Aliases & Classifications for Tardive Dyskinesia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Tardive Dyskinesia:

Name: Tardive Dyskinesia 57 73 20 53 70
Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia 70
Lingual-Facial-Buccal Dyskinesia 70
Drug-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia 70
Linguofacial Dyskinesia 20
Tardive Oral Dyskinesia 20
Tardive Dystonia 20
Td 20



57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
autosomal recessive predisposition


tardive dyskinesia:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


External Ids:

OMIM® 57 272620
MedGen 41 C0686347
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 258211005
UMLS 70 C0152115 C0543891 C0686347 more

Summaries for Tardive Dyskinesia

GARD : 20 Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological movement disorder that is caused by the long-term use of a certain type of medications called neuroleptics. Neuroleptic drugs are usually prescribed for psychiatric conditions, although they may be used to treat gastrointestinal or neurological conditions in some cases. Tardive dyskinesia is primarily characterized by repetitive involuntary movements of the jaw, lips and tongue such as grimacing; sticking out the tongue; and smacking, puckering and pursing the lips. Some affected people may also experience involuntary rapid, jerking movements (chorea) or slow, writhing movements (athetosis) of the arms and/or legs. It is unclear why some people who take neuroleptic medications develop these symptoms while others do not. Treatment for this condition varies but may include stopping or minimizing the use of neuroleptic drugs and/or taking additional medications to to reduce the severity of the symptoms.

MalaCards based summary : Tardive Dyskinesia, also known as neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, is related to lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia and movement disease, and has symptoms including myoclonus and spasmodic torticollis. An important gene associated with Tardive Dyskinesia is NQO1 (NAD(P)H Quinone Dehydrogenase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Circadian entrainment and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. The drugs Aripiprazole and Varenicline have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, brain and pineal, and related phenotypes are akathisia and tardive dyskinesia

OMIM® : 57 Tardive dyskinesia is a debilitating motor disorder manifest as hyperkinetic, involuntary, repetitive movements predominantly of the orofacial region. It is a complication of treatment with so-called typical antipsychotic or neuroleptic agents, such as chlorpromazine or haloperidol, and is estimated to occur in 20 to 30% of chronic schizophrenics on long-term treatment (Thelma et al., 2008). (272620) (Updated 20-May-2021)

NINDS : 53 Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that is characterized by uncontrollable, abnormal, and repetitive movements of the face, torso, and/or other body parts, which may be disruptive and negatively impact individuals. The condition is caused by prolonged use of treatments that block dopamine receptors in the brain, such as antipsychotics commonly prescribed to treat mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, and certain anti-nausea medications. In individuals with TD, these treatments are thought to result in irregular dopamine signaling in a region of the brain that controls movement. The symptoms of TD can often be persistent and potentially disabling. It is estimated that at least 500,000 people in the United States are affected by TD. The uncontrollable movements of TD may be disruptive to people’s lives due to the symptoms themselves and the impact they have on emotional and social well-being.

Wikipedia : 73 Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements, which may... more...

Related Diseases for Tardive Dyskinesia

Diseases related to Tardive Dyskinesia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 227)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia 31.2 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2
2 movement disease 31.1 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
3 schizoaffective disorder 30.8 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
4 dystonia 30.7 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
5 neuroleptic malignant syndrome 30.6 HTR2A DRD2 CYP2D6
6 paranoid schizophrenia 30.3 HTR2A COMT
7 alcohol use disorder 30.3 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
8 schizophreniform disorder 30.3 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
9 galactorrhea 30.2 DRD2 CYP2D6
10 mood disorder 30.2 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
11 bipolar disorder 30.2 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
12 borderline personality disorder 30.1 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
13 bipolar i disorder 30.1 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
14 conversion disorder 30.0 HTR2A COMT
15 neurotic disorder 30.0 HTR2A COMT
16 mental depression 30.0 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
17 tic disorder 29.9 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
18 gilles de la tourette syndrome 29.9 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
19 narcolepsy 29.8 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
20 hyperprolactinemia 29.8 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
21 post-traumatic stress disorder 29.8 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
22 personality disorder 29.7 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
23 dysthymic disorder 29.7 HTR2A DRD4 COMT
24 bruxism 29.6 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
25 anorexia nervosa 29.6 HTR2A DRD4 COMT
26 substance abuse 29.6 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
27 psychotic disorder 29.5 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
28 delusional disorder 29.3 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6
29 alzheimer disease 29.2 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
30 panic disorder 29.2 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
31 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
32 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
33 major depressive disorder 29.0 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
34 parkinson disease, late-onset 28.9 SOD2 NQO1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
35 migraine with or without aura 1 28.8 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
36 schizophrenia 28.8 NQO1 HTR2A HSPG2 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
37 tobacco addiction 28.5 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP1A2 COMT
38 autism spectrum disorder 28.5 SOD2 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 CYP1A2
39 anxiety 28.4 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2 CYP2D6 CYP1A2 COMT
40 drug induced dyskinesia 11.3
41 parkinsonism 11.0
42 tremor 10.8
43 major affective disorder 8 10.6
44 major affective disorder 9 10.6
45 chorea, childhood-onset, with psychomotor retardation 10.6
46 choreatic disease 10.6
47 huntington disease 10.6
48 allergic disease 10.5
49 depression 10.5
50 major affective disorder 1 10.4

Comorbidity relations with Tardive Dyskinesia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 16)

Acute Cystitis Alzheimer Disease
Anxiety Bipolar Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Dysthymic Disorder Esophagitis
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Major Depressive Disorder Paranoid Schizophrenia
Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Schizophrenia Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

Diseases related to Tardive Dyskinesia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Tardive Dyskinesia

Human phenotypes related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 akathisia 31 HP:0031943
2 tardive dyskinesia 31 HP:0040141

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
tardive dyskinesia
repetitive rapid body movements
chewing movements
oral-lingual-buccal dyskinesia
complication of treatment with neuroleptic agents

Clinical features from OMIM®:

272620 (Updated 20-May-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

myoclonus; spasmodic torticollis

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 11)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-10 9.4 CYP1A2
2 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-123 9.4 CYP1A2
3 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-127 9.4 CYP2D6 DRD4
4 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-134 9.4 CYP1A2
5 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-145 9.4 CYP2D6
6 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-179 9.4 CYP2D6
7 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-181 9.4 CYP2D6
8 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-184 9.4 CYP2D6
9 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-212 9.4 CYP2D6
10 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-26 9.4 CYP2D6
11 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-82 9.4 CYP1A2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.23 COMT CYP1A2 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 HSPG2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Tardive Dyskinesia

Drugs for Tardive Dyskinesia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 58)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585 135398745
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Amisulpride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71675-85-9, 53583-79-2 2159
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Galantamine Approved Phase 4 357-70-0 9651
10 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
11 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
12 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
13 Nicotinic Agonists Phase 4
14 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
15 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
16 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
17 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
18 Antiemetics Phase 4
19 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
20 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
21 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
22 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
23 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Phase 4
24 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
25 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
Piracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 3 7491-74-9
Levetiracetam Approved Phase 3 102767-28-2 441341
Tetrabenazine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 58-46-8 6018
30 Protective Agents Phase 3
31 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 3
32 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
33 Ginkgo Phase 3
34 Cardiac Glycosides Phase 3
Metformin Approved Phase 2 657-24-9 14219 4091
Acamprosate Approved, Investigational Phase 2 77337-76-9 71158
Ethanol Approved Phase 2 64-17-5 702
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 51-84-3 187
Ginseng Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 1, Phase 2 50647-08-0
Pyridoxal Phosphate Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2 54-47-7 1051
41 Soy Bean Phase 2
42 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
43 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2
44 Hormones Phase 2
45 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
46 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
47 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 1, Phase 2
48 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 1, Phase 2
49 Botulinum Toxins Phase 1, Phase 2
50 insulin Phase 1, Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 47)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Aripiprazole for Pre-Existing Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia: a Prospective 26-Week Observational Study Unknown status NCT00837707 Phase 4 aripiprazole
2 The Monitor of Serum Prolactin Level and Related Clinical Observations Among Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Illnesses in a 3 Months Aripiprazole Trial Unknown status NCT00468533 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
3 Effect of Varenicline on Smoking Cessation in Patients With Schizophrenia: Evaluation of Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Neurological Symptoms as Correlates of Response Unknown status NCT03495024 Phase 4 Varenicline
4 Tardive Dyskinesia and Cognitive Function Completed NCT00926965 Phase 4 amisulpride;Olanzapine;Conventional antipsychotics
5 A Double-Blind, Randomised, Parallel-Group Comparison of Ethyl-Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Ethyl-EPA) Versus Placebo as Add-on Medication in Patients With Established Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00114595 Phase 4 eicosapentaenoic acid
6 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Risperidone and Olanzapine for the Schizophrenic Patients With Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00621998 Phase 4 risperidone;olanzapine
7 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Potential for Clinical Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms Associated With Valbenazine Completed NCT03698331 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
8 A Phase 4, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Withdrawal Study to Evaluate the Persistence of Effect and Safety of Valbenazine for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT03891862 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
9 Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia With Galantamine Completed NCT00164242 Phase 4 Galantamine
10 Therapeutic Use of Piracetam for Treatment of Patients Suffering From Tardive Dyskinesia: a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study Completed NCT00190008 Phase 3 piracetam
11 A Double-Blind, Randomised, Parallel-Group Comparison of Extract of Ginkgo Biloba(EGB-761) Versus Placebo as Add-on Medication in Patients With Established Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00672373 Phase 3 Extract of Ginkgo Biloba (EGb-761 capsules);Placebo
12 Open-Label Rollover Study for Continuing Valbenazine (NBI-98854) Administration for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02736955 Phase 3 Valbenazine
13 Study of Efficacy and Acceptability of Tetrabenazine in the Late Dyskinetic Syndrome With Neuroleptics: A Randomized, Parallel Group, Double-blind Placebo Controlled Multicentre Trial Completed NCT01543321 Phase 3 Tetrabenazine;Placebo
14 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Safety and Tolerability Study of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02405091 Phase 3 NBI-98854
15 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of SD-809 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02291861 Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
16 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel, Fixed-Dose Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02274558 Phase 3 NBI-98854;Placebo
17 An Open-Label, Long-Term Safety Study of SD-809 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02198794 Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
18 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of SD-809 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02195700 Phase 2, Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
19 Levetiracetam Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00291213 Phase 3 levetiracetam;placebo
20 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel, Fixed-Dose Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of MT-5199 for the Treatment in Patients With Tardive Dyskinesia (J-KINECT) Completed NCT03176771 Phase 2, Phase 3 MT-5199;Placebo
21 Pyridoxal Kinase Activity in Schizophrenia Patients Without Versus With Tardive Dyskinesia Treated With Vitamin B6 Withdrawn NCT01908452 Phase 3 Pyridoxine
22 Safety and Efficacy of Propranolol in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Withdrawn NCT03254186 Phase 2, Phase 3 Propranolol Hydrochloride;Placebo Oral Tablet
23 Multicenter, Randomized Trial on the Effects of Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Tardive Dystonia Unknown status NCT00331669 Phase 2
24 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of Omega-3 Supplementation With Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Tardive Dyskinesia Unknown status NCT00621634 Phase 2
25 Transcutaneous Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: a Randomized, Controlled, Double Blind, Two-armed Clinical Trial Completed NCT01176721 Phase 2
26 Heart Rate Variability in Response to Metformin Challenge Completed NCT02500628 Phase 2 Metformin
27 An 8-week Exploratory, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Trial: Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam up to 3000 mg/Day (250-500 mg Oral Tablets in b.i.d. Administration) on Neuroleptic-induced Tardive Dyskinesia in Subjects With Stable Axis I Psychiatric Disorder, Aged From at Least 18 Years to 80 Years. Completed NCT00175955 Phase 2 Levetiracetam
28 A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Orally Administered SNC-102 in Subjects With Drug-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02064010 Phase 2 SNC-102;Placebo
29 A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Titration Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT01733121 Phase 2 NBI-98854;NBI-98854;Placebo
30 A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia in Subjects With Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder Completed NCT01688037 Phase 2 NBI-98854;NBI-98854;Placebo
31 A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Period Cross-Over Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia in Subjects With Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder Completed NCT01393600 Phase 2 NBI-98854;NBI-98854;Placebo
32 A Phase 2, Open-Label, Dose Titration Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia in Subjects With Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder Completed NCT01267188 Phase 2 NBI-98854
33 A Pilot Dose Ranging Study of Dysport® (AbobotulinumtoxinA) in the Treatment of Oromandibular Dystonia Completed NCT01921270 Phase 1, Phase 2 Low Dose - AbobotulinumtoxinA
34 A Placebo-controlled Cross Study of Panax Ginseng in Augmentation of Antipsychotics in 60 Partially Treatment Responsive Patients With Schizophrenia Completed NCT00401089 Phase 1, Phase 2 Panax Ginseng
35 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Pyridoxal 5' -Phosphate in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia in Patients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders Terminated NCT00917293 Phase 2 Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate;Placebo
36 Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of the Tardive Dyskinesia. Unknown status NCT02840760
37 Effect of tDCS on Cognition, Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenia Patients With Tardive dyskinesia_a Randomized, Double-blind, Sham-controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03497013
38 Real-World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents Unknown status NCT03062033
40 The Assessment of Movement Disorders Utilizing Live Two-Way Video Completed NCT01467089
41 The Effect of Melatonin Treatment on Tardive Dyskinesia and Oxidative Stress: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01391390 Melatonin;Placebo
42 An Open Label, Proof-of-Principle, Pilot Study to Evaluate Pimavanserin for the Treatment of Motor and Behavioral Symptoms of Tourette Syndrome Completed NCT04794413 Early Phase 1 Pimavanserin
43 Randomized Controlled Trial of Pyridoxine for Tardive Dyskinesia Recruiting NCT03287778
44 A Feasibility Clinical Trial of the Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) for the Management of Treatment-Refractory Movement Disorders Active, not recruiting NCT02252380
45 A Dual-centre, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study to Determine the Effects of Various Adjunctive Doses of Sarizotan in the Treatment of Patients With Neuroleptic-induced Tardive Dyskinesia Terminated NCT00310661 Sarizotan
46 Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients With Tardive Dyskinesia and or Dystonia. Efficacy and Psychiatric and Cognitive Effects Terminated NCT02524886
47 Validation of an Electrode Internal Globus Pallidum Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Implantation for Treatment of Dystonia Terminated NCT02509338

Search NIH Clinical Center for Tardive Dyskinesia

Genetic Tests for Tardive Dyskinesia

Anatomical Context for Tardive Dyskinesia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

Tongue, Brain, Pineal, Eye, Globus Pallidus, Cortex, Pituitary

Publications for Tardive Dyskinesia

Articles related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

(show top 50) (show all 4243)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Genetic underpinnings of tardive dyskinesia: passing the baton to pharmacogenetics. 57 61
18781856 2008
Familial occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. 57 61
11722319 2001
Familial tardive dyskinesia. 57 61
6118067 1981
Clinical development of valbenazine for tics associated with Tourette syndrome. 61
33682568 2021
Dose-dependent effects of antipsychotics on efficacy and adverse effects in schizophrenia. 61
33417992 2021
A genome-wide association study identifies a gene network associated with paranoid schizophrenia and antipsychotics-induced tardive dyskinesia. 61
33065217 2021
Case Report: Valbenazine as a Treatment for Tardive Dyskinesia and Unexpected Antipsychotic Effects. 61
33587391 2021
Treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a review and update for dermatologists managing delusions of parasitosis. 61
33781159 2021
Impaired Clearance From the Brain Increases the Brain Exposure to Metoclopramide in Elderly Subjects. 61
32966590 2021
A Method for Tapering Antipsychotic Treatment That May Minimize the Risk of Relapse. 61
33754644 2021
Naringin Ameliorates Haloperidol-Induced Neurotoxicity and Orofacial Dyskinesia in a Rat Model of Human Tardive Dyskinesia. 61
33523404 2021
Patient perspective of tardive dyskinesia: results from a social media listening study. 61
33588795 2021
Withania Somnifera in Neurological Disorders: Ethnopharmacological Evidence, Mechanism of Action and its Progress in Delivery Systems. 61
33538666 2021
Unilateral akathisia and choreoathetosis as an unusual presentation of a frontal lobe dermoid cyst. 61
32098514 2021
Benign Presentation Following Massive Deutetrabenazine Overdose. 61
33633914 2021
Recent discussions on dopamine supersensitivity psychosis: Eight points to consider when diagnosing treatment-resistant schizophrenia. 61
33550976 2021
Dyskinesia is most centrally situated in an estimated network of extrapyramidal syndrome in Asian patients with schizophrenia: findings from research on Asian psychotropic prescription patterns for antipsychotics. 61
32580668 2021
Cost-effectiveness of valbenazine compared with deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. 61
33393412 2021
Deutetrabenazine for treatment of involuntary movements in patients with tardive dyskinesia. 61
33174440 2021
Abnormal functional connectivity of motor circuit in the schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia: A resting-state fMRI study. 61
33279570 2021
Covert Dyskinesia With Aripiprazole: Tip of the Iceberg? A Case Report and Literature Review. 61
33347026 2021
Neurobiological mechanisms associated with antipsychotic drug-induced dystonia. 61
32900259 2021
Botulinum Toxin in Movement Disorders: An Update. 61
33430071 2021
How to Evaluate Patients for Tardive Dyskinesia. 61
33264822 2020
Copulatory Dyskinesia: Pathognomonic Manifestation of Tardive Dyskinesia. 61
33362950 2020
Tardive syndrome: An update and mini-review from the perspective of phenomenology. 61
32956105 2020
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Tardive Dyskinesia: A Case Report of Escitalopram Use in a Cardiac and Liver Transplant Patient. 61
33136924 2020
How to Assess Tardive Dyskinesia Symptom Improvement With Measurement-Based Care. 61
33147658 2020
Collaborating With Patients to Make Treatment Decisions Based on Benefits and Risks of Medications Associated With Tardive Dyskinesia. 61
33147657 2020
Expanding on possible mechanisms for tardive dyskinesia: A response to Ali, Roque, and Mallakh. 61
33254552 2020
Differentiating tardive dyskinesia: a video-based review of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders in clinical practice. 61
33213556 2020
A Focused Update on Tardive Dyskinesia. 61
32624027 2020
Recent Advances in the Pharmacology of Tardive Dyskinesia. 61
33124584 2020
Olanzapine-induced Concurrent Tardive Dystonia and Tardive Dyskinesia in Schizophrenia with Intellectual Disability: A Case Report. 61
33124596 2020
Association between the IL10 rs1800896 Polymorphism and Tardive Dyskinesia in Schizophrenia. 61
33059393 2020
Preliminary efficacy and tolerability profiles of first versus second-generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32805530 2020
The effect of rs1076560 (DRD2) and rs4680 (COMT) on tardive dyskinesia and cognition in schizophrenia subjects. 61
32931693 2020
Pharmacokinetics of Deutetrabenazine and Tetrabenazine: Dose Proportionality and Food Effect. 61
33038289 2020
Current Management of Tics and Tourette Syndrome: Behavioral, Pharmacologic, and Surgical Treatments. 61
32856174 2020
Liver enzyme CYP2D6 gene and tardive dyskinesia. 61
32969762 2020
Clinical Spectrum of Drug-Induced Movement Disorders: A Study of 97 Patients. 61
33178486 2020
Investigation of the effects of cannabidiol on vacuous chewing movements, locomotion, oxidative stress and blood glucose in rats treated with oral haloperidol. 61
32264772 2020
Selecting Treatment for Patients With Tardive Dyskinesia Using Safety and Efficacy Evidence. 61
32991793 2020
Crushing deutetrabenazine for treatment of tardive dyskinesia in a patient with severe orofacial symptoms: A case report. 61
32761113 2020
The role of glutamate receptors and their interactions with dopamine and other neurotransmitters in the development of tardive dyskinesia: preclinical and clinical results. 61
32459694 2020
Psychosis relapse during treatment with long-acting injectable antipsychotics in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: an individual participant data meta-analysis. 61
32828165 2020
Lumateperone for the Treatment of Schizophrenia. 61
33012872 2020
Antipsychotic Behavioral Phenotypes in the Mouse Collaborative Cross Recombinant Inbred Inter-Crosses (RIX). 61
32694196 2020
VMAT2 inhibitors for the treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders. 61
32454050 2020
Expanding phenomenologic heterogeneity of tardive syndromes: Time for an updated assessment tool. 61
32823151 2020

Variations for Tardive Dyskinesia

Expression for Tardive Dyskinesia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Tardive Dyskinesia.

Pathways for Tardive Dyskinesia

Pathways related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
2 12.16 SOD2 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
3 12.08 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
Show member pathways
11.69 CYP2D6 CYP1A2 COMT
6 11.64 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3
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11.61 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
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11.4 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
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11.17 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
11 11.14 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
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11.11 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
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11.09 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
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15 11.03 SOD2 NQO1
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10.96 NQO1 CYP1A2 COMT
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10.71 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
18 10.64 NQO1 COMT
19 10.36 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
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GO Terms for Tardive Dyskinesia

Cellular components related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.26 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
2 dendrite GO:0030425 9.02 NQO1 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2 COMT

Biological processes related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 58)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidation-reduction process GO:0055114 10.02 SOD2 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
2 aging GO:0007568 9.87 SOD2 NQO1 HTR2A
3 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.86 SOD2 CYP1A2 COMT
4 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.84 NQO1 CYP1A2 COMT
5 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.82 NQO1 DRD3 DRD2
6 xenobiotic metabolic process GO:0006805 9.8 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
7 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.76 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
8 visual learning GO:0008542 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
9 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
10 positive regulation of cytokinesis GO:0032467 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
11 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 9.72 HTR2A DRD2
12 arachidonic acid metabolic process GO:0019369 9.71 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
13 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled signaling pathway GO:0051482 9.71 DRD3 DRD2
14 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 9.71 HTR2A DRD4
15 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.71 DRD4 DRD2
16 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.71 DRD3 DRD2
17 response to electrical stimulus GO:0051602 9.7 SOD2 NQO1
18 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.7 DRD3 DRD2
19 drug metabolic process GO:0017144 9.7 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
20 long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process GO:0042759 9.7 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
21 estrogen metabolic process GO:0008210 9.7 CYP2D6 CYP1A2 COMT
22 response to immobilization stress GO:0035902 9.69 SOD2 CYP1A2
23 exogenous drug catabolic process GO:0042738 9.69 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
24 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.69 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2
25 superoxide metabolic process GO:0006801 9.68 SOD2 NQO1
26 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.68 DRD4 DRD2
27 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007194 9.68 DRD3 DRD2
28 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.67 HTR2A DRD2
29 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.67 DRD3 DRD2
30 arachidonic acid secretion GO:0050482 9.67 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
31 oxidative demethylation GO:0070989 9.66 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
32 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.66 DRD3 DRD2
33 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.65 DRD3 DRD2
34 G protein-coupled receptor internalization GO:0002031 9.65 DRD3 DRD2
35 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.65 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
36 removal of superoxide radicals GO:0019430 9.64 SOD2 NQO1
37 regulation of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor internalization GO:0099149 9.64 DRD4 DRD3
38 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.63 DRD3 DRD2
39 hydrogen peroxide biosynthetic process GO:0050665 9.62 SOD2 CYP1A2
40 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 9.62 DRD3 DRD2
41 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.61 DRD4 DRD2
42 heterocycle metabolic process GO:0046483 9.61 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
43 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.61 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
44 regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043266 9.6 DRD3 DRD2
45 drug catabolic process GO:0042737 9.59 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
46 monoterpenoid metabolic process GO:0016098 9.58 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
47 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.58 DRD3 DRD2
48 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.58 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
49 regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior GO:0090325 9.57 DRD3 DRD2
50 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.56 DRD4 DRD2

Molecular functions related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.67 SOD2 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
2 potassium channel regulator activity GO:0015459 9.43 DRD4 DRD2
3 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.4 HTR2A DRD4
4 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016712 9.32 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
5 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.26 DRD4 DRD2
6 superoxide dismutase activity GO:0004784 9.16 SOD2 NQO1
7 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.13 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
8 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 8.8 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2

Sources for Tardive Dyskinesia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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