Aliases & Classifications for Stuttering

Summaries for Stuttering

MedlinePlus : 43 Stuttering is a problem that affects the flow of your speech. If you stutter, you may Make certain words sound longer than they should be Find it hard to start a new word Repeat words or parts of words Get tense when you try to speak. You may blink your eyes rapidly, or your lips and jaw may tremble as you struggle to get the words out. Stuttering can affect anyone. It is most common in young children who are still learning to speak. Boys are three times more likely to stutter than girls. Most children stop stuttering as they grow older. Less than 1 percent of adults stutter. Scientists don't fully understand why some people stutter. The problem seems to run in families. There is no cure, but treatments can help. They include stuttering therapy, electronic devices, and self-help groups. Starting stuttering therapy early for young children can keep it from becoming a lifelong problem. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

MalaCards based summary : Stuttering, also known as stammering, is related to speech disorder and speech and communication disorders, and has symptoms including signs and symptoms, stuttering, acquired and abdominal pain. An important gene associated with Stuttering is STUT3 (Stuttering, Familial Persistent, 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Lysosome. The drugs Diazepam and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and testes, and related phenotypes are growth/size/body region and homeostasis/metabolism

Disease Ontology : 12 An articulation disorder characterized by involuntary sound repetition and disruption or blocking of speech.

Wikipedia : 76 Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by... more...

Related Diseases for Stuttering

Diseases related to Stuttering via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 85)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 speech disorder 31.3 CNTNAP2 FOXP2 GNPTAB GNPTG NAGPA
2 speech and communication disorders 31.2 CNTNAP2 FOXP2 GNPTG NAGPA
3 dyslexia 29.9 FOXP2 GNPTAB GNPTG NAGPA
4 oppositional defiant disorder 29.7 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
5 gilles de la tourette syndrome 28.9 CNTNAP2 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
6 stuttering, familial persistent, 3 12.3
7 stuttering, familial persistent, 4 12.3
8 cluttering 11.3
9 inclusion-cell disease 10.7 GNPTAB GNPTG
10 mucolipidosis iii alpha/beta 10.6 GNPTAB GNPTG
11 alcohol-induced mental disorder 10.6 DRD2 SLC6A3
12 mucolipidosis ii alpha/beta 10.5 GNPTAB GNPTG
13 alcoholic psychosis 10.5 DRD2 SLC6A3
14 striatonigral degeneration 10.5 DRD2 SLC6A3
15 childhood apraxia of speech 10.4 CNTNAP2 FOXP2
16 mutism 10.4 CNTNAP2 SLC6A3
17 priapism 10.4
18 pathological gambling 10.4 DRD2 SLC6A3
19 severe intellectual disability and progressive spastic paraplegia 10.4 AP4E1 AP4M1
20 tic disorder 10.3 DRD2 SLC6A3
21 reading disorder 10.2 CNTNAP2 FOXP2
22 cocaine abuse 10.1 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
23 cocaine dependence 10.1 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
24 multiple system atrophy 1 10.1 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
25 conduct disorder 10.1 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
26 substance abuse 10.1 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
27 migraine with aura 10.0 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
28 anxiety 10.0
29 aging 10.0
30 sickle cell anemia 10.0
31 migraine with or without aura 1 10.0 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
32 aromatase deficiency 10.0 CYP19A1 GNRH1
33 social phobia 9.9
34 schizophrenia 9.8
35 apraxia 9.8
36 dystonia 9.8
37 meningitis 9.8
38 pandas 9.8
39 myoclonus 9.8
40 transsexualism 9.7 CYP17A1 CYP19A1
41 penis agenesis 9.7 CYP17A1 GNRH1
42 alcohol dependence 9.7
43 obsessive-compulsive disorder 9.7
44 down syndrome 9.7
45 tay-sachs disease 9.7
46 fragile x syndrome 9.7
47 paine syndrome 9.7
48 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 9.7
49 west nile virus 9.7
50 brain injury 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Stuttering:



Diseases related to Stuttering

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Stuttering

UMLS symptoms related to Stuttering:


signs and symptoms, stuttering, acquired, abdominal pain, back pain, cachexia, chest pain, constipation, coughing, cyanosis, diarrhea, dyspepsia, dyspnea, edema, fatigue, fever, halitosis, headache, heartburn, icterus, nausea and vomiting, pain, pelvic pain, pruritus, sciatica, seizures, signs and symptoms, digestive, syncope, tremor, vertigo, chronic pain, scanning speech, vertigo/dizziness, gastrointestinal gas, hot flushes, stuttering, adult, stuttering, childhood, stuttering, developmental, sleeplessness, symptoms

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Stuttering:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.02 AP4E1 CNTNAP2 CYP17A1 CYP19A1 DBH DRD2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.02 GNPTG GNRH1 SLC6A3 AP4E1 AP4M1 CYP17A1
3 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.8 AP4E1 CYP17A1 CYP19A1 DBH DRD2
4 integument MP:0010771 9.8 CNTNAP2 CYP19A1 DBH DRD2 GNPTAB GNRH1
5 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.63 AP4E1 CYP17A1 CYP19A1 DRD2 GNPTAB GNRH1
6 skeleton MP:0005390 9.56 AP4E1 CYP17A1 CYP19A1 DBH DRD2 GNPTAB
7 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 8.8 CNTNAP2 DRD2 SLC6A3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Stuttering

Drugs for Stuttering (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 33)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 439-14-5 3016
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Asenapine Approved Phase 3 85650-56-2, 65576-45-6 3001386
4 Ecopipam Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 112108-01-7
5 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 3
6 Anesthetics Phase 3
7 Anesthetics, General Phase 3
8 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 3
9 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 3
10 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
11 Antiemetics Phase 3
12 Autonomic Agents Phase 3
13 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 3,Phase 2
14 GABA Agents Phase 3
15 GABA Modulators Phase 3
16 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3
17 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 3
18 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 3
19 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
20 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3
21 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
22 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 3,Phase 2
23 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
24 Dopamine Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
25 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
26 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
27
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
28
Acetylcholine Approved Not Applicable 51-84-3 187
29 Raclopride Investigational 84225-95-6
30 Protective Agents
31 Botulinum Toxins Not Applicable
32 Cholinergic Agents Not Applicable
33 Tea Nutraceutical Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 27)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Pagoclone for Adults With Stuttering Completed NCT00830154 Phase 2, Phase 3 pagoclone
2 Efficacy and Safety of Diazepam in the Management of Refractory Epilepsy in Selected Patients Who Require Intermittent Medical Intervention for Acute Repetitive Seizures. Completed NCT00319501 Phase 3 Placebo;Vanquix Auto-Injector (Diazepam Injection)
3 Efficacy and Tolerability of Ecopipam in Adults With Childhood Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering). Recruiting NCT02909088 Phase 2, Phase 3 Ecopipam 50mg;Ecopipam 100mg
4 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Asenapine With Flexible Dosing From 5mg to 20mg in Adults With Developmental Stuttering Suspended NCT01684657 Phase 3 Asenapine
5 Follow-up of Children After Stuttering Treatment Unknown status NCT00709072 Phase 2
6 Spacing Lidcombe Program Clinic Visits Unknown status NCT00680303 Phase 2
7 EXPRESS: Examining Pagoclone for Persistent Developmental Stuttering Study Completed NCT00216255 Phase 2 Pagoclone;Placebo
8 Safety and Efficacy Study of the Investigational Drug Pagoclone, in the Treatment of Persistent Developmental Stuttering (PDS) Completed NCT00239915 Phase 2 Pagoclone
9 The Effects of Tactile Speech Feedback on Stuttering Frequency Withdrawn NCT01315730 Phase 1
10 Activity of the Auditory Cortex During Speech Perception and Speech Production in Stuttering Unknown status NCT00148161
11 Enhancing Speech Fluency With Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Developmental Stuttering Completed NCT02288598 Not Applicable
12 Pilot: Group Therapy for Children Who Stammer Completed NCT00945113 Not Applicable
13 Genetic Factors Related to Stuttering Completed NCT00001602
14 Dopamine Function in Developmental Stuttering Completed NCT00024960
15 Stuttering and Apraxia of Speech: the Efficacy of an Intervention Program Completed NCT01097161 Not Applicable
16 Study of Brain Activity During Speech Production and Speech Perception Completed NCT00004991
17 Characteristics of Idiopathic Familial Speech Disorders Completed NCT00001551
18 Testing a Possible Cause of Reduced Ability of Children to Process Speech in Noise Completed NCT00001957
19 Treatment Efficacy for Developmental Motor Speech Disorders Completed NCT02105402 Not Applicable
20 Stuttering and Anxiety Recruiting NCT03160586 Not Applicable
21 Investigating Non-invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Fluency in People Who Stutter Recruiting NCT03335722 Not Applicable
22 Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Adults Who Stutter Recruiting NCT03437512 Not Applicable
23 Genetic Linkage Studies of Stuttering Recruiting NCT00001604
24 Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Involuntary Movement Disorders Recruiting NCT00001208 Not Applicable
25 The Classroom Communication Resource (CCR) Intervention to Change Grade 7 Peer's Attitudes Towards Children Who Stutter (CWS) Active, not recruiting NCT03111524 Not Applicable
26 Wearable Sensor for Responsive DBS for ET Not yet recruiting NCT03051178 Not Applicable
27 Central Mechanisms in Speech Motor Control Studied With H215O PET Terminated NCT00001308

Search NIH Clinical Center for Stuttering

Cochrane evidence based reviews: stuttering

Genetic Tests for Stuttering

Anatomical Context for Stuttering

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Stuttering:

41
Brain, Eye, Testes, Cortex, Pituitary, Liver, Globus Pallidus

Publications for Stuttering

Articles related to Stuttering:

(show top 50) (show all 213)
# Title Authors Year
1
Stuttering Frequency, Speech Rate, Speech Naturalness, and Speech Effort During the Production of Voluntary Stuttering. ( 29756528 )
2018
2
Evidence, Goals, and Outcomes in Stuttering Treatment: Applications With an Adolescent Who Stutters. ( 29322182 )
2018
3
Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering. ( 29680798 )
2018
4
Ziprasidone for the Treatment of Stuttering. ( 29901564 )
2018
5
Identification of neural structures involved in stuttering using vibrotactile feedback. ( 29747034 )
2018
6
Maintenance of Improved Attitudes Toward Stuttering. ( 29623339 )
2018
7
Public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Japan. ( 29448988 )
2018
8
Effects of measurement method and transcript availability on inexperienced raters' stuttering frequency scores. ( 29738875 )
2018
9
A Hispanic mother's beliefs about stuttering aetiology: A systemic functional linguistic analysis. ( 29856661 )
2018
10
Variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG and NAGPA genes are associated with stutterers. ( 29289611 )
2018
11
Daily tadalafil for the chronic phase of stuttering priapism: a case report. ( 29855284 )
2018
12
Recovery of brain abscess-induced stuttering after neurosurgical intervention. ( 29754132 )
2018
13
Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment for Adolescents: A Case Study. ( 29322184 )
2018
14
Speaker and Observer Perceptions of Physical Tension during Stuttering. ( 29421786 )
2018
15
Frequency of speech disruptions in Parkinson's Disease and developmental stuttering: A comparison among speech tasks. ( 29912919 )
2018
16
Successful Management of Psychotropics Induced Stuttering Priapism with Pseudoephedrine in a Patient with Schizophrenia. ( 29713098 )
2018
17
Cortical associates of emotional reactivity and regulation in childhood stuttering. ( 29723729 )
2018
18
Separation of trait and state in stuttering. ( 29624772 )
2018
19
An evaluation of G-protein coupled membrane estrogen receptor-1 level in stuttering. ( 29299745 )
2018
20
Delayed Phonological Encoding in Stuttering: Evidence from Eye Tracking. ( 29976115 )
2018
21
Beliefs and behavioural intentions towards pharmacotherapy for stuttering: A survey of adults who stutter. ( 29558672 )
2018
22
Stuttering in Preschool Children: Direct Versus Indirect Treatment. ( 29322186 )
2018
23
Stuttering and levetiracetam: Case report and research proposal. ( 29373620 )
2018
24
A Persian-version of the stuttering severity instrument-version four (SSI-4): How the new additions to SSI-4 complement its stuttering severity score? ( 29723653 )
2018
25
Acquired Stuttering in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Role of Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Medications. ( 29912436 )
2018
26
Stuttering in Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation: A note on dystonia and low-frequency stimulation. ( 29396058 )
2018
27
Stuttering and Labor Market Outcomes in the United States. ( 29933430 )
2018
28
Young children's family history of stuttering and their articulation, language and attentional abilities: An exploratory study. ( 29223492 )
2018
29
Rhythmic speech and stuttering reduction in a syllable-timed language. ( 29873568 )
2018
30
Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity. ( 29228195 )
2018
31
Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering. ( 29412003 )
2018
32
Stuttering adults' lack of pre-speech auditory modulation normalizes when speaking with delayed auditory feedback. ( 29169049 )
2018
33
Neurogenic stuttering: a review of the literature. ( 29323402 )
2018
34
Comparison of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered With Parent-Reported Severity Ratings as a Primary Outcome Measure in Clinical Trials of Early Stuttering Treatment. ( 29554191 )
2018
35
Expressed parental concern regarding childhood stuttering and the Test of Childhood Stuttering. ( 29397944 )
2018
36
Best Practice for Developmental Stuttering: Balancing Evidence and Expertise. ( 29322181 )
2018
37
Factitious Disorder Presenting with Stuttering in Two Adolescents: The Importance of Psychoeducation. ( 28566966 )
2017
38
A Lag in Speech Motor Coordination During Sentence Production Is Associated With Stuttering Persistence in Young Children. ( 28056137 )
2017
39
Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering. ( 28759567 )
2017
40
A case series on the effectiveness of lurasidone in patients with stuttering. ( 28738099 )
2017
41
Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese. ( 28853955 )
2017
42
How Stuttering Develops: The Multifactorial Dynamic Pathways Theory. ( 28837728 )
2017
43
Abnormal auditory synchronization in stuttering: A magnetoencephalographic study. ( 27825021 )
2017
44
Shifted dynamic interactions between subcortical nuclei and inferior frontal gyri during response preparation in persistent developmental stuttering. ( 28741037 )
2017
45
The effect of emotion on articulation rate in persistence and recovery of childhood stuttering. ( 29443691 )
2017
46
Developmental Stuttering in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing. ( 28915514 )
2017
47
Effect of delayed auditory feedback on stuttering with and without central auditory processing disorders. ( 29236907 )
2017
48
Spectral Coefficient Analyses of Word-Initial Stop Consonant Productions Suggest Similar Anticipatory Coarticulation for Stuttering and Nonstuttering Adults. ( 29280401 )
2017
49
The experience of stuttering among Ultra-Orthodox and Secular/Traditional Jews. ( 29195625 )
2017
50
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Pregabalin-Induced Stuttering Nitroglycerine-Induced Bradycardia Progressing to Asystole Minocycline-Induced DRESS Leading to Liver Transplantation and Type 1 Diabetes Increased Risk of Vertebral Fractures in Women Receiving Thiazide or Loop Diuretics Gambling Disorder and Impulse Control Disorder with Aripiprazole. ( 28515502 )
2017

Variations for Stuttering

Copy number variations for Stuttering from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 219954 7 132400000 147500000 Microdeletion CNTNAP2 Stuttering

Expression for Stuttering

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Stuttering.

Pathways for Stuttering

Pathways related to Stuttering according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.11 AP4E1 AP4M1 GNPTAB GNPTG NAGPA

GO Terms for Stuttering

Cellular components related to Stuttering according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Golgi apparatus GO:0005794 9.8 AP4E1 AP4M1 CNTNAP2 GNPTAB GNPTG NAGPA
2 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.33 CNTNAP2 DRD2 GNRH1
3 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.26 AP4E1 AP4M1
4 axon GO:0030424 9.26 CNTNAP2 CYP17A1 DRD2 SLC6A3
5 AP-4 adaptor complex GO:0030124 8.62 AP4E1 AP4M1

Biological processes related to Stuttering according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.65 DRD2 GNRH1 SLC6A3
2 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.59 DRD2 SLC6A3
3 response to testosterone GO:0033574 9.58 FOXP2 GNRH1
4 associative learning GO:0008306 9.58 DBH DRD2
5 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.58 DBH DRD2 SLC6A3
6 adult behavior GO:0030534 9.57 CNTNAP2 DRD2
7 sterol metabolic process GO:0016125 9.56 CYP17A1 CYP19A1
8 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.55 DBH DRD2
9 carbohydrate phosphorylation GO:0046835 9.54 GNPTAB GNPTG
10 protein localization GO:0008104 9.54 AP4E1 AP4M1 DRD2
11 response to iron ion GO:0010039 9.52 DRD2 SLC6A3
12 protein targeting to lysosome GO:0006622 9.51 AP4M1 NAGPA
13 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.49 DBH DRD2
14 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.46 DRD2 SLC6A3
15 striatum development GO:0021756 9.43 CNTNAP2 DRD2
16 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.32 DRD2 SLC6A3
17 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.26 DBH SLC6A3
18 vocal learning GO:0042297 9.16 CNTNAP2 FOXP2
19 secretion of lysosomal enzymes GO:0033299 8.96 GNPTAB NAGPA
20 N-glycan processing to lysosome GO:0016256 8.62 GNPTAB GNPTG

Molecular functions related to Stuttering according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dopamine binding GO:0035240 8.96 DRD2 SLC6A3
2 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-lysosomal-enzyme N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase activity GO:0003976 8.62 GNPTAB GNPTG

Sources for Stuttering

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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