MCID: SPT005
MIFTS: 49

Spotted Fever

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Spotted Fever

Summaries for Spotted Fever

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that results in infection, located in endothelial cell of artery or located in endothelial cell of vein, has material basis in Rickettsia, which is transmitted by ticks and mites. The infection has symptom fever, has symptom headache, has symptom fatigue, has symptom muscle aches, and has symptom maculopapular or petechial rash. A distinctive eschar (blackened or crusted skin) may develop at the site of a tick bite.

MalaCards based summary : Spotted Fever, also known as spotted fevers, is related to flinders island spotted fever and spotted fever rickettsiosis. An important gene associated with Spotted Fever is HTRA1 (HtrA Serine Peptidase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are ERK Signaling and Akt Signaling. The drugs carbamide peroxide and Antibodies have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include endothelial, skin and liver, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and cellular

Wikipedia : 73 A spotted fever is a type of tick-borne disease which presents on the skin. They are all caused by... more...

Related Diseases for Spotted Fever

Diseases related to Spotted Fever via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 483)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 flinders island spotted fever 32.5 PLEKHG4 AFF2
2 spotted fever rickettsiosis 32.4 TNF IL10 IFNG IDO1 CCL5
3 african tick-bite fever 32.4 VWF TNF IL10 IFNG CCL5
4 queensland tick typhus 31.9 PLEKHG4 CS
5 israeli tick typhus 31.9 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4
6 exanthem 31.9 TNF IL10 IFNG F2
7 japanese spotted fever 31.5 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS AFF2
8 rocky mountain spotted fever 31.4 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS AFF2
9 indian tick typhus 31.4 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 AFF2
10 scrub typhus 31.4 TNF IL10 IFNG IDO1
11 q fever 31.3 TNF IL10 IFNG CCL5
12 boutonneuse fever 31.1 THBD SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 CS AFF2
13 disease by infectious agent 31.0 TNF IL10 IFNG IDO1
14 meningoencephalitis 31.0 TNF IL10 CXCL10 CCL5
15 toxic shock syndrome 31.0 TNF IL10 IFNG
16 disseminated intravascular coagulation 30.9 VWF TNF THBD IL10 F2
17 pulmonary edema 30.8 TNF IL10 F2
18 leptospirosis 30.8 TNF IL10 IFNG F2
19 dengue disease 30.8 TNF IL10 IFNG CCL5
20 encephalitis 30.7 TNF IL10 IDO1 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
21 aseptic meningitis 30.7 TNF IL10 IFNG
22 uveitis 30.7 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL10
23 meningitis 30.6 TNF IL10 IFNG CCL5
24 adult respiratory distress syndrome 30.6 TNF THBD IL10 F2
25 typhoid fever 30.6 TNF THBD IFNG F2
26 purpura 30.6 VWF TNF THBD IL10 IFNG F2
27 bacterial infectious disease 30.6 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9
28 conjunctivitis 30.6 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9
29 appendicitis 30.5 TNF IL10 IFNG
30 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 30.4 TNF IL10 IFNG CCL5
31 endemic typhus 30.4 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS AFF2
32 chickenpox 30.3 TNF IL10 IFNG
33 thrombocytopenia 30.3 VWF TNF THBD IL10 IFNG F2
34 common cold 30.3 TNF IL10 CCL5
35 brucellosis 30.3 TNF IL10 IFNG
36 respiratory failure 30.3 TNF THBD IL10 F2 CXCL10 CCL5
37 bacterial meningitis 30.3 TNF IL10 IFNG
38 gastroenteritis 30.3 TNF IL10 IFNG
39 reactive arthritis 30.2 TNF IL10 IFNG
40 hepatitis e 30.2 TNF IFNG F2
41 pneumonia 30.2 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL10 CCL5
42 japanese encephalitis 30.2 TNF CXCL10 CCL5
43 toxoplasmosis 30.2 TNF IL10 IFNG IDO1
44 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.1 TNF IL10 IFNG F2
45 visceral leishmaniasis 30.1 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9
46 chlamydia 30.1 TNF IL10 IFNG IDO1 HTRA1
47 lung disease 30.0 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL10 CCL5
48 viral infectious disease 30.0 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL10 CCL5
49 peripheral nervous system disease 29.9 TNF PTGS2 IL10 IFNG CASP3
50 lymphadenitis 29.9 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9 CASP3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Spotted Fever:



Diseases related to Spotted Fever

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Spotted Fever

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Spotted Fever:

46 (show all 11)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.31 CASP3 CXCL10 F2 FGFR1 HTRA1 IDO1
2 cellular MP:0005384 10.26 BAX CASP3 CXCL10 F2 FGFR1 IDO1
3 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.25 BAX CASP3 CCL5 CXCL10 FGFR1 IDO1
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.22 BAX CASP3 CCL5 CXCL10 F2 FGFR1
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.11 CASP3 F2 FGFR1 IFNG IL10 PTGS2
6 nervous system MP:0003631 10.1 BAX CASP3 CXCL10 F2 FGFR1 IFNG
7 muscle MP:0005369 10.07 BAX CASP3 F2 FGFR1 IDO1 IFNG
8 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.85 BAX CASP3 F2 FGFR1 IDO1 IFNG
9 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.8 CASP3 FGFR1 IFNG IL10 PTGS2 TNF
10 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 BAX CASP3 F2 IFNG IL10 PTGS2
11 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 BAX CASP3 F2 FGFR1 HTRA1 IFNG

Drugs & Therapeutics for Spotted Fever

Drugs for Spotted Fever (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 7)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
2 Antibodies
3 Immunoglobulins
4 Immunoglobulin M
5 Immunoglobulin A
6 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
7 Immunoglobulin G

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Background Seroprevalence of Rickettsial Infections in Myanmar Completed NCT03847870
2 The Epidemiology Of Scrub Typhus And Rickettsial Infections In A Highly Endemic Rural Setting In South India: Population-Based Cohort Study Recruiting NCT04506944
3 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Spotted Fever

Genetic Tests for Spotted Fever

Anatomical Context for Spotted Fever

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Spotted Fever:

40
Endothelial, Skin, Liver, Brain, Kidney, Spleen, Bone Marrow

Publications for Spotted Fever

Articles related to Spotted Fever:

(show top 50) (show all 3467)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Detection of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia in Amblyomma parvum ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Argentina. 61 54
17768597 2007
2
Diversity and distribution of ticks in Niigata prefecture, Japan (2016-2018): Changes since 1950. 61
33578257 2021
3
Control of ixodid ticks and prevention of tick-borne diseases in the United States: The prospect of a new Lyme disease vaccine and the continuing problem with tick exposure on residential properties. 61
33549976 2021
4
Seasonal dynamics and rickettsial infection in free-living Amblyomma dubitatum in the Atlantic forest biome in north-eastern Brazil. 61
33561429 2021
5
Ticks and rickettsial exposure in lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) of three Brazilian biomes. 61
33508536 2021
6
Detection of Rickettsia sp. strain Itinguçú in Ornithodoros faccinii (Acari: Argasidae) parasitizing the toad Rhinella ornata (Anura: Bufonidae) in Brazil. 61
33545505 2021
7
Isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Outbreak, Panama. 61
33755006 2021
8
Assessment of the Pathogenicity of Rickettsia amblyommatis, Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia montanensis in a Guinea Pig Model. 61
33600263 2021
9
Urban ecology of hosts and vectors of Rickettsia in a rickettsiosis-endemic city of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. 61
33465349 2021
10
Detection of Rickettsia amblyommatis and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Amblyomma americanum Inhabiting Two Urban Parks in Oklahoma. 61
33733878 2021
11
Diversity of rickettsiae in domestic, synanthropic, and sylvatic mammals and their ectoparasites in a spotted fever-epidemic region at the western US-Mexico border. 61
33667026 2021
12
Recent advances in understanding tick and rickettsiae interactions. 61
33713348 2021
13
Growth Characteristics of Rickettsia Species LON Strains Closely Related to Rickettsia japonica Isolated from Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks in Mouse Derived L929 and Human-Derived THP-1 Host Cell Lines. 61
32863353 2021
14
Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks from Dogs and Cats in the Yamagata Prefecture of Japan in 2018. 61
32863354 2021
15
Likely Geographic Distributional Shifts among Medically Important Tick Species and Tick-Associated Diseases under Climate Change in North America: A Review. 61
33807736 2021
16
Current tools for the diagnosis and detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia. 61
33713627 2021
17
Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Murine Typhus and Spotted Fever Group in North Korean Refugees. 61
33676004 2021
18
Isolate-Dependent Differences in Clinical, Pathological, and Transcriptional Profiles following In Vitro and In Vivo Infections with Rickettsia rickettsii. 61
33495273 2021
19
Renal involvement in Mediterranean spotted fever - clinical and histopathological data. 61
33780958 2021
20
Diversity of free-living ticks and serological evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia and ticks associated to dogs, Porto Velho, Western Amazon, Brazil. 61
33779896 2021
21
Tick-borne rickettsiae in Midwestern region of Republic of Korea. 61
33310079 2021
22
Report of Amblyomma sculptum in a House in a Rickettsia rickettsii Circulation Area. 61
33691465 2021
23
MicroRNA-424 regulates the expression of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) in human microvascular endothelial cells during Rickettsia rickettsii infection. 61
33490646 2021
24
Multi-country investigation of the diversity and associated microorganisms isolated from tick species from domestic animals, wildlife and vegetation in selected african countries. 61
33646482 2021
25
Mediterranean spotted fever associated with leucocytoclastic vasculitis and acute pancraeatitis. 61
33622746 2021
26
Descriptive epidemiology of rickettsial infections in Japan: Scrub typhus and Japanese spotted fever, 2007-2016. 61
33610785 2021
27
Dermacentor variabilis is the Predominant Dermacentor spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) Feeding on Dogs and Cats Throughout the United States. 61
33615364 2021
28
Surveillance for Vector-borne Diseases Among Active and Reserve Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2016-2020. 61
33636087 2021
29
Significant Growth by Rickettsia Species within Human Macrophage-Like Cells Is a Phenotype Correlated with the Ability to Cause Disease in Mammals. 61
33669499 2021
30
Clinical case report: Not all rickettsiosis are mediterranean spotted fever. 61
33618852 2021
31
Serological evidence indicates widespread distribution of rickettsioses in Myanmar. 61
33310022 2021
32
Amplicon-Based Next Generation Sequencing for Rapid Identification of Rickettsia and Ectoparasite Species from Entomological Surveillance in Thailand. 61
33669463 2021
33
Crystal structure of acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Rickettsia felis. 61
33620038 2021
34
Rickettsia spp. in bats of Romania: high prevalence of Rickettsia monacensis in two insectivorous bat species. 61
33568213 2021
35
Role of reptiles and associated arthropods in the epidemiology of rickettsioses: A one health paradigm. 61
33596200 2021
36
A Space-Time Permutation Scan Statistic for Evaluating County-Level Tickborne Disease Clusters in Indiana, 2009-2016. 61
33156708 2021
37
Molecular Evidence of Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Species in Amblyomma albolimbatum Ticks from the Shingleback Skink (Tiliqua rugosa) in Southern Western Australia. 61
33466308 2021
38
Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) detection in ticks following reported human case of Japanese spotted fever in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. 61
33510192 2021
39
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Hermosillo, México. 61
33219641 2021
40
Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever from Enhanced Surveillance, Sonora, Mexico: 2015-2018. 61
33146112 2021
41
Predictive variables for hemodialysis and death in Japanese spotted fever, and the association between distance from rivers and incidence. 61
33011438 2021
42
Manifestations and Management of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses. 61
33574726 2021
43
Beyond the IFA: Revisiting the ELISA as a More Sensitive, Objective, and Quantitative Evaluation of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Exposure. 61
33498380 2021
44
Detection of Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Southwestern China. 61
33399212 2021
45
A new focus of Brazilian spotted fever in the central-west region of São Paulo state, Brazil. 61
33759917 2021
46
Biodiversity of Potential Vectors of Rickettsiae and Epidemiological Mosaic of Spotted Fever in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 61
33777873 2021
47
Rickettsia spp. in rodent-attached ticks in Estonia and first evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia species Candidatus Rickettsia uralica in Europe. 61
33472659 2021
48
Small Mammals as Reservoir for Zoonotic Agents in Afghanistan. 61
33462624 2021
49
Surveillance of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens in Suburban Natural Habitats of Central Maryland. 61
33511396 2021
50
Molecular detection of vector-borne agents in ectoparasites and reptiles from Brazil. 61
33113476 2021

Variations for Spotted Fever

Expression for Spotted Fever

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Spotted Fever.

Pathways for Spotted Fever

Pathways related to Spotted Fever according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 44)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.81 TNF PTGS2 PPP1R14A IL10 FGFR1 CXCL9
2
Show member pathways
13.4 TNF IL10 FGFR1 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
3
Show member pathways
13.27 TNF IL10 FGFR1 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
4
Show member pathways
13.27 TNF PTGS2 PPP1R14A IL10 IFNG FGFR1
5
Show member pathways
13.13 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
6
Show member pathways
13.07 VWF TNF SPTBN2 PTGS2 IL10 IFNG
7
Show member pathways
12.98 VWF TNF PTGS2 FGFR1 CASP3 BAX
8
Show member pathways
12.83 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9 CASP3
9 12.83 PTGS2 IFNG FGFR1 F2 CASP3 BAX
10
Show member pathways
12.8 TNF IFNG CXCL10 CCL5 CASP3 BAX
11 12.78 TNF IFNG CCL5 CASP3 BAX
12
Show member pathways
12.49 TNF IL10 IFNG F2 CXCL9 BAX
13
Show member pathways
12.32 TNF PTGS2 IFNG CXCL10 CASP3
14
Show member pathways
12.31 TNF IL10 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
15
Show member pathways
12.3 TNF PTGS2 IFNG F2 CCL5
16
Show member pathways
12.29 TNF PTGS2 IFNG FGFR1
17
Show member pathways
12.18 TNF PTGS2 IL10 IFNG CASP3
18 12.15 TNF IL10 IFNG CASP3 BAX
19 12.07 TNF PTGS2 IFNG CASP3 BAX
20 12.01 TNF PTGS2 IL10 IFNG IDO1 CXCL10
21 11.91 TNF IL10 IFNG CASP3
22 11.89 TNF THBD CASP3 BAX
23 11.88 TNF PTGS2 IFNG CXCL10 CASP3
24 11.82 TNF PTGS2 CXCL10 CCL5 CASP3
25
Show member pathways
11.79 FGFR1 CASP3 BAX
26 11.76 TNF IL10 IFNG
27
Show member pathways
11.74 TNF IL10 IFNG
28 11.73 TNF IL10 CASP3
29
Show member pathways
11.73 TNF PTGS2 IFNG CASP3
30 11.69 TNF THBD IL10 IFNG
31
Show member pathways
11.65 TNF PTGS2 IFNG
32 11.55 TNF IFNG BAX
33 11.54 TNF IL10 IFNG
34 11.52 TNF IFNG BAX
35 11.41 TNF CASP3 BAX
36 11.39 IFNG CXCL9 CXCL10
37
Show member pathways
11.37 TNF IL10 IFNG
38 11.31 TNF CASP3 BAX
39 11.29 FGFR1 F2 CCL5
40 11.25 TNF IL10 IFNG
41 11.19 TNF IL10 IFNG IDO1
42 11.01 TNF PTGS2 BAX
43 10.88 TNF IL10 FGFR1 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
44 10.71 TNF PTGS2 IL10 CXCL10 CCL5

GO Terms for Spotted Fever

Cellular components related to Spotted Fever according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.65 VWF TNF IL10 IFNG HTRA1 FGFR1
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.55 TNF THBD F2 CXCL9 CXCL10
3 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.36 VWF TNF THBD SPTBN2 IL10 IFNG

Biological processes related to Spotted Fever according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 43)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043065 10 TNF PTGS2 IDO1 CASP3 BAX
2 immune response GO:0006955 10 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
3 regulation of cell proliferation GO:0042127 9.95 TNF PTGS2 CXCL9 CXCL10
4 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.89 TNF IL10 CXCL9 CXCL10
5 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.88 TNF PTGS2 IDO1 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
6 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.86 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
7 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.85 TNF IFNG CCL5
8 apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097190 9.85 TNF CASP3 BAX
9 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 9.85 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
10 antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide GO:0061844 9.84 F2 CXCL9 CXCL10
11 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.84 TNF IFNG CCL5
12 response to virus GO:0009615 9.84 TNF IFNG CXCL10 CCL5
13 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.83 TNF CCL5 CASP3
14 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.81 TNF PTGS2 CCL5
15 positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0043525 9.8 TNF CASP3 BAX
16 positive regulation of protein complex assembly GO:0031334 9.8 TNF IFNG BAX
17 positive regulation of cytokine production GO:0001819 9.79 TNF IL10 IFNG
18 hemostasis GO:0007599 9.78 VWF THBD F2
19 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.78 TNF FGFR1 F2 CCL5
20 response to organic substance GO:0010033 9.76 TNF PTGS2 IL10 CASP3
21 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097191 9.75 TNF IFNG BAX
22 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.74 TNF PTGS2 IFNG
23 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.73 TNF PTGS2 IL10 CXCL10 CCL5 CASP3
24 negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance GO:1900222 9.69 TNF IFNG
25 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.69 IL10 IFNG
26 negative regulation of fibrinolysis GO:0051918 9.68 THBD F2
27 response to salt stress GO:0009651 9.68 TNF BAX
28 response to wounding GO:0009611 9.67 VWF F2 CASP3 BAX
29 negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process GO:0070233 9.66 IDO1 CCL5
30 negative regulation of platelet activation GO:0010544 9.65 THBD F2
31 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.64 TNF IL10
32 positive regulation of T cell apoptotic process GO:0070234 9.63 IDO1 CCL5
33 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.62 TNF PTGS2 IL10 CASP3
34 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.61 TNF IL10
35 positive regulation of amyloid-beta formation GO:1902004 9.61 TNF IFNG CASP3
36 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.58 TNF PTGS2
37 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.56 TNF IFNG
38 positive regulation of B cell apoptotic process GO:0002904 9.55 IL10 BAX
39 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.51 TNF IFNG
40 positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process GO:0051173 9.49 TNF IFNG
41 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.46 TNF IL10 F2 CCL5
42 positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051281 9.26 F2 CXCL9 CXCL10 BAX
43 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.1 THBD PTGS2 IL10 IDO1 CXCL10 CASP3

Molecular functions related to Spotted Fever according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chemokine activity GO:0008009 9.33 CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.1 TNF IL10 IFNG CXCL9 CXCL10 CCL5
3 CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding GO:0048248 8.96 CXCL9 CXCL10

Sources for Spotted Fever

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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