MCID: STP004
MIFTS: 44

Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome:

Name: Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome 54 74
Bacterial Toxic-Shock Syndrome 54 60
Staphylococcal Toxic-Shock Syndrome 60
Staphylococcal Tss 60
Bacterial Tss 60

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

60
bacterial toxic-shock syndrome
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;
staphylococcal toxic-shock syndrome
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (United States);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 60  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

ICD10 via Orphanet 35 A48.3
UMLS via Orphanet 75 C3714602
UMLS 74 C3714602

Summaries for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.Orpha Number: 36234Disease definitionBacterial toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal, acute disease characterized by a sudden onset of high fever along with nausea, myalgia, vomiting and multisystem organ involvement, potentially leading to shock and death. TSS is mediated by superantigenic toxins, usually caused by an infection with Staphylococcus aureus in staphylococcal TSS (see this term) or Streptococcus pyogenes in streptococcal TSS (see this term).EpidemiologyThe worldwide prevalence is estimated at 1/30, 000.Clinical descriptionThe disease affects mainly young adult women with no previous medical conditions. However, non-menstrual TSS, which can also be observed in men and children, represents up to 50% of Staphylococcal TSS cases. Onset is sudden and includes high fever (>38.9°C), nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, myalgia, abdominal pain and sore throat. Staphylococcal TSS almost always exhibits an erythematous rash and skin peeling as one of its manifestations, whereas it is very rarely seen in streptococcal TSS, which can show signs of soft tissue infection. Serious manifestations include confusion, shock, renal and myocardial dysfunction, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; see this term) and coma.EtiologyStaphylococcal TSS is due to an infection with Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcal TSS is due to an infection with Streptococcus pyogenes, or rarely, group C or G Streptococcus. Superantigens produced by both bacteria are responsible for the massive and sudden immune reaction seen in TSS. Both forms have been associated with recent traumas (surgery or childbirth) and viral infections, while staphylococcal TSS has also been associated with high absorbency tampon use.Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

MalaCards based summary : Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome, also known as bacterial toxic-shock syndrome, is related to toxic shock syndrome and aspergillosis. An important gene associated with Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome is TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Clindamycin and Amoxicillin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, monocytes and t cells.

Related Diseases for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Diseases related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 212)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 toxic shock syndrome 31.6 CIITA HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF
2 aspergillosis 30.2 IFNG TNF
3 burns 30.0 IL1B TNF
4 dermatitis, atopic 29.8 IFNG IGHE TNF
5 staphylococcal scarlet fever 11.9
6 stromal keratitis 10.2 CIITA TNF
7 macrophage activation syndrome 10.2 HMGB1 TNF
8 cutaneous leishmaniasis 10.2 IFNG TNF
9 pulmonary sarcoidosis 10.2 IFNG TNF
10 visceral leishmaniasis 10.2 IFNG TNF
11 inclusion conjunctivitis 10.2 HMGB1 TNF
12 churg-strauss syndrome 10.2 HMGB1 TNF
13 suppurative cholangitis 10.2 HMGB1 TNF
14 autoimmune myocarditis 10.2 IFNG TNF
15 trichosporonosis 10.2 IFNG TNF
16 chronic beryllium disease 10.2 IFNG TNF
17 scleritis 10.2 IFNG TNF
18 keratoconjunctivitis 10.2 IFNG TNF
19 miliary tuberculosis 10.2 IFNG TNF
20 chronic graft versus host disease 10.2 IFNG TNF
21 clonorchiasis 10.2 IFNG TNF
22 microscopic colitis 10.2 IFNG TNF
23 meconium aspiration syndrome 10.2 IFNG TNF
24 soft tissue sarcoma 10.2 IFNG TNF
25 tuberculous peritonitis 10.1 IFNG TNF
26 intermediate uveitis 10.1 IFNG TNF
27 orofacial granulomatosis 10.1 IFNG TNF
28 cytomegalovirus retinitis 10.1 IFNG TNF
29 posterior uveitis 10.1 IFNG TNF
30 mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia 10.1 IFNG TNF
31 poliomyelitis 10.1 IFNG TNF
32 lichen disease 10.1 IFNG TNF
33 erythema multiforme 10.1 IFNG TNF
34 pleural tuberculosis 10.1 IFNG TNF
35 spotted fever 10.1 IFNG TNF
36 coccidiosis 10.1 IFNG TNF
37 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10.1 IFNG TNF
38 plasmodium vivax malaria 10.1 IFNG TNF
39 influenza 10.1
40 hypersensitivity reaction type iv disease 10.1 IFNG TNF
41 leprosy 3 10.1 IFNG TNF
42 acute graft versus host disease 10.1 IFNG TNF
43 atopic keratoconjunctivitis 10.1 IFNG IGHE
44 hepatitis e 10.1 IFNG TNF
45 lepromatous leprosy 10.1 IFNG TNF
46 spondyloarthropathy 10.1 IFNG TNF
47 toxic oil syndrome 10.1 IFNG IGHE
48 peanut allergy 10.1 IFNG IGHE
49 hyper ige syndrome 10.1 IFNG IGHE
50 paracoccidioidomycosis 10.1 IFNG TNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome:



Diseases related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Drugs & Therapeutics for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Drugs for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Clindamycin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 18323-44-9 29029
2
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
3
Rifampicin Approved Phase 4 13292-46-1 5381226 5458213
4
Proline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 147-85-3 145742
5
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Phase 4 105827-78-9 86418
6 Immunologic Factors Phase 4,Phase 1
7 Antibodies Phase 4
8 Clindamycin palmitate Phase 4
9 beta-Lactamase Inhibitors Phase 4
10 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
11 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
12 Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination Phase 4
13 Clindamycin phosphate Phase 4
14 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
15 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
16 Clavulanic Acids Phase 4
17 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 4
18 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 4
19 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
20 gamma-Globulins Phase 4
21
Aluminum hydroxide Approved, Investigational Phase 1 21645-51-2
22 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1
23 Antacids Phase 1
24 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 1
25 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 1
26 Vaccines Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) in Toxic Shock Syndromes in Children Not yet recruiting NCT02899702 Phase 4 PRIVIGEN (CSL Behring);Albumin
2 Phase I STEBVax in Healthy Adults Completed NCT00974935 Phase 1 Aluminum hydroxide

Search NIH Clinical Center for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome:

42
Skin, Monocytes, T Cells, B Cells, Testes, Endothelial, Bone

Publications for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Articles related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 85)
# Title Authors Year
1
Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United Kingdom. ( 29350159 )
2018
2
HLA-DR polymorphisms influence in vivo responses to staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in a transgenic mouse model. ( 27863161 )
2017
3
Intense, flu-like symptoms in women using menstrual devices: always think of staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. ( 28580155 )
2017
4
Erratum: Intense, flu-like symptoms in women using menstrual devices: always think of staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. ( 28721224 )
2017
5
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion associated with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by burns. ( 27117386 )
2016
6
Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by an Intravaginal Product. A Case Report. ( 29967837 )
2016
7
The Management of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. A Case Report. ( 29967843 )
2016
8
Evidence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by MRSA in a mother-newborn pair. ( 25260039 )
2015
9
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by tampon use. ( 25692047 )
2015
10
A fatal case of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 26265799 )
2015
11
Unusual staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as a scarlet-like fever. ( 26543563 )
2015
12
Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production but fail to improve survival in experimental staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 24423010 )
2014
13
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: superantigen-mediated enhancement of endotoxin shock and adaptive immune suppression. ( 24816557 )
2014
14
Images in clinical medicine. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 23984732 )
2013
15
Epithelial proinflammatory response and curcumin-mediated protection from staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. ( 22431984 )
2012
16
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 2000-2006: epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characteristics. ( 21860665 )
2011
17
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. ( 20196940 )
2010
18
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, superantigenicity, and hypersensitivity. ( 20367234 )
2010
19
Use of recombinant human activated protein C in nonmenstrual staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 21253349 )
2010
20
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: mechanisms and management. ( 21308522 )
2010
21
Evaluation of surveillance methods for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 19402965 )
2009
22
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome erythroderma is associated with superantigenicity and hypersensitivity. ( 19911998 )
2009
23
Early diagnosis of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome by detection of the TSST-1 Vbeta signature in peripheral blood of a 12-year-old boy. ( 18277923 )
2008
24
Analysis of superantigenic toxin Vbeta T-cell signatures produced during cases of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome and septic shock. ( 18373692 )
2008
25
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 18697637 )
2008
26
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces the translocation and secretion of high mobility group-1 protein from both activated T cells and monocytes. ( 19009026 )
2008
27
Symmetrical Peripheral Gangrene complicating Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. ( 27408131 )
2008
28
Staphylococcal toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1 as a risk factor for disease relapse in Wegener's granulomatosis. ( 17409134 )
2007
29
A rare case of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome after abdominoplasty. ( 19341642 )
2007
30
Successful treatment of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome with linezolid: a case report and in vitro evaluation of the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin type 1 in the presence of antibiotics. ( 16447124 )
2006
31
Reemergence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome in the United States since 2000. ( 15815055 )
2005
32
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: still a problem. ( 15963025 )
2005
33
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: still a problem. ( 16116687 )
2005
34
Expansion of TcRalphabeta+CD3+CD4-CD8- (CD4/CD8 double-negative) T lymphocytes in a case of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 15034239 )
2004
35
Human peripheral gammadelta T cells potentiate the early proinflammatory cytokine response to staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. ( 15122526 )
2004
36
Reemergence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, during the 2000-2003 surveillance period. ( 15184497 )
2004
37
A 37-year-old man with a febrile illness. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. ( 17171845 )
2003
38
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome in a small infant. ( 11938403 )
2002
39
Bacteremic nonmenstrual staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with enterotoxins A and C. ( 11170971 )
2001
40
Postoperative staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome due to pre-existing staphylococcal infection: case report and review of the literature. ( 11510574 )
2001
41
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. Suspicion and prevention are keys to control. ( 11675982 )
2001
42
Defining a novel domain of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 critical for major histocompatibility complex class II binding, superantigenic activity, and lethality. ( 10721486 )
2000
43
Involvement of enterotoxins G and I in staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal scarlet fever. ( 10405382 )
1999
44
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 inhibits monocyte apoptosis. ( 10329825 )
1999
45
Interaction of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and enterotoxin A on T cell proliferation and TNFα secretion in human blood mononuclear cells. ( 22346398 )
1999
46
Differential effects of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 on B cell apoptosis. ( 8643591 )
1996
47
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: report of a case with bacteremia. ( 8722964 )
1996
48
Upregulation of IgE synthesis by staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atopic dermatitis. ( 8821303 )
1995
49
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome in a paediatric burn unit. ( 7880413 )
1994
50
Improved purification and biologic activities of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. ( 8253961 )
1993

Variations for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Expression for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Pathways for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Pathways related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.73 CIITA HMGB1 IFNG IGHE IL1B TNF
2
Show member pathways
13.11 CIITA IFNG IGHE IL1B TNF
3
Show member pathways
12.97 HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF
4
Show member pathways
12.67 CIITA IFNG IL1B TNF
5
Show member pathways
12.56 HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF
6
Show member pathways
12.49 IFNG IL1B TNF
7
Show member pathways
12.44 IFNG IGHE TNF
8
Show member pathways
12.4 IFNG IL1B TNF
9
Show member pathways
12.39 IFNG IL1B TNF
10
Show member pathways
12.38 IFNG IL1B TNF
11 12.35 CIITA IFNG IL1B TNF
12
Show member pathways
12.17 IFNG IL1B TNF
13
Show member pathways
12.16 IFNG IL1B TNF
14
Show member pathways
12.14 IFNG IL1B TNF
15
Show member pathways
12.07 IFNG IL1B TNF
16
Show member pathways
12.03 IFNG IL1B TNF
17 11.95 IFNG IL1B TNF
18
Show member pathways
11.94 CIITA IFNG IL1B TNF
19
Show member pathways
11.91 IFNG IL1B TNF
20 11.9 IFNG IL1B TNF
21 11.87 IFNG IL1B TNF
22 11.83 IGHE IL1B TNF
23 11.81 CIITA IFNG IL1B TNF
24 11.74 IFNG IL1B TNF
25 11.71 IFNG IL1B TNF
26
Show member pathways
11.69 HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF
27 11.65 IFNG IL1B TNF
28 11.6 IFNG IL1B TNF
29 11.57 IFNG IL1B TNF
30 11.51 IL1B TNF
31
Show member pathways
11.5 IFNG IL1B TNF
32
Show member pathways
11.49 IFNG TNF
33 11.47 IFNG TNF
34 11.45 IL1B TNF
35 11.41 IFNG TNF
36
Show member pathways
11.4 IFNG TNF
37 11.39 IL1B TNF
38 11.38 IFNG IL1B TNF
39 11.37 HMGB1 TNF
40 11.35 IFNG IL1B TNF
41 11.33 IFNG IL1B TNF
42
Show member pathways
11.31 IL1B TNF
43 11.29 IFNG IL1B TNF
44 11.22 IL1B TNF
45 11.18 CIITA IFNG IL1B
46 11.16 IL1B TNF
47 11.15 IFNG IL1B TNF
48 11.06 IFNG IL1B
49
Show member pathways
11.02 HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF
50 11 IFNG IL1B TNF

GO Terms for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

Cellular components related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.02 HMGB1 IFNG IGHE IL1B TNF

Biological processes related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 46)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 9.99 CIITA HMGB1 IL1B TNF
2 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0000122 9.93 CIITA HMGB1 IFNG TNF
3 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.88 HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF
4 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.87 IFNG IL1B TNF
5 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.84 IGHE IL1B TNF
6 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.84 CIITA HMGB1 IL1B TNF
7 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0046330 9.72 HMGB1 IL1B TNF
8 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.7 IFNG TNF
9 positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane GO:1903078 9.69 IFNG TNF
10 positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0043280 9.69 HMGB1 TNF
11 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.69 IFNG IL1B TNF
12 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097191 9.68 IFNG TNF
13 positive regulation of autophagy GO:0010508 9.68 HMGB1 IFNG
14 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.68 IL1B TNF
15 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.67 IL1B TNF
16 protein kinase B signaling GO:0043491 9.67 IL1B TNF
17 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand GO:2001240 9.67 IL1B TNF
18 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.66 IL1B TNF
19 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.65 IL1B TNF
20 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.65 HMGB1 TNF
21 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 9.65 IL1B TNF
22 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 9.64 HMGB1 IFNG
23 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion GO:2000778 9.64 HMGB1 IL1B
24 positive regulation of protein complex assembly GO:0031334 9.63 IFNG TNF
25 positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation GO:0045672 9.62 IFNG TNF
26 negative regulation of lipid catabolic process GO:0050995 9.62 IL1B TNF
27 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 9.61 IL1B TNF
28 regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0043122 9.61 IL1B TNF
29 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.61 HMGB1 IL1B TNF
30 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.6 IL1B TNF
31 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.58 IL1B TNF
32 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.58 HMGB1 IL1B TNF
33 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.57 IL1B TNF
34 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.56 IL1B TNF
35 immune response GO:0006955 9.55 CIITA IFNG IGHE IL1B TNF
36 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.54 IFNG IL1B TNF
37 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.52 IL1B TNF
38 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.46 IL1B TNF
39 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.43 IFNG IL1B TNF
40 positive regulation of JUN kinase activity GO:0043507 9.37 TNF
41 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.32 IFNG TNF
42 positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production GO:0071639 9.29 IL1B
43 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.19 TNF
44 chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0002439 9.18 TNF
45 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051044 9.13 IFNG IL1B TNF
46 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 8.8 IFNG IL1B TNF

Molecular functions related to Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transcription regulatory region DNA binding GO:0044212 9.13 CIITA HMGB1 TNF
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 8.92 HMGB1 IFNG IL1B TNF

Sources for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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