients may enter coma. Patients may also experience abnormal eye movements, upper body weakness, muscular pains, tremors, neck rigidity, and behavioral changes including psychosis. The cause of encephalitis lethargica is unknown. Between 1917 to 1928, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread throughout the world, but no recurrence of the epidemic has since been reported. Postencephalitic Parkinson's disease may develop after a bout of encephalitis-sometimes as long as a year after the illness.

MalaCards based summary : Sleeping Sickness, also known as african trypanosomiasis, is related to chagas disease and leishmaniasis. An important gene associated with Sleeping Sickness is APOL1 (Apolipoprotein L1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways and Sulfur amino acid metabolism. The drugs Ornithine and Nifurtimox have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, eye and brain.

CDC : 3 African Trypanosomiasis, also known as “sleeping sickness,” is caused by microscopic parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina species), which is found only in rural Africa. Although the infection is not found in the United States, historically, it has been a serious public health problem in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, about 10,000 new cases each year are reported to the World Health organization; however, it is believed that many cases go undiagnosed and unreported. Sleeping sickness is curable with medication, but is fatal if left untreated.

Disease Ontology : 12 A trypanosomiasis that results from infection by Trypanosoma brucei and gambiense, which is transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp). The symptoms include fever, headache, joint pain, itching, confusion, sensory disturbances, poor coordination and sleep disturbances.

Wikipedia : 76 African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans... more...

Related Diseases for Sleeping Sickness

Diseases related to Sleeping Sickness via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 50)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chagas disease 30.7 IL10 IL6 NOS2
2 leishmaniasis 30.5 IL10 NOS2 SRM
3 visceral leishmaniasis 29.5 IL10 NOS2 PGD
4 trypanosomiasis 28.2 AMD1 APOL1 HP HPR IL10 IL6
5 malaria 27.8 AMD1 GAPDH HP IL10 IL6 NOS2
6 trypanosomiasis, human east-african 11.5
7 trypanosomiasis, human west-african 11.5
8 von economo's disease 11.1
9 eastern equine encephalitis 10.9
10 eye lymphoma 10.7 IL10 IL6
11 anhaptoglobinemia 10.6 HP HPR
12 funisitis 10.5 IL10 IL6
13 autoinflammation, lipodystrophy, and dermatosis syndrome 10.4 IL10 IL6 NOS2
14 chlamydia 10.4 IL10 IL6 NOS2
15 gastroenteritis 10.3 IL10 IL6 MDH2
16 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 10.3 APOL1 HP IL10 IL6
17 acute transverse myelitis 10.2 APOA1 IL10 IL6
18 transverse myelitis 10.2 APOA1 IL10 IL6
19 crohn's disease 10.2 HP IL10 IL6
20 nervous system disease 10.2 IL10 IL6 NOS2
21 baylisascariasis 10.1 GAPDH IL10
22 idiopathic achalasia 10.1 IL10 NOS2
23 arteriosclerosis 10.0 APOA1 IL10 IL6
24 choroiditis 10.0
25 dirofilariasis 10.0 AMD1 GAPDH HP
26 cerebritis 9.9
27 encephalopathy 9.9
28 adult respiratory distress syndrome 9.9 IL10 IL6 TF
29 urinary system disease 9.8 APOL1 IL6 TF
30 immune system disease 9.8 IL10 IL6 TF
31 congenital disorder of glycosylation, type ia 9.8 ABCB7 HP TF
32 atransferrinemia 9.8 ABCB7 HP TF
33 anemia, sideroblastic, and spinocerebellar ataxia 9.8 ABCB7 MDH2
34 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent 9.7 APOA1 IL10 IL6 NOS2
35 interstitial lung disease 9.7 IL10 IL6 TF
36 hepatitis c virus 9.7
37 hepatitis 9.7
38 rabies 9.7
39 hepatitis c 9.7
40 hypogonadism 9.7
41 viral encephalitis 9.7
42 placenta disease 9.7
43 neuronitis 9.7
44 narcolepsy 9.7
45 encephalitis 9.7
46 melancholia 9.6 HP TF
47 vascular disease 9.6 APOA1 HP IL6 NOS2
48 deficiency anemia 9.5 HP IL6 TF
49 eales disease 9.5 IL10 IL6 NOS2 TF
50 testicular yolk sac tumor 9.4 APOA1 HP TF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Sleeping Sickness:



Diseases related to Sleeping Sickness

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Sleeping Sickness

Drugs & Therapeutics for Sleeping Sickness

Drugs for Sleeping Sickness (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 33)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ornithine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 70-26-8, 3184-13-2 6262
2 Nifurtimox Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 23256-30-6
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
4 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
5 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
6 Melarsoprol Investigational Phase 3 494-79-1
7
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 22916-47-8 4189
8
Pentamidine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 100-33-4 4735
9
Arsenic trioxide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 1327-53-3 518740
10
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 50-81-7 5785 54670067
11
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
12 Antifungal Agents Phase 2
13 Antioxidants Phase 2
14 Micronutrients Phase 2
15 Protective Agents Phase 2
16 Trace Elements Phase 2
17 Vitamins Phase 2
18
Armodafinil Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 112111-43-0
19
Dopamine Approved Not Applicable 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
20
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 113-45-1 4158
21
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 68693-11-8 4236
22
Caffeine Approved, Nutraceutical Not Applicable 58-08-2 2519
23 Central Nervous System Stimulants Not Applicable
24 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Not Applicable
25 Dopamine Agents Not Applicable
26 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Not Applicable
27 Neurotransmitter Agents Not Applicable
28 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Not Applicable
29 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Not Applicable
30 Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists Not Applicable
31 Wakefulness-Promoting Agents Not Applicable
32 Antibodies Not Applicable
33 Immunoglobulins Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 22)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clinical Study to Assess the Tolerability, Feasibility and Effectiveness of Nifurtimox and Eflornithine (NECT) for the Treatment of Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Meningo-encephalitic Phase Completed NCT00906880 Phase 4 Nifurtimox-Eflronithine Combination Treatment (NECT)
2 Pivotal Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis in Stage 2 Completed NCT01685827 Phase 2, Phase 3 Fexinidazole;Nifurtimox;Eflornithine
3 Efficacy - Safety of Eflornithine-Nifurtimox Combination Versus Eflornithine to Treat Human African Trypanosomiasis Completed NCT00146627 Phase 3 Eflornithine;Nifurtimox
4 Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Clinical/Laboratory Predictors of Tropical Diseases in Neurological Disorders in DRC Completed NCT01589289 Phase 3
5 Fexinidazole in Human African Trypanosomiasis Due to T.b. Gambiense at Any Stage Recruiting NCT03025789 Phase 3 Fexinidazole
6 Prospective Study on Efficacy and Safety of SCYX-7158 in Patients Infected by Human African Trypanosomiasis Due to T.b. Gambiense Recruiting NCT03087955 Phase 2, Phase 3 SCYX 7158
7 Efficacy and Safety of Fexinidazole in Children at Least 6 Years Old and Weighing Over 20 kg With Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) Due to T.b. Gambiense: a Prospective, Multicentre, Open Study, plug-in to the Pivotal Study Active, not recruiting NCT02184689 Phase 2, Phase 3 fexinidazole
8 Efficacy and Safety of Fexinidazole in Patients With Stage 1 or Early Stage 2 Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) Due to T.b. Gambiense: a Prospective, Multicentre, Open-label Cohort Study, plug-in to the Pivotal Study Active, not recruiting NCT02169557 Phase 2, Phase 3 Fexinidazole
9 Eflornithine + Nifurtimox Late-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT)in West Nile, Uganda Terminated NCT00489658 Phase 2, Phase 3 Eflornithine plus Nifurtimox combination therapy
10 Randomized Clinical Trial of Three Drug Combinations for Late-Stage Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis Terminated NCT00330148 Phase 3 melarsoprol 1.8 mg/kg/d, 10d + nifurtimox 15/20 mg/kg/d, 10d;melarsoprol 1.8 mg/kg/d, 10d + eflornithine 400 mg/kg/d, 7d;nifurtimox 15/20 mg/kg/d 10d + eflornithine 400 mg/kg/d 7d
11 Trial of DB289 for the Treatment of Stage I African Trypanosomiasis Completed NCT00803933 Phase 2 DB289;Pentamidine
12 A Trial of DB289 for the Treatment of Stage I African Trypanosomiasis Completed NCT00802594 Phase 2 DB289
13 Trial of Arsenic Trioxide With Ascorbic Acid in the Treatment of Adult Non-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Terminated NCT00184054 Phase 2 Arsenic Trioxide (ATO);Ascorbic Acid
14 Human African Trypanosomiasis: First in Man Clinical Trial of a New Medicinal Product, the Fexinidazole Completed NCT00982904 Phase 1 Fexinidazole/Placebo
15 Human African Trypanosomiasis: First in Man Clinical Trial of a New Medicinal Product, the SCYX-7158 Completed NCT01533961 Phase 1 SCYX-7158;Placebo
16 Fexinidazole (1200mg) Bioavailability Under Different Food Intake Conditions Completed NCT01340157 Phase 1 Fexinidazole
17 Multiple Dose Study to Evaluate Security, Tolerance and Pharmacokinetic of Fexinidazole (Drug Candidate for Human African Trypanosomiasis) Administered With a Loading Dose and With Food Terminated NCT01483170 Phase 1 Tablets Fexinidazole;Placebo
18 Effects of Modafinil, Caffeine and Methylphenidate in Healthy Volunteers Completed NCT02071615 Not Applicable Methylphenidate 20 mg tablet given once by mouth;modafinil 200mg tablet given once by mouth;caffein 200mg tablet given once by mouth;placebo
19 Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Clinical/Laboratory Predictors of Tropical Diseases In Patients With Persistent Fever in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan (NIDIAG-Fever) Completed NCT01766830 Not Applicable
20 Diagnostic Tools for Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination and Clinical Trials: Early Test-of-cure Recruiting NCT03112655 Not Applicable
21 Diagnostic Tools for Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination and Clinical Trials: WP2 Passive Case Detection Recruiting NCT03356665 Not Applicable
22 Prospective Evaluation of an RDT to Screen for Gambiense HAT and Diagnose P. Falciparum Malaria Not yet recruiting NCT03394976

Search NIH Clinical Center for Sleeping Sickness

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: trypanosomiasis, african

Genetic Tests for Sleeping Sickness

Anatomical Context for Sleeping Sickness

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Sleeping Sickness:

41
Testes, Eye, Brain, T Cells, Heart, Pituitary, Myeloid

Publications for Sleeping Sickness

Articles related to Sleeping Sickness:

(show top 50) (show all 985)
# Title Authors Year
1
Melarsoprol Resistance in African Trypanosomiasis. ( 29705579 )
2018
2
Integrated cost-benefit analysis of tsetse control and herd productivity to inform control programs for animal African trypanosomiasis. ( 29514668 )
2018
3
A case of delayed diagnosis of East-African trypanosomiasis in a Dutch traveller. ( 29688491 )
2018
4
An agent-based model of tsetse fly response to seasonal climatic drivers: Assessing the impact on sleeping sickness transmission rates. ( 29425200 )
2018
5
No evidence for association between APOL1 kidney disease risk alleles and Human African Trypanosomiasis in two Ugandan populations. ( 29470556 )
2018
6
Mortality trends and risk factors in advanced stage-2 Human African Trypanosomiasis: A critical appraisal of 23 years of experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ( 29897919 )
2018
7
Transcriptomes of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from sleeping sickness patients, rodents and culture: Effects of strain, growth conditions and RNA preparation methods. ( 29474390 )
2018
8
African Trypanosomiasis-Associated Anemia: The Contribution of the Interplay between Parasites and the Mononuclear Phagocyte System. ( 29497418 )
2018
9
Brain-penetrant, triazolopyrimidine and phenylpyrimidine microtubule-stabilizers as potential leads to treat human African trypanosomiasis. ( 29969537 )
2018
10
FDG PET/CT in a Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness). ( 29863573 )
2018
11
Oral fexinidazole for human African trypanosomiasis. ( 29353603 )
2018
12
The impact of passive case detection on the transmission dynamics of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis. ( 29624584 )
2018
13
Assessing Strategies Against Gambiense Sleeping Sickness Through Mathematical Modeling. ( 29860287 )
2018
14
A Phase III Diagnostic Accuracy Study of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Diagnosis of Second-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ( 29246478 )
2018
15
Identification of a 4-fluorobenzyl l-valinate amide benzoxaborole (AN11736) as a potential development candidate for the treatment of Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT). ( 29169674 )
2018
16
Human African trypanosomiasis: How do the parasites enter and cause dysfunctions of the nervous system in murine models? ( 29870779 )
2018
17
Do Cryptic Reservoirs Threaten Gambiense-Sleeping Sickness Elimination? ( 29396200 )
2018
18
Assessment of a pretomanid analogue library for African trypanosomiasis: Hit-to-lead studies on 6-substituted 2-nitro-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazine 8-oxides. ( 29191556 )
2018
19
Fluorine walk: The impact of fluorine in quinolone amides on their activity against African sleeping sickness. ( 29742443 )
2018
20
A multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority clinical trial comparing a nifurtimox-eflornithine combination to standard eflornithine monotherapy for late stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in Uganda. ( 29471865 )
2018
21
Human African Trypanosomiasis in Emigrant Returning to China from Gabon, 2017. ( 29350158 )
2018
22
Socioeconomic benefit to individuals of achieving 2020 targets for four neglected tropical diseases controlled/eliminated by innovative and intensified disease management: Human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis, Chagas disease. ( 29534061 )
2018
23
The development of high resolution maps of tsetse abundance to guide interventions against human African trypanosomiasis in northern Uganda. ( 29884213 )
2018
24
Sleeping sickness is a circadian disorder. ( 29302035 )
2018
25
Sleeping Sickness in the 'Omics Era. ( 29517161 )
2018
26
The structure of serum resistance-associated protein and its implications for human African trypanosomiasis. ( 29358741 )
2018
27
Relationship between Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense genetic diversity and clinical spectrum among sleeping sickness patients in Uganda. ( 29078807 )
2017
28
Performance of the SD BIOLINEAr HAT rapid test in various diagnostic algorithms for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ( 28672036 )
2017
29
Human African trypanosomiasis control: Achievements and challenges. ( 28426685 )
2017
30
Case of Nigeria-Acquired Human African Trypanosomiasis in United Kingdom, 2016. ( 28628444 )
2017
31
Candidate gene polymorphisms study between human African trypanosomiasis clinical phenotypes in Guinea. ( 28827791 )
2017
32
Delineating neuroinflammation, parasite CNS invasion, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in an experimental murine model of human African trypanosomiasis. ( 28636879 )
2017
33
Dose-dependent effect and pharmacokinetics of fexinidazole and its metabolites in a mouse model of human African trypanosomiasis. ( 28552771 )
2017
34
The study of trypanosome species circulating in domestic animals in two human African trypanosomiasis foci of CA'te d'Ivoire identifies pigs and cattle as potential reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. ( 29045405 )
2017
35
Discovery and genomic analyses of hybridization between divergent lineages of Trypanosoma congolense, causative agent of Animal African Trypanosomiasis. ( 28752916 )
2017
36
Introducing the TrypanoGEN biobank: A valuable resource for the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. ( 28570558 )
2017
37
Predicting the Impact of Intervention Strategies for Sleeping Sickness in Two High-Endemicity Health Zones of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ( 28056016 )
2017
38
Hsp70/J-protein machinery from Glossina morsitans morsitans, vector of African trypanosomiasis. ( 28902917 )
2017
39
Cell Cycle Inhibition To Treat Sleeping Sickness. ( 28928213 )
2017
40
Expression of interferon-inducible chemokines and sleep/wake changes during early encephalitis in experimental African trypanosomiasis. ( 28821016 )
2017
41
Erratum: Discovery of a Carbazole-Derived Lead Drug for Human African Trypanosomiasis. ( 28074881 )
2017
42
Fexinidazole: A New Drug for African Sleeping Sickness on the Horizon. ( 29275007 )
2017
43
Enhanced passive screening and diagnosis for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in north-western Uganda - Moving towards elimination. ( 29023573 )
2017
44
Nanobodies As Tools to Understand, Diagnose, and Treat African Trypanosomiasis. ( 28713367 )
2017
45
Serological tests for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis detect antibodies in cattle. ( 29100526 )
2017
46
Sleeping sickness can now be cured with pills. ( 29072286 )
2017
47
Vertical transmission of human African trypanosomiasis: Clinical evolution and brain MRI of a mother and her son. ( 28750004 )
2017
48
The challenging problem of disease staging in human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness): a new approach to a circular question. ( 28957467 )
2017
49
Adding tsetse control to medical activities contributes to decreasing transmission of sleeping sickness in the Mandoul focus (Chad). ( 28750007 )
2017
50
Candidate genes-based investigation of susceptibility to Human African Trypanosomiasis in CA'te d'Ivoire. ( 29059176 )
2017

Variations for Sleeping Sickness

Expression for Sleeping Sickness

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Sleeping Sickness.

Pathways for Sleeping Sickness

Pathways related to Sleeping Sickness according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.88 GAPDH IL10 IL6 TF
2
Show member pathways
11.74 AMD1 MDH2 SRM
3 11.68 HSPA8 IL10 IL6 NOS2
4 11.62 IL10 IL6 NOS2
5 11.57 MDH2 ODC1 SRM
6
Show member pathways
11.57 APOA1 APOL1 HP HPR
7 11.46 IL10 IL6 NOS2
8 11.46 GAPDH IL6 NOS2 TF
9
Show member pathways
11.01 AMD1 NOS2 ODC1 SRM
10 10.77 APOA1 APOL1
11 10.57 APOA1 APOL1 HPR IL10 IL6

GO Terms for Sleeping Sickness

Cellular components related to Sleeping Sickness according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.98 APOA1 APOL1 HP HSPA8 IL10 IL6
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.97 APOA1 APOL1 HP HPR HSPA8 IL10
3 secretory granule lumen GO:0034774 9.5 APOA1 HSPA8 TF
4 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.46 APOA1 APOL1 IL6 TF
5 very-low-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034361 9.4 APOA1 APOL1
6 endocytic vesicle lumen GO:0071682 9.26 APOA1 HP
7 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.1 APOA1 APOL1 HP HPR HSPA8 TF
8 spherical high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034366 8.96 APOA1 HPR

Biological processes related to Sleeping Sickness according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 post-translational protein modification GO:0043687 9.8 APOA1 APOL1 IL6 TF
2 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.76 HSPA8 IL10 IL6 NOS2
3 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.69 IL10 IL6 NOS2
4 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.67 APOA1 APOL1 IL6 TF
5 receptor-mediated endocytosis GO:0006898 9.62 APOA1 APOL1 HP HPR
6 response to organic substance GO:0010033 9.61 HP HPR IL10
7 acute inflammatory response GO:0002526 9.48 HP HPR
8 negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034115 9.4 APOA1 IL10
9 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.26 APOA1 IL10
10 spermidine biosynthetic process GO:0008295 9.16 AMD1 SRM
11 polyamine biosynthetic process GO:0006596 9.13 AMD1 ODC1 SRM
12 polyamine metabolic process GO:0006595 8.8 AMD1 ODC1 SRM

Molecular functions related to Sleeping Sickness according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hemoglobin binding GO:0030492 8.62 HP HPR

Sources for Sleeping Sickness

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....