Substance Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Substance Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Substance Dependence:

Name: Substance Dependence 12 54 15 71


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9973
NCIt 49 C35458
UMLS 71 C0038580 C0439857

Summaries for Substance Dependence

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance-related disorder that involves the continued use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards based summary : Substance Dependence is related to drug dependence and tobacco addiction. An important gene associated with Substance Dependence is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Lithium carbonate and Carbamazepine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and cortex, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 74 Substance dependence, also known as drug dependence, is an adaptive state that develops from repeated... more...

Related Diseases for Substance Dependence

Diseases related to Substance Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 178)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 drug dependence 32.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
2 tobacco addiction 32.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD5 DRD3
3 alcohol dependence 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PKNOX2 OPRM1 OPRK1
4 psychotic disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD5 DRD3
5 depression 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA BDNF
6 personality disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
7 smoking as a quantitative trait locus 3 31.4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
8 antisocial personality disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B DRD2
9 substance abuse 31.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAOA
10 avoidant personality disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
11 conduct disorder 31.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC MAOA DRD5 DRD2
12 borderline personality disorder 31.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B DRD2 BDNF
13 opiate dependence 31.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
14 acute stress disorder 31.1 SLC6A4 POMC BDNF
15 alexithymia 31.1 SLC6A4 IL6 DRD2
16 generalized anxiety disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 BDNF
17 mental depression 30.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC MAOA IL6 HTR1B
18 post-traumatic stress disorder 30.9 SLC6A4 POMC MAOA DRD2 CNR1 BDNF
19 neonatal abstinence syndrome 30.9 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
20 withdrawal disorder 30.8 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 CNR1
21 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 30.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR1B DRD5
22 bulimia nervosa 30.8 SLC6A4 POMC MAOA HTR1B DRD2 BDNF
23 bipolar disorder 30.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA IL6 HTR1B DRD5
24 cocaine dependence 30.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
25 hallucinogen dependence 30.7 OPRM1 DRD2 CNR1
26 cannabis abuse 30.7 OPRM1 DRD2 CNR1 BDNF
27 alcohol use disorder 30.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
28 mood disorder 30.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC MAOA IL6 HTR1B
29 dysthymic disorder 30.7 SLC6A4 MAOA BDNF
30 melancholia 30.7 SLC6A4 POMC MAOA BDNF
31 polysubstance abuse 30.7 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
32 heroin dependence 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 MAOA DRD3
33 pathological gambling 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
34 major depressive disorder 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 MAOA IL6
35 eating disorder 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2
36 oppositional defiant disorder 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2
37 hypochondriasis 30.6 SLC6A4 POMC BDNF
38 social phobia 30.5 SLC6A4 MAOA DRD2
39 phobic disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 MAOA BDNF
40 opioid addiction 30.5 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
41 bipolar i disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2 BDNF
42 panic disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC MAOA HTR1B DRD5
43 anxiety 30.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
44 anorexia nervosa 30.5 SLC6A4 POMC MAOA CNR1 BDNF
45 sleep disorder 30.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC IL6 DRD2 BDNF
46 separation anxiety disorder 30.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1
47 postpartum depression 30.3 SLC6A4 MAOA BDNF
48 endogenous depression 30.2 SLC6A4 POMC MAOA IL6 BDNF
49 schizoaffective disorder 30.2 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1 BDNF
50 chronic pain 30.1 OPRM1 CNR1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Substance Dependence:

Diseases related to Substance Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Substance Dependence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Substance Dependence:

45 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.42 BDNF CHRNA3 CHRNA5 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.25 BDNF CHRNA3 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2 DRD3
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.21 BDNF CHRNA3 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2 DRD3
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.18 BDNF CHRNA3 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2 DRD3
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.16 BDNF DRD2 DRD5 HTR1B IL6 OPRK1
6 nervous system MP:0003631 10.16 BDNF CHRNA3 CHRNA5 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2
7 integument MP:0010771 10.15 BDNF CHRNA5 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2 IL6
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.13 BDNF CHRNA3 CHRNB4 CNR1 DRD2 DRD3
9 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.05 CNR1 DRD2 DRD3 HTR1B IL6 OPRM1
10 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.76 BDNF CHRNA3 CNR1 DRD2 HTR1B OPRD1
11 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.5 CHRNA3 CHRNB4 DRD2 DRD3 DRD5 IL6
12 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 8.92 BDNF CNR1 DRD2 SLC6A3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Substance Dependence

Drugs for Substance Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 165)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34911-55-2, 34841-39-9 444
Choline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 62-49-7 305
12 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Phase 4
13 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
14 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
15 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
16 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
17 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
18 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
19 Antimetabolites Phase 4
20 GABA Agents Phase 4
21 Antimanic Agents Phase 4
22 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
23 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
24 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Phase 4
25 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
26 Cytidine Diphosphate Choline Phase 4
27 Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Phase 4
28 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
29 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
30 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
31 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
32 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
33 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
34 Lecithin Phase 4
35 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
Topiramate Approved Phase 3 97240-79-4 5284627
Ethanol Approved Phase 3 64-17-5 702
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 8042-47-5
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 98-92-0 936
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 19982-08-2 4054
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 147-24-0, 58-73-1 3100
Suvorexant Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 1030377-33-3
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 60-87-7 4927
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 3 108-95-2 996
Liraglutide Approved Phase 3 204656-20-2 44147092
Glucagon Approved Phase 3 16941-32-5
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 50-81-7 5785 54670067
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59-02-9 14985
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 59-67-6 938

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 130)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Open Label Prophylaxis Study of Lithium Plus Extended- Release Carbamazepine (Equetro®) Combination for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder Unknown status NCT00325286 Phase 4 Lithium Plus Extended- Release Carbamazepine
2 Depakote ER Therapy for Mania Comorbid With Substance Abuse Completed NCT00208195 Phase 4 Divalproex ER
3 Paroxetine Treatment in Outpatients With Comorbid PTSD and Substance Dependence Completed NCT00330239 Phase 4 Paroxetine CR
4 Aripiprazole (Abilify) Therapy for Reducing Comorbid Substance Abuse Completed NCT00208169 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
5 Maintenance Study for Adolescent Depression Completed NCT00508859 Phase 4 Sertraline;placebo
6 Pharmacogenetic Response to Naltrexone for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00831272 Phase 4 naltrexone;Placebo
7 Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Randomized Open Trial for Any Patient. Completed NCT00680602 Phase 4 SSRI (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram)
8 Pilot Study of Vyvanse™ (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate) in Adolescents (Ages 11-15) With ADHD and an Older Sibling With ADHD and Substance Dependence Completed NCT00573534 Phase 4 Vyvanse
9 A 12-week, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Placebo-controlled Trial of Citicoline as an add-on Therapy Will be Conducted in 200 Outpatients With Bipolar I Disorder and Cocaine Dependence. Completed NCT00619723 Phase 4 Citicoline;Placebo
10 Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing a Medication, i.e., Sustained-Release Bupropion (Zyban®) With an Ultrashort (1 1/2 d) Manual-Based Psychotherapeutic Intervention, Psychodynamic Model Training® Completed NCT00484692 Phase 4 sustained-release bupropion (Zyban(R))
11 Improving Outcomes in Psychosis Associated With Substance Use Using Aripiprazole Withdrawn NCT01155544 Phase 4
12 Novel Pharmacotherapy for Dual Dependence Unknown status NCT00448825 Phase 3 Topiramate + Cognitive Behavioral Therapy;Placebo + Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
13 Linkage of Alcohol Abusers to Primary Care Completed NCT00278447 Phase 3
14 Incentive Programs for Female Substance Abusers Who Smoke Completed NCT00064922 Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Initialization of Methadone in Primary Care; a Randomized Intervention Research for Preventing HCV Transmission Practices. ANRS Methaville Completed NCT00657397 Phase 3 Methadone
16 A Multicentre, Placebo-controlled Trial of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Antioxidant Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Completed NCT00419146 Phase 2, Phase 3 Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA);Vitamins E + C
17 Psychopharmacotherapy in Multiple Substances Abuse / Dependence - the Pharmacological and Immunological Approach to the New Indication of Memantine Completed NCT01189214 Phase 3 Memantine
18 Efficacy/Effectiveness of Unhealthy Drug Use Screening/Brief Intervention Models Completed NCT00876941 Phase 3
19 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Quetiapine Monotherapy in Ambulatory Bipolar Spectrum Disorder With Moderate-to-Severe Hypomanic Symptoms or Mild Manic Symptoms Completed NCT00277667 Phase 3 Quetiapine
20 Monoamine Transporters Genotypes: Risk of PTSD and Related Comorbidities Completed NCT00403455 Phase 3 Paroxetine
21 Sensoril® (Ashwagandha) - A Standardized Extract From a Medicinal Plant - (Withania Somnifera) for Cognitive Enhancement in Persons With Bipolar Disorder: A Parallel Group, Randomized Double Blind, and Placebo Controlled Study Completed NCT00761761 Phase 3 Sensoril
22 Phase III Open Study of High Dose Escitalopram for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults Completed NCT00305500 Phase 3 escitalopram
23 "A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Divalproex Extended Release Monotherapy in Ambulatory Bipolar Spectrum Disorder With Moderate-to- Severe Hypomania or Mild Mania" Completed NCT00278772 Phase 3 Divalproex
24 A Novel Approach to Cardiovascular Health by Optimizing Risk Management (ANCHOR): A Primary Prevention Initiative Examining The Impact Of Global Risk Factor Assessment & Management On Health Care In Nova Scotia Completed NCT01620996 Phase 3
25 The Efficacy of Suvorexant in the Residential Treatment of Patients With Substance Use Disorder and Insomnia: A Pilot Open Trial Enrolling by invitation NCT03412591 Phase 2, Phase 3 Suvorexant 20 mg
26 Liraglutide 3.0mg/d for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder Terminated NCT03279731 Phase 3 Liraglutide (Saxenda) 6Mg/Ml Inj Pen 3Ml;Placebo
27 A Dose Ranging Study of Modafinil for Methamphetamine Dependence Unknown status NCT00630097 Phase 2 modafinil
28 Distress Tolerance Treatment for Substance Users Unknown status NCT01741415 Phase 2
29 Clinical Trial of the Adrenergic Alpha-1 Antagonist Prazosin for Alcohol Dependence Unknown status NCT00762710 Phase 2 Prazosin medication;Placebo medication
30 rTMS Over the Supplementary Motor Area for Treatment-resistant Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: a Multicenter, Double-blind, Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT03211221 Phase 2
31 Memory Reconsolidation Blockade for Treating Drug Addiction: a Feasibility Study Completed NCT01634347 Phase 2 Propranolol and memory reactivation;Placebo and memory reactivation
32 Exploring Occupancy of Dopamine D3 Receptor by Buspirone in Humans Using PET Completed NCT01699828 Phase 1, Phase 2 Buspirone;Placebo
33 D-Cycloserine and Cue Exposure in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals Completed NCT00780442 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
34 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo and Active-Controlled, Six-Period Crossover Study to Evaluate the Likeability, Safety, and Abuse Liability of NRP104 in Healthy Adult Volunteers With Histories of Stimulant Abuse Completed NCT00248092 Phase 1, Phase 2 NRP104
35 A Double-Blind Placebo- and Active-Controlled, Single-Dose Crossover PD and PK Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability and Abuse Liability of IV Administered NRP104 25 mg and 50 mg in Adult Volunteers With Histories of Stimulant Abuse Completed NCT00247572 Phase 2 NRP104
36 A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial of VIVITROL® (Naltrexone for Extended-Release Injectable Suspension) for the Treatment of Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00777062 Phase 2 VIVITROL (Naltrexone extended-release injectable suspension);Placebo
37 A Pilot Trial of Atomoxetine to Enhance Motivational Interviewing Therapy for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT00167297 Phase 2 Atomoxetine
38 Psychopharmacology of Novel Medications for Cocaine Dependence - Buspirone Completed NCT01267292 Phase 2 Buspirone;Placebo for Buspirone;Methylphenidate;Placebo for Methylphenidate
39 Cognitive Remediation and Work Therapy in the Initial Phase of Substance Abuse Treatment Completed NCT01410110 Phase 2
40 Novel Therapeutics in PTSD: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Mifepristone Completed NCT01739335 Phase 2 Mifepristone Oral Tablet [Korlym];Placebo Oral Tablet
41 Deciphering the Role of Oxytocin in Motivation: an fMRI Study. Part II Recruiting NCT02652195 Phase 2 Placebo;Oxytocin
42 Neural Substrates of Emotion: Impact of Cocaine Dependence Recruiting NCT02682784 Phase 2 Oxytocin;Placebo
43 Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Efficacy of D-Cycloserine for Enhancing the Effects of CBT for Substance Use Terminated NCT00430573 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
44 A Study to Investigate the Effects of GSK598809 in Newly Abstinent Nicotine-dependent Subjects. Withdrawn NCT00793468 Phase 2 GSK598809;Nicotine Replacement Transdermal Patch;Placebo
45 Oxytocin in Opiate Dependence: A Double-blind, Within-subjects, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study of the Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on Emotional Processes and Stress Responses in Patients With Opiate Dependence Unknown status NCT02052258 Phase 1 Oxytocin
46 A First Time in Human, Blinded, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Two-cohort Study to Investigate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single Oral Escalating Doses of GSK618334 in Healthy Male Volunteers Completed NCT00513279 Phase 1 GSK618334;GSK618334 matching placebo tablets
47 A Placebo Controlled, Single Blind, Randomised Study Investigating the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Oral Doses of GSK598809 in Healthy Male and Female Volunteers for 28 Days. Completed NCT00437632 Phase 1 GSK598809;Placebo;Caffeine
48 A Randomized, Double-bind, Placebo Controlled, Two-way Cross-over Study to Assess the Effects of a Single Dose of GSK598809, a Selective DRD3 Antagonist, in Modulating Nicotine Reward Completed NCT00605241 Phase 1 GSK598809
49 A Placebo-controlled, Single Blind, Randomized Two Part Study Toinvestigate the Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and brainDopamine D3 Receptor Occupancy of Increasing Repeat Doses ofGSK618334 for up to 21 Days in Healthy Volunteers. Completed NCT01036061 Phase 1 GSK618334 Low Dose;GSK618334 PET subjects;GSK618334 Medium Dose;GSK618334 High Dose
50 A Placebo-controlled, Single-blind, Randomised, Human Volunteer Study Investigating the Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Single Oral Doses of GSK598809 in Smokers Completed NCT00437840 Phase 1 GSK598809;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Substance Dependence

Genetic Tests for Substance Dependence

Anatomical Context for Substance Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Substance Dependence:

Brain, Testes, Cortex, Liver, Eye, Prefrontal Cortex, Cingulate Cortex

Publications for Substance Dependence

Articles related to Substance Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 2162)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Gender effect on association between DRD2 polymorphism and substance dependence in a Spanish sample. 54 61
19217722 2009
Haplotypic variants in DRD2, ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 are associated with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence. 54 61
18828801 2008
Interaction between childhood trauma and serotonin transporter gene variation in suicide. 54 61
17356577 2007
CNR1 variation modulates risk for drug and alcohol dependence. 54 61
17509535 2007
Haplotype spanning TTC12 and ANKK1, flanked by the DRD2 and NCAM1 loci, is strongly associated to nicotine dependence in two distinct American populations. 54 61
17085484 2006
Association of an Asn40Asp (A118G) polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor gene with substance dependence: a meta-analysis. 54 61
16387451 2006
Association study of the CNR1 gene exon 3 alternative promoter region polymorphisms and substance dependence. 54 61
16741937 2006
Association between two mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) haplotype blocks and drug or alcohol dependence. 54 61
16476706 2006
A simple nonparametric multipoint procedure to test for linkage through mothers or fathers as well as imprinting effects in the presence of linkage. 54 61
16451620 2005
Combined effect of promoter polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor and the serotonin transporter genes in heroin dependence. 54 61
16167465 2005
A genetic association study of the mu opioid receptor and severe opioid dependence. 54 61
12960749 2003
Haplotypes at the OPRM1 locus are associated with susceptibility to substance dependence in European-Americans. 54 61
12815747 2003
No association for D2 and D4 dopamine receptor polymorphisms and methamphetamine abuse in Chinese males. 54 61
11901357 2002
A functional polymorphism within the mu-opioid receptor gene and risk for abuse of alcohol and other substances. 54 61
11840318 2002
The D3 dopamine receptor and substance dependence. 54 61
11681590 2001
Antisociality, substance dependence, and the DRD5 gene: a preliminary study. 54 61
11054773 2000
Family-based study of DRD2 alleles in alcohol and drug dependence. 54 61
11054774 2000
Variant detection at the delta opioid receptor (OPRD1) locus and population genetics of a novel variant affecting protein sequence. 54 61
10982041 2000
No association between D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) alleles or haplotypes and cocaine dependence or severity of cocaine dependence in European- and African-Americans. 54 61
10023512 1999
Serotonin transporter protein gene polymorphism and personality measures in African American and European American subjects. 54 61
9766763 1998
Population studies of polymorphisms at loci of neuropsychiatric interest (tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), dopamine transporter protein (SLC6A3), D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3), apolipoprotein E (APOE), mu opioid receptor (OPRM1), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)). 54 61
9790747 1998
Association of alcohol or other drug dependence with alleles of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). 54 61
9756053 1998
An association between a microsatellite polymorphism at the DRD5 gene and the liability to substance abuse: pilot study. 54 61
9583233 1998
Mu opioid receptor gene variants: lack of association with alcohol dependence. 54 61
9399694 1997
Changes in DSM criteria following a culturally-adapted computerized CBT for Spanish-speaking individuals with substance use disorders. 61
31952627 2020
Addiction theory matters-Why there is no dependence on caffeine or antidepressant medication. 61
30896084 2020
Differences between Female and Male Inmates in Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) in Austria: Do We Need Treatment Programs Specific to the Needs of Females in AAT? 61
32033069 2020
The role of childhood maltreatment in cortisol in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in methamphetamine-dependent individuals with and without depression comorbidity and suicide attempts. 61
31818789 2020
Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidality and self-harm among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
31874449 2020
Anticipation of monetary reward in amygdala, insula, caudate are predictors of pleasure sensitivity to d-Amphetamine administration. 61
31757518 2020
Neurocognitive and psychiatric markers for addiction: Common vs. specific endophenotypes for heroin and amphetamine dependence. 61
32003694 2020
Longitudinal Substance Use and Biopsychosocial Outcomes Following Therapeutic Community Treatment for Substance Dependence. 61
31906337 2020
Corrigendum to "Evaluation of previous substance dependence genome-wide significant findings in a Spanish sample" [Drug Alcohol Depend. 187 (2018) 358-362]. 61
31945704 2020
Study protocol the Continuing Care Project: a randomised controlled trial of a continuing care telephone intervention following residential substance dependence treatment. 61
31992258 2020
Reconsolidation impairment of reward memory by stimulating stress response. 61
30672054 2020
Posting Sexually Explicit Images or Videos of Oneself Online Is Associated With Impulsivity and Hypersexuality but Not Measures of Psychopathology in a Sample of US Veterans. 61
31708484 2020
Patient's early satisfaction with care: a predictor of health-related quality of life change among outpatients with substance dependence. 61
31910879 2020
Language ability and adult homelessness. 61
31925870 2020
Personality disorders and social support in cannabis dependence: A comparison with alcohol dependence. 61
31957689 2020
Incidence of New Neuropsychiatric Disorder Diagnoses Following Traumatic Brain Injury. 61
31996603 2020
Role of conduct problems in the relation between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and gaming. 61
30292416 2020
Transition to substance use disorders: impulsivity for reward and learning from reward. 61
31848627 2019
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on craving and substance consumption in patients with substance dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
31328353 2019
Mindfulness as a predictor of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcomes in inner-city adults with posttraumatic stress and substance dependence. 61
31927220 2019
Public policy, attitudes and willingness to pay for treatment of substance dependence in Iran. 61
31585318 2019
Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Malaysian Forensic Mental Hospital: a Cross-sectional Study. 61
31871308 2019
An exoskeleton controlled by an epidural wireless brain-machine interface in a tetraplegic patient: a proof-of-concept demonstration. 61
31587955 2019
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Incident Infections: A Nationwide Cohort Study. 61
31584893 2019
Experienced Psychosocial Problems of Women with Spouses of Substance Abusers: A Qualitative Study. 61
32010381 2019
Sexual risky behavior, cocaine and alcohol use among substance users in an outpatient facility: a cross section study. 61
31694694 2019

Variations for Substance Dependence

Expression for Substance Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Substance Dependence.

Pathways for Substance Dependence

Pathways related to Substance Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
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11.84 HTR1B DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
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11.33 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA
15 11.1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1B
Show member pathways
11.05 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA
17 10.92 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
Show member pathways
10.76 MAOA ADH4
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GO Terms for Substance Dependence

Cellular components related to Substance Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.32 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAOA
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.28 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HTR1B
3 synapse GO:0045202 10 SLC6A4 OPRK1 DRD5 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
4 dendrite GO:0030425 9.95 OPRM1 HTR1B DRD2 CHRNA3 BDNF
5 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.91 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
6 axon GO:0030424 9.89 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CNR1 BDNF
7 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.86 OPRD1 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
8 membrane raft GO:0045121 9.77 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 CNR1
9 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.77 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HTR1B
10 GABA-ergic synapse GO:0098982 9.71 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
11 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.56 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
12 acetylcholine-gated channel complex GO:0005892 9.5 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
13 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.46 OPRM1 OPRD1
14 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.46 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 CHRNA5
15 serotonergic synapse GO:0099154 9.4 SLC6A4 HTR1B
16 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.17 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR1B DRD2

Biological processes related to Substance Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 62)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.18 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HTR1B DRD5
2 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.1 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 IL6 HTR1B
3 response to drug GO:0042493 10.06 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
4 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 10.06 POMC OPRM1 OPRD1 MAOA IL6
5 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.95 OPRK1 HTR1B DRD5 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
6 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.93 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
7 regulation of membrane potential GO:0042391 9.91 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
8 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.9 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2
9 memory GO:0007613 9.89 SLC6A4 CNR1 BDNF
10 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.88 OPRM1 OPRD1 HTR1B CNR1
11 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.87 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
12 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.87 OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
13 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.86 HTR1B DRD2 CHRNA5
14 nervous system process GO:0050877 9.86 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
15 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.85 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HTR1B
16 neuromuscular synaptic transmission GO:0007274 9.84 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
17 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007188 9.84 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
18 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.83 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
19 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.81 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
20 synaptic transmission, cholinergic GO:0007271 9.8 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
21 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
22 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.79 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
23 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.78 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
24 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.77 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2
25 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.77 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
26 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.77 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
27 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.76 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2
28 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 9.74 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
29 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.73 SLC6A4 HTR1B
30 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.73 DRD3 DRD2
31 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.73 DRD3 DRD2
32 G protein-coupled receptor internalization GO:0002031 9.73 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
33 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.73 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
34 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.72 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
35 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
36 regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic GO:0032228 9.72 DRD2 CNR1
37 ethanol oxidation GO:0006069 9.71 ADH4 ADH1A
38 regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043266 9.71 DRD3 DRD2
39 behavior GO:0007610 9.71 OPRK1 HTR1B
40 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.71 OPRM1 OPRK1
41 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.71 DRD3 DRD2
42 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.71 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
43 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.7 SLC6A3 MAOA
44 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.7 SLC6A3 DRD2
45 monoamine transport GO:0015844 9.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
46 drinking behavior GO:0042756 9.7 HTR1B DRD2
47 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007191 9.69 OPRM1 DRD5 DRD3
48 alcohol metabolic process GO:0006066 9.68 ADH4 ADH1A
49 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.68 DRD3 DRD2
50 negative regulation of dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060160 9.68 DRD3 DRD2

Molecular functions related to Substance Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.92 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HTR1B DRD5 DRD3
2 peptide binding GO:0042277 9.7 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0005230 9.69 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
4 ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0015276 9.67 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
5 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.65 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
6 adrenergic receptor activity GO:0004935 9.63 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
7 acetylcholine binding GO:0042166 9.61 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
8 acetylcholine-gated cation-selective channel activity GO:0022848 9.58 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
9 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.57 SLC6A4 HTR1B
10 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.56 DRD3 DRD2
11 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.55 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
12 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent GO:0004024 9.54 ADH4 ADH1A
13 acetylcholine receptor activity GO:0015464 9.54 CHRNB4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
14 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.43 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
15 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.33 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
16 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.26 SLC6A3 DRD5 DRD3 DRD2
17 drug binding GO:0008144 9.1 SLC6A3 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2 CNR1 CHRNB4

Sources for Substance Dependence

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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