Categories: Muscle diseases, Neuronal diseases
Data Licensing
For inquiries, contact:

Aliases & Classifications for Spasticity

MalaCards integrated aliases for Spasticity:

Name: Spasticity 52 28 5 75


Summaries for Spasticity

NINDS: 52 Spasticity is a condition in which there is an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness of muscle, which might  interfere with movement, speech, or be associated with discomfort or pain.  Spasticity is usually caused by damage to nerve pathways within the brain or spinal cord that control muscle movement. It may occur in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, brain or head trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegias, and metabolic diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, phenylketonuria, and Krabbe disease. Symptoms may include hypertonicity (increased muscle tone), clonus (a series of rapid muscle contractions), exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, muscle spasms, scissoring (involuntary crossing of the legs), and fixed joints (contractures). The degree of spasticity varies from mild muscle stiffness to severe, painful, and uncontrollable muscle spasms. Spasticity can interfere with rehabilitation in patients with certain disorders, and often interferes with daily activities.

MalaCards based summary: Spasticity is related to spastic paraplegia 41, autosomal dominant and spastic paraplegia 19, autosomal dominant. An important gene associated with Spasticity is SPAST (Spastin), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) susceptibility pathways. The drugs Memantine and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include spinal cord, brain and skeletal muscle, and related phenotypes are nervous system and growth/size/body region

Wikipedia: 75 Spasticity (from Greek spasmos- 'drawing, pulling') is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance... more...

Related Diseases for Spasticity

Diseases related to Spasticity via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 40)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 spastic paraplegia 41, autosomal dominant 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
2 spastic paraplegia 19, autosomal dominant 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
3 spastic paraplegia 34, x-linked 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
4 spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 14 10.3 SACS AFG3L2
5 spastic paraplegia 3, autosomal dominant 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
6 spastic paraplegia 53, autosomal recessive 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
7 hereditary spastic paraplegia 30 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
8 spastic paraplegia 14, autosomal recessive 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
9 spastic paraplegia 61, autosomal recessive 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
10 spastic paraplegia 26, autosomal recessive 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
11 spastic paraplegia 44, autosomal recessive 10.3 WASHC5 PLP1
12 spastic paraplegia 8, autosomal dominant 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
13 spastic paraplegia 9a, autosomal dominant 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
14 spastic paraplegia 15, autosomal recessive 10.3 WASHC5 SPAST
15 spastic paraplegia 7, autosomal recessive 10.2 SACS AFG3L2
16 spastic paraplegia 43, autosomal recessive 10.2 WASHC5 SPAST
17 spastic paraplegia 75, autosomal recessive 10.2 SPAST PLP1
18 pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2e 10.2 WASHC5 SPAST ALS2
19 hereditary spastic paraplegia 35 10.2 WASHC5 SPAST
20 spinocerebellar ataxia 15 10.2 SACS AFG3L2
21 cerebellar disease 10.2 SPAST SACS AFG3L2
22 spastic paraplegia 42, autosomal dominant 10.1 WASHC5 SPAST
23 early myoclonic encephalopathy 10.1 STXBP1 SLC2A1 AFG3L2
24 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 10.1 STXBP1 SACS AFG3L2
25 spastic paraparesis 10.1 SPAST AFG3L2
26 spastic paraplegia 10, autosomal dominant 10.1 WASHC5 SPAST PLP1 ALS2
27 paraplegia 10.1 WASHC5 SPAST PLP1 AFG3L2
28 spastic paraplegia 13, autosomal dominant 10.1 WASHC5 SPAST
29 spastic paraplegia 20, autosomal recessive 10.0 WASHC5 SPAST
30 spastic paraplegia 2, x-linked 10.0 WASHC5 SPAST RAB9B PLP1
31 warburg micro syndrome 1 9.9 RAB9B RAB3GAP1 ALS2
32 spastic cerebral palsy 9.9 STXBP1 SPAST RAB3GAP1 PLP1
33 frontotemporal dementia 9.9 WASHC5 SPAST GRIA3 ALS2
34 west syndrome 9.9 STXBP1 SLC2A1 MTHFR GRIA3
35 spastic ataxia 9.9 WASHC5 STXBP1 SPAST SACS PLP1 AFG3L2
36 cerebral palsy 9.8 SPAST PMM2 PLP1 NSRP1 MTHFR
37 strabismus 9.7 STXBP1 SLC2A1 PMM2 KIF7
38 hereditary spastic paraplegia 9.7 WASHC5 SPAST SACS RAB9B PLP1 ALS2
39 aceruloplasminemia 9.6 STXBP1 SLC2A1 PMM2 KIF7 AFG3L2
40 congenital nervous system abnormality 9.3 STXBP1 SLC2A1 RAB3GAP1 MTHFR KIF7 CREBBP

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Spasticity:

Diseases related to Spasticity

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Spasticity

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Spasticity:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.13 AFG3L2 ALS2 CREBBP DARS1 GRIA3 KIF7
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.77 AFG3L2 ALS2 CREBBP DARS1 GRIA3 KIF7
3 muscle MP:0005369 9.7 AFG3L2 ALS2 CREBBP KIF7 PLP1 PMM2
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.47 AFG3L2 ALS2 CREBBP DARS1 GRIA3 KIF7

Drugs & Therapeutics for Spasticity

Drugs for Spasticity (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 153)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 41100-52-1, 19982-08-2 4054
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
3 GABA Agonists Phase 4
4 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
5 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
6 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
Dalfampridine Approved Phase 3 504-24-5 1727
Baclofen Approved Phase 3 1134-47-0 2284
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 3 59-42-7 6041
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 3 1491-59-4 4636
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 3 99-66-1 3121
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 3 6493-05-6 4740
Ethanol Approved Phase 3 64-17-5 702
Peppermint oil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 8006-90-4
Peppermint Approved Phase 3
Cannabidiol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 13956-29-1 521372 644019
Dronabinol Approved, Illicit Phase 3 1972-08-3 16078
Arbaclofen Placarbil Investigational Phase 3 847353-30-4
Trichostatin A Experimental Phase 3 58880-19-6 5562 444732
Nabiximols Investigational Phase 3 56575-23-6
21 Neem Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
23 Potassium Channel Blockers Phase 3
24 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 3
25 Protective Agents Phase 3
26 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 3
27 Antioxidants Phase 3
28 Radiation-Protective Agents Phase 3
29 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 3
30 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
31 rimabotulinumtoxinB Phase 2, Phase 3
32 Analgesics Phase 3
33 Phytosterol Phase 3
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 2 1744-22-5 5070
Metformin Approved Phase 2 1115-70-4, 657-24-9 4091
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51-84-3 187
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 186826-86-8, 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
Nabilone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51022-71-0 39860 5284592
Levetiracetam Approved Phase 2 102767-28-2 441341 5284583
Miglustat Approved Phase 2 72599-27-0 51634
Atorvastatin Approved Phase 2 134523-00-5 60823
Chenodeoxycholic acid Approved Phase 2 474-25-9 10133
Evolocumab Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 1256937-27-5
Resveratrol Investigational Phase 2 501-36-0 445154
Tolperisone Investigational Phase 2 728-88-1
46 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 2
47 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 2
49 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 2
50 Botulinum Toxins Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 596)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Rectus Femoris Tenotomy Versus Botulinum Toxin A for Stiff Knee Gait After Stroke Unknown status NCT02114736 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin injection in the rectus femoris muscle
2 Dose-response Relationship of Botullinum Toxin (DWP 450) for Finger Flexor Spasticity Unknown status NCT03517319 Phase 4 Normal Saline 0.9% 1.2 ml;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A (Nabota, DWP 450) 15 U;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A (Nabota, DWP 450) 30 U;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A (Nabota, DWP 450) 50 U;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A (Nabota, DWP 450) 70 U
3 Phase III Study of Botulinum Toxin A Injection for Lower Limbs Spasticity in Subacute Stroke Adults Unknown status NCT02505802 Phase 4 BoNT-A injection
4 Optimal Dose of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection for Post-stroke Spasticity Unknown status NCT02358005 Phase 4
5 Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait in Children With Hemiplegic and Diplegic Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT02462018 Phase 4
6 Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Using Robot and Botulinum Toxin Unknown status NCT02228863 Phase 4
7 Antispastic Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Cerebral and Spinal Spasticity Unknown status NCT01786005 Phase 4
8 Asian Multicentre, Double Blind, Randomised, Placebo Controlled Pilot Study, to Assess the Impact of Dysport® Intramuscular Injections When Administered Within the First 12 Weeks After Stroke on the Time to Spasticity Progression in Adult Subjects With Upper Limb (UL) Spasticity. Completed NCT02321436 Phase 4 Placebo
9 Impact of Injection Techniques on the Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Post Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Completed NCT02757404 Phase 4 Ultrasonography guidance injection of Meditoxin®.;Electrical stimulation guidance injection of Meditoxin®.;Manual needle placement injection of Meditoxin®.
10 Myobloc Atrophy Study Completed NCT02052024 Phase 4 Botox;MYOBLOC
11 Effects of Repeated Use of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (BoNT/A) Free of Complexing Proteins in the Spastic Equinovarus Foot in Stroke Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT03044080 Phase 4 IncobotulinumtoxinA;OnabotulinumtoxinA
12 A Prospective, Multi-center, Single Arm, Open-label, Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of MEDITOXIN® in Treatment of Post Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Completed NCT03908580 Phase 4 Meditoxin
13 Placebo-Controlled Trial of BOTOX® Versus Zanaflex® for the Treatment of Subjects With Post Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Completed NCT00430196 Phase 4 BOTOX®;Zanaflex®
14 Imaging of 3D Innervation Zone Distribution in Spastic Muscles From High-density Surface Completed NCT03302741 Phase 4 Botulinum neurotoxin (BTX)
15 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Incobotulinumtoxin Type A for the Functional Improvement of Lower Extremity Spasticity in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01968902 Phase 4
16 A Multicentre, Double-blind, Randomised, Parallel Group, Placebo-controlled Study of the Effect of Long-term Treatment With Sativex on Cognitive Function and Mood of Patients With Spasticity Due to Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01964547 Phase 4 Sativex;Placebo
17 BOTOX® Economic Spasticity Trial (BEST) Completed NCT00549783 Phase 4
18 Does Botulinum Toxin A Make Walking Easier in Children With Cerebral Palsy? Completed NCT02546999 Phase 4 botox;placebo
19 A Randomized, Controlled, Open-label, Parallel-group, Multi-center Study to Compare the Effect of Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy Versus Best Medical Treatment on Severe Spasticity in Post-stroke Patients After 6 Months Active Treatment Completed NCT01032239 Phase 4 intrathecal baclofen
20 Vanderbilt University Spasticity Management Program Evaluation Plan Completed NCT00179114 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A;Intrathecal baclofen administered by the Medtronic SyncroMed(TM) pump (ITB)
21 Comparative Efficacy of Three Preparations of Botox-A in Treating Spasticity Completed NCT00178646 Phase 4 Botox
22 Hand Rehabilitation Using Botulinum Toxin and Functional Electrical Stimulation Among Stroke Patients With Limitation of Finger Extension Due to Spasticity- Pilot Study Completed NCT03549975 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A 100 unit/Vial (Product)
23 A Prospective Phase IV, Multicentre, Placebo-controlled Study to Demonstrate Changes in the Quality of Life Following DYSPORT Intramuscular Injection in the Treatment of Upper Limb Spasticity in Adult Post-Stroke Patients Completed NCT00216411 Phase 4 Placebo
24 A 24-week Prospective, Multicentre, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study of Dysport® Injection for the Treatment of Upper Limb Spasticity in Early Stroke. Completed NCT00234546 Phase 4 Placebo
25 Study of the Effects on Motor Recovery of Early Post-stroke Spasticity Treatment: Double Blinded Comparison Between Botulinum Toxin and Baclofen. Completed NCT02462317 Phase 4 botulinum A toxin;Baclofen;Placebo toxin;placebo baclofen
26 Multi-center, Single Arm, Open-label, Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of MEDITOXIN® in Children With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01256021 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A
27 An Efficacy Comparison of Botulinum Toxin A Injection Into Two Different Sites in Gastrocnemius Muscle for the Treatment of Spastic Patients, Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01278576 Phase 4 BOTOX-A®
28 Intrathecal (IT) Baclofen Drug Distribution Pilot Study Completed NCT02903823 Phase 4 Baclofen bolus injection
29 Memantine for Spasticity in MS Patients Completed NCT00638027 Phase 4 placebo;memantine
30 An International, Multicentre, Prospective, Single-Arm Study to Assess the Effect on Voluntary Movements of AbobotulinumtoxinA 1500 U Administered in Both Upper and Lower Limbs in Conjunction With a Guided Self-Rehabilitation Contract in Adult Subjects With Spastic Hemiparesis Completed NCT02969356 Phase 4
31 A Multicentre, Interventional, Post-marketing, Randomised, Double-blind, Crossover Study to Evaluate the Clinical Safety and Efficacy of AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) in Comparison With OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®) When Treating Adults With Upper Limb Spasticity Recruiting NCT04936542 Phase 4
32 Comparison of the Efficacy of 2 Different Botulinum Toxin Injection Techniques in Gastrocnemius Muscle Spasticity in Hemiplegic Patients: A Randomized Double-blind Controlled Study. Not yet recruiting NCT05615987 Phase 4 Onabotulinumtoxina for Injection
33 The Movement of Botulinum Toxin Through the Lateral Gastrocnemius Muscle in Humans: An Expanded Examination Terminated NCT03367429 Phase 4 Botox
34 Robotic Rehabilitation and Multimodal Instrumented Assessment of Post-stroke Elbow Motor Functions - a Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol Unknown status NCT04484571 Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Comparison of Clinical Efficacy of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A1 and A2 for Post-Stroke Lower Limb Spasticity: Phase 2/3 Unknown status NCT01910363 Phase 2, Phase 3 A2NTX;BOTOX
36 A Prospective, Open Label, Single Center Study of Patients With Multiple Sclerosis With Lower Extremity Spasticity Who Are Treated With Dysport Unknown status NCT03585569 Phase 3
37 Comparison of Surface Landmark, Ultrasonography and Electric Stimulation Guidance for Botulinum Toxin Injections in Stroke Patients With Spasticity on Upper Extremities. Unknown status NCT02557737 Phase 3 Botulinum Toxin Type A
38 Botulinim Toxin Type A Injections by Different Guidance in Stroke Patients With Spasticity on Lower Extremities Unknown status NCT02469948 Phase 3 Botulinum toxin type A
39 Randomised Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of a Self-rehabilitation Program in Addition to Usual Treatment for Spasticity (Repeated Botulinum Toxin Injections and Physiotherapy) on Impairment and Activity Limitation in Patients With Spastic Hemiparesis Following Stroke Unknown status NCT02944929 Phase 3
40 Effect of Botulinum Toxin Injections on Motor and Functional Ability of Upper Limb in Adults at Earlier Phases of Spastic Hemiplegia After Stroke Unknown status NCT00276185 Phase 3 Time delay treatment of botulinum toxin
41 Central Effects of Botulinum Toxin: Neurophysiological Study in Stroke Patients With Spastic Lower Limb Unknown status NCT01829763 Phase 3 injection botox
42 Open-Label, Exploratory Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Tamibarotene(AM80H) for HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/ Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Unknown status NCT01343355 Phase 2, Phase 3 Tamibarotene
43 The Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Sativex as an Adjunctive Treatment to Existing Anti-spasticity Medications in Children Aged 8 to 18 Years With Spasticity Due to Cerebral Palsy or Traumatic Central Nervous System Injury Who Have Not Responded Adequately to Their Existing Anti-spasticity Medications: a Parallel Group Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Followed by a 24-week Open Label Extension Phase Completed NCT01898520 Phase 3 Sativex;Placebo
44 A Phase III, Prospective, Multicentre, Open Label, Extension Study, to Assess the Long Term Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Treatment of Dysport® Intramuscular Injection in the Treatment of Lower Limb Spasticity in Adult Subjects With Spastic Hemiparesis Due to Stroke or Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT01251367 Phase 3
45 A Two-phase, Phase 3 Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Sativex, in the Symptomatic Relief of Spasticity in Subjects With Spasticity Due to Multiple Sclerosis: Phase A - Single-blind Response Assessment; Phase B - Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Group Study. Completed NCT00681538 Phase 3 Sativex®;Placebo
46 Open-label, Non-controlled, Multicenter Long-term Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of Xeomin® (Incobotulinumtoxin A, NT 201) for the Treatment of Spasticity of the Lower Limb(s) or of Combined Spasticity of Upper and Lower Limb in Children and Adolescents (Age 2 - 17 Years) With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01905683 Phase 3 IncobotulinumtoxinA (16-20 Units per kg body weight)
47 Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Dose-response Study of Three Doses Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA, NT 201) for the Treatment of Upper Limb Spasticity Alone or Combined Upper and Lower Limb Spasticity in Children and Adolescents (Age 2 - 17 Years) With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT02002884 Phase 3 IncobotulinumtoxinA (8 Units per kg body weight);IncobotulinumtoxinA (6 Units per kg body weight);IncobotulinumtoxinA (2 Units per kg body weight)
48 Botulinum Toxin Efficiency on Spasticity of Rectus Femoris and Semitendinosus Muscles as Functional Agonist and Antagonist Muscles. Assessment of Efficiency of Botulinum Toxin on Spasticity in Agonist and Antagonist Muscles Using Clinical Assessment and Gait Analysis in Cerebral Palsy Children: Rectus Femoris and Semitendinosus Completed NCT00133861 Phase 2, Phase 3 Botulinum toxin
49 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Group Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of Arbaclofen Extended-Release Tablets for the Treatment of Spasticity in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT03290131 Phase 3 Arbaclofen;Placebo
50 A Randomized, Double-blind, Active Drug Controlled, Multi-Center, Phase I/III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of CORETOX® in Treatment of Post Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Completed NCT03289702 Phase 3 CORETOX®;BOTOX®

Search NIH Clinical Center for Spasticity

Genetic Tests for Spasticity

Genetic tests related to Spasticity:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Spasticity 28

Anatomical Context for Spasticity

Organs/tissues related to Spasticity:

MalaCards : Spinal Cord, Brain, Skeletal Muscle, Cortex, Bone Marrow, Bone, Dorsal Root Ganglion

Publications for Spasticity

Articles related to Spasticity:

(show top 50) (show all 12957)
# Title Authors PMID Year
ATPase Domain AFG3L2 Mutations Alter OPA1 Processing and Cause Optic Neuropathy. 5
32219868 2020
Whole-genome sequencing of patients with rare diseases in a national health system. 5
32581362 2020
Association between brain N-acetylaspartate levels and sensory and motor dysfunction in patients who have spinal cord injury with spasticity: an observational case-control study. 62
36018181 2023
Excitability of the radiculo-medullary circuitry in spastic cerebral palsy: An intraoperative neurophysiological study in children undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. 62
35698904 2023
Adult-onset Krabbe disease presenting as isolated sensorimotor demyelinating polyneuropathy: A case report. 62
36057781 2022
[A novel mutation of SPAST gene in a hereditary spastic paraplegia type 4 family]. 62
36456515 2022
A Delayed Presentation of Arginase Deficiency Presenting with Status Epilepticus. 62
36474391 2022
Hereditary spastic paraplegia: new insights into clinical variability and spasticity-ataxia phenotype, and novel mutations. 62
34420199 2022
TCEAL1 loss-of-function results in an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental syndrome and drives the neurological disease trait in Xq22.2 deletions. 62
36368327 2022
A Diagnostic Approach to Spastic ataxia Syndromes. 62
34782953 2022
Accidental organophosphate poisoning: A case series of 2 pediatric coumaphos exposures. 62
36474706 2022
Evaluation of secondary complication awareness among individuals with spinal cord injury. 62
36083580 2022
Worst spasticity in patients post-stroke associated with MNSOD ALA16VAL polymorphism and interleukin-1β. 62
36100117 2022
The hip of children with Congenital Zika Syndrome: a prospective observational study. 62
36470461 2022
Effect of inhibitory kinesiotaping on spasticity in patients with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot trial. 62
34427177 2022
Spasticity following brain and spinal cord injury: assessment and treatment. 62
36226708 2022
Focal vibration of the plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles improves poststroke spasticity: a randomized single-blind controlled trial. 62
35940478 2022
Effects of robotic rehabilitation using the Erigo® device on patients with neurological injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. 62
36469933 2022
Measuring Mechanical Properties of Spastic Muscles After Stroke. Does Muscle Position During Assessment Really Matter? 62
35724753 2022
GABAB receptor agonist baclofen promotes central nervous system remyelination. 62
35980256 2022
A Clinical Evaluation of the Accuracy of an Intrathecal Drug Delivery Device. 62
36473773 2022
Applying transcranial magnetic stimulation to rehabilitation of poststroke lower extremity function and an improvement: Individual-target TMS. 62
36437474 2022
Treating Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Combining Neurofeedback and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in a Single Case Study. 62
34931544 2022
Feasibility of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation combined with locomotor training after spinal cord injury. 62
35477745 2022
Promising Advances in Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Spinal Cord Injury-A Review of Studies Performed In Vivo with Modern Drugs. 62
36431161 2022
SPINE: An Initiative to Reduce Pressure Sore Recurrence. 62
36389613 2022
The muscle shortening maneuver in individuals with stroke: a consideration-of-concept randomized pilot trial. 62
36398746 2022
Employment of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Examine Muscle and Bone Qualities after Spinal Cord Injury. 62
36431158 2022
Development, Quality by Design-Based Optimization, and Stability Assessment of Oral Liquid Formulations Containing Baclofen for Hospital Use. 62
36385217 2022
Effects of paired associative magnetic stimulation between nerve root and cortex on motor function of lower limbs after spinal cord injury: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. 62
35535897 2022
Comprehensive Management of Pressure Injury: A Review. 62
36243469 2022
Real-world operation of multiple sclerosis centres in Central-Eastern European countries covering 107 million inhabitants. 62
36413917 2022
Effect of whole-body vibration training on the recovery of lower limb function in people with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
36367314 2022
Virtual reality and serious game therapy for post-stroke individuals: A preliminary study with humanized rehabilitation approach protocol. 62
36343422 2022
Effect of Acupuncture on Sensorimotor Function and Mobility in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study. 62
36367978 2022
Staying Pressure Injury Free: The Role of Modifiable Behaviors. 62
35257678 2022
Effects of neural mobilization in disorders associated with chronic secondary musculoskeletal pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
35780543 2022
The impact of intrathecal baclofen on the ability to walk: A systematic review. 62
36330654 2022
Post Hoc Subgroup Analysis of the BCause Study Assessing the Effect of AbobotulinumtoxinA on Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain in Adults. 62
36422983 2022
Prognosis prediction of the effect of botulinum toxin therapy and intensive rehabilitation on the upper arm function in post-stroke patients using hierarchical cluster analysis. 62
34547217 2022
Dry needling for the treatment of muscle spasticity in a patient with multiple sclerosis: a case report. 62
34546842 2022
Multimodal assessment of spasticity using a point-of-care instrumented glove to separate neural and biomechanical contributions. 62
36281456 2022
Safety and efficacy of MT10107 in post-stroke upper limb spasticity treatment: A phase I randomized controlled trial. 62
36343044 2022
AI-Based Automatic System for Assessing Upper-Limb Spasticity of Patients with Stroke Through Voluntary Movement. 62
36367914 2022
Spasticity Management Teams, Evaluations, and Tools: A Canadian Cross-Sectional Survey. 62
36408628 2022
Limb accelerations during sleep are related to measures of strength, sensation, and spasticity among individuals with spinal cord injury. 62
36329467 2022
Persistence with Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Spasticity Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis. 62
36356024 2022
Changes in 5-HT1F receptor expression in rats with spasticity following spinal cord injury. 62
36471527 2022
[Can we associate botulinum toxin with radial electroshock wave therapy in the treatment of spasticity?] 62
36344303 2022
Effects of whole-body vibration on neuropathic pain and the relationship between pain and spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. 62
35468994 2022

Variations for Spasticity

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Spasticity:

5 (show all 23)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 MTHFR NM_005957.5(MTHFR):c.1588AAG[1] (p.Lys531del) MICROSAT Pathogenic
873153 rs763186690 GRCh37: 1:11852374-11852376
GRCh38: 1:11792317-11792319
2 SPAST NM_014946.4(SPAST):c.1276C>T (p.Leu426Phe) SNV Pathogenic
448444 rs1060502227 GRCh37: 2:32361662-32361662
GRCh38: 2:32136593-32136593
3 NSRP1 NM_032141.4(NSRP1):c.1359_1362del (p.Glu455fs) DEL Pathogenic
1047905 GRCh37: 17:28512372-28512375
GRCh38: 17:30185354-30185357
4 NSRP1 NM_032141.4(NSRP1):c.1272dup (p.Lys425fs) DUP Pathogenic
1047906 GRCh37: 17:28512285-28512286
GRCh38: 17:30185267-30185268
5 NSRP1 NM_032141.4(NSRP1):c.52C>T (p.Gln18Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1047907 GRCh37: 17:28445129-28445129
GRCh38: 17:30118111-30118111
6 RAB3GAP1 NM_012233.3(RAB3GAP1):c.151-5T>G SNV Pathogenic
996741 rs1690127143 GRCh37: 2:135848563-135848563
GRCh38: 2:135090993-135090993
7 STXBP1 NM_001032221.6(STXBP1):c.116_118dup (p.Arg39dup) DUP Pathogenic
633836 rs1588294498 GRCh37: 9:130416019-130416020
GRCh38: 9:127653740-127653741
8 YWHAG NM_012479.4(YWHAG):c.169C>T (p.Arg57Cys) SNV Pathogenic
659092 rs1583981736 GRCh37: 7:75959469-75959469
GRCh38: 7:76330152-76330152
9 AFG3L2 NM_006796.3(AFG3L2):c.1385C>T (p.Ala462Val) SNV Pathogenic
973107 rs912546325 GRCh37: 18:12351346-12351346
GRCh38: 18:12351347-12351347
10 PMM2 NM_000303.3(PMM2):c.338C>T (p.Pro113Leu) SNV Pathogenic
7723 rs80338700 GRCh37: 16:8900255-8900255
GRCh38: 16:8806398-8806398
11 PMM2 NM_000303.3(PMM2):c.422G>A (p.Arg141His) SNV Pathogenic
7706 rs28936415 GRCh37: 16:8905010-8905010
GRCh38: 16:8811153-8811153
12 GRIA3 NM_007325.5(GRIA3):c.2327C>T (p.Thr776Met) SNV Likely Pathogenic
625211 rs780680047 GRCh37: X:122613916-122613916
GRCh38: X:123480065-123480065
13 HPD NM_002150.3(HPD):c.1049T>C (p.Val350Ala) SNV Likely Pathogenic
812775 rs1592913789 GRCh37: 12:122277860-122277860
GRCh38: 12:121839954-121839954
14 CREBBP NM_004380.3(CREBBP):c.6185_6195del (p.Ile2062fs) DEL Likely Pathogenic
523472 rs1555471098 GRCh37: 16:3778853-3778863
GRCh38: 16:3728852-3728862
15 KIF7 NM_198525.3(KIF7):c.434A>C (p.Tyr145Ser) SNV Likely Pathogenic
374124 rs758361736 GRCh37: 15:90193067-90193067
GRCh38: 15:89649836-89649836
16 ALS2 NC_000002.12:g.201705201del DEL Likely Pathogenic
812988 rs1574655402 GRCh37: 2:202569923-202569923
GRCh38: 2:201705200-201705200
17 RAB9B, PLP1 NM_000533.5(PLP1):c.25A>T (p.Arg9Ter) SNV Likely Pathogenic
981179 rs2074488502 GRCh37: X:103040531-103040531
GRCh38: X:103785602-103785602
18 WASHC5 NM_014846.4(WASHC5):c.864+5G>C SNV Uncertain Significance
1027665 rs772529893 GRCh37: 8:126088585-126088585
GRCh38: 8:125076343-125076343
19 DMXL2 NM_001378457.1(DMXL2):c.5020A>C (p.Lys1674Gln) SNV Uncertain Significance
1030274 rs1438220307 GRCh37: 15:51780776-51780776
GRCh38: 15:51488579-51488579
20 COL6A2 NM_001849.4(COL6A2):c.2008A>G (p.Thr670Ala) SNV Uncertain Significance
598977 rs753298014 GRCh37: 21:47545737-47545737
GRCh38: 21:46125823-46125823
21 CACNA1A NM_001127222.2(CACNA1A):c.6125C>T (p.Thr2042Met) SNV Uncertain Significance
386521 rs563345694 GRCh37: 19:13323262-13323262
GRCh38: 19:13212448-13212448
22 REEP1 NM_001371279.1(REEP1):c.793A>G (p.Arg265Gly) SNV Uncertain Significance
242633 rs587781248 GRCh37: 2:86444224-86444224
GRCh38: 2:86217101-86217101
23 PMP22 NM_000304.4(PMP22):c.422T>G (p.Val141Gly) SNV Uncertain Significance
373965 rs1057518804 GRCh37: 17:15134295-15134295
GRCh38: 17:15230978-15230978

Expression for Spasticity

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Spasticity.

Pathways for Spasticity

Pathways related to Spasticity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes

GO Terms for Spasticity

Cellular components related to Spasticity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 synapse GO:0045202 9.28 YWHAG SLC2A1 PLP1 MTHFR GRIA3 DARS1

Biological processes related to Spasticity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein-containing complex assembly GO:0065003 9.17 SLC2A1 DARS1 CREBBP AFG3L2

Sources for Spasticity

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....