MCID: SPS007
MIFTS: 45

Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Categories: Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Spastic Cerebral Palsy:

Name: Spastic Cerebral Palsy 12 15 72
Palsy, Cerebral, Spastic 40

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050669
UMLS 72 C0338596

Summaries for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Disease Ontology : 12 A cerebral palsy that is caused by damage in the outer layer of the brain, the cerebral cortex, which results in increased tone, or tension, in a muscle causing abnormal movements.

MalaCards based summary : Spastic Cerebral Palsy, also known as palsy, cerebral, spastic, is related to spastic quadriplegia and cerebral palsy. An important gene associated with Spastic Cerebral Palsy is ALDH3A2 (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 3 Family Member A2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Butanoate metabolism and Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism. The drugs Acetylcholine and Baclofen have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and testes, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and nervous system

Wikipedia : 75 Spastic cerebral palsy is the type of cerebral palsy wherein spasticity is the exclusive impairment... more...

Related Diseases for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Diseases related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 108)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 spastic quadriplegia 32.9 WDR45B PLP1
2 cerebral palsy 32.6 PLP1 GAD1 F5 DMRT3
3 quadriplegia 31.3 PLP1 ALDH3A2
4 stiff-person syndrome 30.2 GAD2 GAD1
5 spastic diplegia 12.3
6 cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 1 12.2
7 spastic hemiplegia 11.7
8 hereditary spastic paraplegia 11.6
9 cerebral palsy, ataxic, autosomal recessive 11.5
10 cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 2 11.4
11 spastic paraplegia 52, autosomal recessive 11.4
12 hereditary spastic paraplegia 51 11.4
13 spastic paraplegia 20, autosomal recessive 11.3
14 spastic paraplegia 2, x-linked 11.3
15 spastic monoplegia 11.3
16 spasticity 11.0
17 hemiplegia 10.7
18 locked-in syndrome 10.7
19 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, type ii 10.5 GAD2 GAD1
20 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome 10.5 GAD2 GAD1
21 scoliosis 10.4
22 gamma-amino butyric acid metabolism disorder 10.4 GAD1 ALDH3A2
23 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 10.4 GAD2 GAD1
24 hypertonia 10.4
25 succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 10.3 GAD1 ALDH3A2
26 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, type i, with or without reversible metaphyseal dysplasia 10.3 GAD2 GAD1
27 periventricular leukomalacia 10.3
28 hip subluxation 10.3
29 limbic encephalitis 10.3 GAD2 GAD1
30 dyskinetic cerebral palsy 10.3
31 movement disease 10.3
32 dysphagia 10.3
33 inherited congenital spastic tetraplegia 10.3
34 rare disease in surgical orthopedic 10.3
35 encephalomalacia 10.2
36 dystonia 10.2
37 spondylolisthesis 10.2
38 porencephaly 10.2
39 asphyxia neonatorum 10.2
40 cerebral atrophy 10.2
41 hypotonia 10.2
42 rasmussen encephalitis 10.1 IL18 GAD1
43 pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis 10.1
44 schizencephaly 10.1
45 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.1
46 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 3 10.1
47 epilepsy 10.1
48 constipation 10.1
49 spondylolysis 10.1
50 paraplegia 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy:



Diseases related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.56 ALDH3A2 DMRT3 F5 GAD1 GAD2 IL18
2 nervous system MP:0003631 9.23 ALDH3A2 DMRT3 F5 GAD1 GAD2 IL18

Drugs & Therapeutics for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Drugs for Spastic Cerebral Palsy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 31)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
2
Baclofen Approved Phase 4 1134-47-0 2284
3 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
4 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
5 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
6 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
8 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
9 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
10 Botulinum Toxins Phase 1, Phase 2
11 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
12
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
13
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
14
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational 471-34-1
15
Magnesium Sulfate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 7487-88-9 24083
16
Morphine Approved, Investigational 57-27-2 5288826
17
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical 7440-70-2 271
18 incobotulinumtoxinA
19 Hormones
20 Tocolytic Agents
21 Anesthetics
22 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
23 Anticonvulsants
24 calcium channel blockers
25 Calcium, Dietary
26 Complement System Proteins
27 Complement C3
28 Analgesics
29 Narcotics
30 Central Nervous System Depressants
31 Analgesics, Opioid

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 58)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Recurrent Crying Spells in Cerebral Palsy With Spastic Quadriparesis - A Crossover Study Completed NCT01955655 Phase 4 Baclofen
2 A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Adults With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00432055 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A (Botox);placebo (saline)
3 Efficacy and Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin A Injections to Hamstrings in Flexed Knee Gait in Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT00261131 Phase 3 Botulinum Toxin A
4 Lateral Cord Magnetic Stimulation For Refractory Spastic Cerebral Palsy - Multicenter Double Blind Randomized and Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03676439 Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Is Autologous Umbilical Cord Blood Reinfusion Beneficial in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Completed NCT01147653 Phase 2
6 Prospective Studies of the Use of Self Hypnosis, Acupuncture and Osteopathic Manipulation on Muscle Tension in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00011024 Phase 2
7 Music Therapy as Procedural Support During Botulinum Injections for Pediatric Patients Completed NCT00178217 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Acupuncture as Complementary Therapy for Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00221247 Phase 2
9 A Multisite Trial of Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Active, not recruiting NCT01895660 Phase 2
10 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Patients With Spastic Cerebral Palsy on Developmental Function , A Clinical Trial phase2 Active, not recruiting NCT03795974 Phase 2
11 Multisite RCT of 3 Neurorehabilitation Therapies for Infants With Asymmetrical Cerebral Palsy Active, not recruiting NCT02346825 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Botulinum Toxin-A as a Treatment for Chronic Muscle-Related Pain in Adults With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: a Randomized Controlled Trial Terminated NCT02434549 Phase 2 Dysport®;Normal saline
13 Effect of Intrathecal Transplant of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells on Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT03107975 Phase 1
14 Effectiveness of Mirror Therapy Combined With Progressive Strength Training on Upper Limb Function in Children With Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT02458612
15 What Are the Effects of Altering Handle Height of Posterior Walkers on Gait Parameters in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy? Unknown status NCT02467829
16 A Prospective Study (RCT) to Evaluate the Efficacy of an Individualized Comprehensive Home-Centred Activity Based Therapy for Children With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT02412007
17 The Slackline as a Rehabilitation Tool for Children and Teenagers With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: a Randomised Clinical Trial Completed NCT03486483
18 The Effects of Progressive Functional Ankle Strengthening in Children With Unilateral and Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT03901703
19 Effects of Pediatric Aquatic Therapy in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01049581
20 Analyzing the Effect of Functional Trunk Training on Upper and Lower Limb Motor Function in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT02643160
21 Therapeutic Potential of Myofascial Structural Integration in Children With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01815814
22 Role Of Physical Therapy In Relieving Constipation In Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT03379038
23 Immediate Effects of a Single Treadmill Gait Training Session With Additional Loading on Kinematic Gait Parameters in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT02010736
24 Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A Associated With Physical Therapy on the Functional Capacity of Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT03704155 Botulinum toxin type A
25 A Randomized Cross-over Design Evaluating the Effects of Using a Rehabilitation-specific Gaming Software Platform for the Achievement of Individual Physiotherapy Goals of Children With Severe Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Completed NCT03403010
26 Muscle Spasticity Reduction in Children With Cerebral Palsy by Means of Hippotherapy: a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03212846
27 Effect of Magnesium Therapy on Spasticity and Constipation in Children With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT02510222
28 Comparison Of PIR Technique With Eccentric Isotonic Muscle Contraction on Hamstring Spasticity in CP Child Completed NCT03708757
29 The Effects of Lower Limb Progressive Functional Strength Training Protocol on Body Functions and Activity in Children With Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy: a Single-blind Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02460406
30 Influence of the Spinal Manipulation on Muscle Spasticity and Manual Dexterity in Children With Cerebral Palsy, Randomized Control Trial. Completed NCT03005938
31 A Pilot Study of the Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type a (Dysport®, Abobotulinum Toxin A) Injection on Changes in Musculotendinous Length and Dynamics of Hamstring Muscles During Gait in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Walking With Excessive Knee Flexion Completed NCT02917967 Botulinum toxin injection
32 Stretching and Strength Training for Children With Cerebral Palsy -an Intervention Study Completed NCT02917330
33 Evidence-based Practice and Its Effectiveness in Physical Therapy Treatment of Children With Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Completed NCT02193386
34 Joystick Use for Virtual Electric Power Wheelchair Driving in Individuals With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00337688
35 Applied Research in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy in the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Completed NCT02719483
36 Treatment Algorithms Based on Muscle and Tendon Morphology - Progressive Supervised Home-based Strength Training in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT03863197
37 tDCS and Bimanual Therapy for Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT03402854
38 A Pilot Study of Hand Function in Children With Cerebral Palsy Undergoing Intensive Neurophysiological Rehabilitation Recruiting NCT03454412
39 Reliability and Validity of the Dynamic Gait Index in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT03662139
40 Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Ankle Dorsiflexors During Walking in Children With Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy: a Randomized Crossover Intervention Study Recruiting NCT03440632
41 Evaluation of the Effect of an Inclined Plane on the Walking of Children With Cerebral Palsy: What Are the Paths for Rehabilitation? Recruiting NCT02988557
42 Effects of Wearing Orthoses on Nightly Postures on Passive Stiffness in Plantar Flexors Muscles in Children With Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT03686644
43 Effect of Vibration on Muscle Properties, Physical Activity and Balance in Children With Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT03484078
44 The Effects of Intensive Therapy on Quantitative and Qualitative Parameters of Trunk and Lower Limbs in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Recruiting NCT03449498
45 Validation of a Bimanual and Scenarized 3D Motion Analysis Protocol of Upper Limbs in Children With Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT03888443
46 Intense Physiotherapies to Improve Function in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT02167022
47 Home- and Lab-Based Passive and Active Movement Rehabilitation of Ankle Impairments in Children With Cerebral Palsy Recruiting NCT02359799
48 Outcomes of the Evans Calcaneal Lengthening Based on Bone Grafting Material Recruiting NCT02075853
49 Comparison of Efficacy of Sensory Integration Therapy as an Adjunct to Standard Care With Standard Care Alone in Improving Gross Motor Skills in Cerebral Palsy Children With Sensory Processing Abnormalities Recruiting NCT03888508
50 Reliability and Validity of Strength Measurements of the Lower Limbs in Children With Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Active, not recruiting NCT03818152

Search NIH Clinical Center for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Genetic Tests for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Anatomical Context for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy:

41
Brain, Cortex, Testes, Bone, Skeletal Muscle, Heart, Bone Marrow

Publications for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Articles related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy:

(show top 50) (show all 1348)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Diaphragmatic mobility in children with spastic cerebral palsy and differing motor performance levels. 38
31125702 2019
2
Validity of bispectral index monitoring during deep sedation in children with spastic cerebral palsy undergoing injection of botulinum toxin. 38
31378054 2019
3
Effects of forward tilted seating and foot-support on postural adjustments in children with spastic cerebral palsy: An EMG-study. 38
31420131 2019
4
Effectiveness of Lower-Extremity Functional Training (LIFT) in Young Children With Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 38
31434537 2019
5
Improved motor function in a pre-ambulatory child with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy, using a custom rigid ankle-foot orthosis-footwear combination: A case report. 38
31165679 2019
6
Psychometric Evaluation of 2 New Upper Extremity Functional Strength Tests in Children With Cerebral Palsy. 38
30722023 2019
7
"Everyone sees you sitting there struggling with your food": experiences of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. 38
29558834 2019
8
Augmented Biofeedback Training with Physical Therapy Improves Visual-Motor Integration, Visual Perception, and Motor Coordination in Children with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomised Control Trial. 38
31364896 2019
9
Do the type of walking surface and the horse speed during hippotherapy modify the dynamics of sitting postural control in children with cerebral palsy? 38
31386976 2019
10
The Effects of Virtual Reality on Motor Functions and Daily Life Activities in Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. 38
31335174 2019
11
The Mechanism of Hip Dislocation related to the Use of Abduction Bar and Hip Compression Bandage in Patients with Spastic Cerebral Palsy. 38
31268886 2019
12
Effect of Group-Task-Oriented Training on Gross and Fine Motor Function, and Activities of Daily Living in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy. 38
31339403 2019
13
[Effectiveness of the use of standing devices in the prevention of hip dislocation in children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy, GMFCS III, IV and V. A systematic review]. 38
31370944 2019
14
Physical activity patterns in children with cerebral palsy and typically developing peers. 38
31298601 2019
15
Effect of Anodic tDCS Over Motor Cortex Versus Cerebellum in Cerebral Palsy: A Study Protocol. 38
31135599 2019
16
Medial gastrocnemius volume and echo-intensity after botulinum neurotoxin A interventions in children with spastic cerebral palsy. 38
30320442 2019
17
Executive function and general intellectual functioning in dyskinetic cerebral palsy: Comparison with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing controls. 38
31202597 2019
18
Functional outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy followed by minimally invasive tendon lengthening procedures in children with spastic cerebral palsy. 38
31305364 2019
19
Statistical Models to Assess Leg Muscle Mass in Ambulatory Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. 38
30661746 2019
20
Gait parameters in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. 38
30484877 2019
21
Increasing Number of Therapy Sessions of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Motor Development by Reducing Muscle Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy Children. 38
31359942 2019
22
Influence of visual-coupling on bimanual coordination in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. 38
31374762 2019
23
Prevalence and classification of equinus foot in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. 38
30830663 2019
24
Strabismus Is Correlated with Gross Motor Function in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy. 38
31189336 2019
25
Extensor pollicis longus rerouting for thumb-in-palm deformity in cerebral palsy: a biomechanical analysis. 38
31238779 2019
26
Relationship of muscle morphology to hip displacement in cerebral palsy: a pilot study investigating changes intrinsic to the sarcomere. 38
31227002 2019
27
Identification of gait events in children with spastic cerebral palsy: comparison between the force plate and algorithms. 38
31208861 2019
28
Modulation of gait inter-limb coordination in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy after intensive upper extremity intervention. 38
30888460 2019
29
Comparing the effects of two spasticity management strategies on the long-term outcomes of individuals with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: a multicentre cohort study protocol. 38
31227534 2019
30
Interobserver reliability in the interpretation of three-dimensional gait analysis in children with gait disorders. 38
30320435 2019
31
Motor performance of children with cerebral palsy in anterior reach. 38
31212211 2019
32
Differences of the ankle plantar flexor length in typically developing children and children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. 38
31316939 2019
33
Muscle architecture in children with cerebral palsy and ankle contractures: an investigation using diffusion tensor imaging. 38
31255994 2019
34
Effects of Exercise Interventions on Habitual Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy. 38
30922152 2019
35
High-density electromyographic data during isometric contractions of the ankle joint in children with cerebral palsy pre and post BoNT-A treatment. 38
30976636 2019
36
Performance of stair negotiation in patients with cerebral palsy and stiff knee gait. 38
30999269 2019
37
Long-term effects of repeated botulinum neurotoxin A, bimanual training, and splinting in young children with cerebral palsy. 38
31225647 2019
38
Accuracy Constraints Improve Symmetric Bimanual Coordination for Children with and without Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. 38
31088323 2019
39
Spinal dorsal rhizotomy plus concurrent left and right gastrocnemii releases in a 7-year-old child with haemophilia A and spastic cerebral palsy. 38
30866113 2019
40
A Critical Evaluation of Current Concepts in Cerebral Palsy. 38
30968751 2019
41
The Cole Midfoot Osteotomy: Clinical and Radiographic Retrospective Review of Five Patients (Six Feet) with Different Etiologies. 38
31268782 2019
42
Rehabilitation with a combination of scalp acupuncture and exercise therapy in spastic cerebral palsy. 38
31003673 2019
43
Selective dorsal rhizotomy improves muscle forces during walking in children with spastic cerebral palsy. 38
30953917 2019
44
Voluntary Cough and Clinical Swallow Function in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Healthy Controls. 38
30088088 2019
45
Stiffness of hip adductor myofibrils is decreased in children with spastic cerebral palsy. 38
30853092 2019
46
Children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy are severely affected as compared to bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. 38
30933377 2019
47
Stair-shaped Achilles tendon lengthening in continuity - A new method to treat equinus deformity in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. 38
29409282 2019
48
Examination of touch-coordinate errors of adolescents with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy at an aiming-tapping task. 38
31033458 2019
49
Multilevel Surgery for Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Meta-analysis. 38
30918016 2019
50
Use of 3D gait analysis as predictor of Achilles tendon lengthening surgery outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. 38
30156089 2019

Variations for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Expression for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Spastic Cerebral Palsy patients vs. healthy controls: 35
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 ATRNL1 attractin-like 1 Skeletal Muscle - 3.34 0.002
2 AMFR autocrine motility factor receptor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Skeletal Muscle - 3.25 0.001
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

Pathways for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

GO Terms for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Cellular components related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 photoreceptor outer segment GO:0001750 9.16 SHANK2 IQCB1
2 inhibitory synapse GO:0060077 8.96 GAD2 GAD1
3 clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane GO:0061202 8.62 GAD2 GAD1

Biological processes related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.43 PLP1 GAD2 GAD1
2 social behavior GO:0035176 9.32 SHANK2 GAD1
3 carboxylic acid metabolic process GO:0019752 9.16 GAD2 GAD1
4 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 8.96 GAD2 GAD1
5 glutamate decarboxylation to succinate GO:0006540 8.62 GAD2 GAD1

Molecular functions related to Spastic Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 9.26 GAD2 GAD1
2 carboxy-lyase activity GO:0016831 9.16 GAD2 GAD1
3 glutamate binding GO:0016595 8.96 GAD2 GAD1
4 glutamate decarboxylase activity GO:0004351 8.62 GAD2 GAD1

Sources for Spastic Cerebral Palsy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....