Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Neuronal diseases, Oral diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Tardive Dyskinesia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Tardive Dyskinesia:

Name: Tardive Dyskinesia 57 75 53 54 29 72
Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia 72
Lingual-Facial-Buccal Dyskinesia 72
Drug-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia 72
Linguofacial Dyskinesia 53
Tardive Oral Dyskinesia 53
Tardive Dystonia 53
Td 53



autosomal recessive predisposition


tardive dyskinesia:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


External Ids:

OMIM 57 272620
MedGen 42 C0686347
UMLS 72 C0152115 C0543891 C0686347 more

Summaries for Tardive Dyskinesia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological movement disorder that is caused by the long-term use of a certain type of medications called neuroleptics. Neuroleptic drugs are usually prescribed for psychiatric conditions, although they may be used to treat gastrointestinal or neurological conditions in some cases. Tardive dyskinesia is primarily characterized by repetitive involuntary movements of the jaw, lips and tongue such as grimacing; sticking out the tongue; and smacking, puckering and pursing the lips. Some affected people may also experience involuntary rapid, jerking movements (chorea) or slow, writhing movements (athetosis) of the arms and/or legs. It is unclear why some people who take neuroleptic medications develop these symptoms while others do not. Treatment for this condition varies but may include stopping or minimizing the use of neuroleptic drugs and/or taking additional medications to to reduce the severity of the symptoms.

MalaCards based summary : Tardive Dyskinesia, also known as neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, is related to neuroleptic malignant syndrome and tic disorder, and has symptoms including myoclonus and spasmodic torticollis. An important gene associated with Tardive Dyskinesia is NQO1 (NAD(P)H Quinone Dehydrogenase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Monoamine GPCRs. The drugs Promethazine and Diphenhydramine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, brain and eye, and related phenotypes are akathisia and tardive dyskinesia

OMIM : 57 Tardive dyskinesia is a debilitating motor disorder manifest as hyperkinetic, involuntary, repetitive movements predominantly of the orofacial region. It is a complication of treatment with so-called typical antipsychotic or neuroleptic agents, such as chlorpromazine or haloperidol, and is estimated to occur in 20 to 30% of chronic schizophrenics on long-term treatment (Thelma et al., 2008). (272620)

NINDS : 54 Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological syndrome caused by the long-term use of neuroleptic drugs. Neuroleptic drugs are generally prescribed for psychiatric disorders, as well as for some gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements. Features of the disorder may include grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing, and rapid eye blinking. Rapid movements of the arms, legs, and trunk may also occur. Involuntary movements of the fingers may be present.

Wikipedia : 75 Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements. This may... more...

Related Diseases for Tardive Dyskinesia

Diseases related to Tardive Dyskinesia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 207)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuroleptic malignant syndrome 31.1 DRD2 CYP2D6
2 tic disorder 30.8 HTR2A DRD2
3 schizophreniform disorder 30.8 DRD2 COMT
4 gastroparesis 30.6 DRD2 CYP2D6
5 galactorrhea 30.5 DRD2 CYP2D6
6 paranoid schizophrenia 30.3 HTR2A COMT
7 brain injury 30.2 DRD2 COMT
8 schizoaffective disorder 30.1 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
9 delusional disorder 30.1 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6
10 mental depression 30.0 HTR2A CYP2D6 COMT
11 substance abuse 30.0 DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
12 borderline personality disorder 29.9 HTR2A COMT
13 mood disorder 29.9 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
14 bipolar disorder 29.8 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
15 personality disorder 29.8 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
16 fibromyalgia 29.6 HTR2A COMT
17 bipolar i disorder 29.6 HTR2A COMT
18 bruxism 29.5 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2
19 megacolon 29.2 HTR2A DRD2
20 alcohol dependence 29.2 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
21 post-traumatic stress disorder 29.2 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
22 tobacco addiction 29.2 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
23 major depressive disorder 29.0 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
24 psychotic disorder 28.9 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
25 schizophrenia 28.8 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 CYP1A2 COMT
26 migraine with or without aura 1 28.8 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
27 disease of mental health 28.6 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
28 anxiety 28.6 HTR2A CYP2D6 CYP1A2 COMT
29 obsessive-compulsive disorder 28.4 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
30 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 28.4 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
31 parkinson disease, late-onset 28.1 SOD2 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6 COMT
32 drug induced dyskinesia 11.9
33 movement disease 11.1
34 dystonia 11.0
35 tremor 10.9
36 lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia 10.8
37 chorea, childhood-onset, with psychomotor retardation 10.7
38 allergic hypersensitivity disease 10.7
39 choreatic disease 10.7
40 major affective disorder 8 10.7
41 major affective disorder 9 10.7
42 depression 10.7
43 huntington disease 10.7
44 gilles de la tourette syndrome 10.5
45 alcohol use disorder 10.5
46 major affective disorder 1 10.5
47 blepharospasm 10.4
48 hand skill, relative 10.4
49 myoclonus 10.4
50 impulse control disorder 10.4 DRD3 DRD2

Comorbidity relations with Tardive Dyskinesia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 16)

Acute Cystitis Alzheimer Disease
Anxiety Bipolar Disorder
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Dysthymic Disorder Esophagitis
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Major Depressive Disorder Paranoid Schizophrenia
Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Schizophrenia Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

Diseases related to Tardive Dyskinesia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Tardive Dyskinesia

Human phenotypes related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 akathisia 32 HP:0031943
2 tardive dyskinesia 32 HP:0040141

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

tardive dyskinesia
repetitive rapid body movements
chewing movements
oral-lingual-buccal dyskinesia
complication of treatment with neuroleptic agents

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

myoclonus, spasmodic torticollis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.8 COMT CYP1A2 DRD2 DRD3 HSPG2 HTR2A
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.63 COMT CYP1A2 DRD2 DRD3 HSPG2 SOD2
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.5 COMT CYP1A2 DRD2 DRD3 HSPG2 NQO1
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 8.92 CYP1A2 DRD2 HSPG2 SOD2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Tardive Dyskinesia

Drugs for Tardive Dyskinesia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 142)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Zolpidem Approved Phase 4 82626-48-0 5732
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Amisulpride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53583-79-2, 71675-85-9 2159
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Galantamine Approved Phase 4 357-70-0 9651
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
Fluphenazine Approved Phase 4 69-23-8 3372
Perphenazine Approved Phase 4 58-39-9 4748
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
Chlorpromazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-53-3 2726
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
Sotalol Approved Phase 4 959-24-0, 3930-20-9 5253
22 GABA Agonists Phase 4
23 GABA-A Receptor Agonists Phase 4
24 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
25 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
26 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
27 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
28 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
29 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
30 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
31 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
32 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
33 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4
34 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
35 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
36 Serotonin Agents Phase 4
37 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
38 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
39 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
40 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
41 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
42 Antiemetics Phase 4
43 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
44 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Phase 4
45 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4
46 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
47 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
48 GABA Agents Phase 4
49 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
50 Fluphenazine depot Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 92)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Aripiprazole for Pre-Existing Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia: a Prospective 26-Week Observational Study Unknown status NCT00837707 Phase 4 aripiprazole
2 Risperidone and Zotepine in the Treatment of Delirium Unknown status NCT00622011 Phase 4 Risperidone and Zolpidem for delirium
3 The Monitor of Serum Prolactin Level and Related Clinical Observations Among Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Illnesses in a 3 Months Aripiprazole Trial Unknown status NCT00468533 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
4 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Risperidone and Olanzapine for the Schizophrenic Patients With Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00621998 Phase 4 risperidone;olanzapine
5 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Potential for Clinical Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms Associated With Valbenazine Completed NCT03698331 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
6 A Double-Blind, Randomised, Parallel-Group Comparison of Ethyl-Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Ethyl-EPA) Versus Placebo as Add-on Medication in Patients With Established Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00114595 Phase 4 eicosapentaenoic acid
7 Tardive Dyskinesia and Cognitive Function Completed NCT00926965 Phase 4 amisulpride;Olanzapine;Conventional antipsychotics
8 Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia With Galantamine Completed NCT00164242 Phase 4 Galantamine
9 Effect of Short-term Motilitone Therapy on Health-related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients With Gastrointestinal Symptoms: a Multicenter, Double-blind Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial Completed NCT02775591 Phase 4 DA-9701;DA-9701 placebo
10 Cerebral Mechanism Involved in Appetite Increase in Schizophrenia Patients Treated With Atypical Antipsychotics (IIT) Completed NCT00290121 Phase 4 Olanzapine
11 Metabolic Effects of Newer Antipsychotics in Older Patients Completed NCT00245206 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;Olanzapine;Risperidone
12 The Effects of Aripiprazole on Patients With "Metabolic Syndrome": An Open-Label Trial Completed NCT00224822 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
13 Open-Label Study of Ziprasidone for the Treatment of Mania in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Completed NCT00181922 Phase 4 ziprasidone (Geodon)
14 A Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Risperidone for the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa Completed NCT00140426 Phase 4 Risperidone;Placebo
15 Risperidone Augmentation in Patients With Schizophrenia Partially Responsive to Clozapine Completed NCT00289861 Phase 4 Risperidone;placebo
16 Open-Label Comparative Study of Risperidone Versus Olanzapine for Mania in Preschool Children 4 to 6 Years of Age With Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Completed NCT00181935 Phase 4 risperidone (Risperdal);olanzapine (Zyprexa)
17 Phase IV Study of Ramelteon as an Adjunct Therapy in Non-Diabetic Patients With Schizophrenia Completed NCT00595504 Phase 4 Ramelteon;Placebo
18 Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents: Combination of Pharmacogenomics and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Completed NCT00545467 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
19 Comparative Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Medications in Patients With Schizophrenia (CATIE Schizophrenia Trial) Completed NCT00014001 Phase 4 perphenazine;olanzapine;quetiapine;risperidone;ziprasidone;clozapine;fluphenazine decanoate
20 A 6-Week, Multicenter, Rater-blind, Randomized, Risperidone-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Seroquel (Quetiapine Fumarate) in the Treatment of Chinese Han Patients With Schizophrenia Completed NCT00817648 Phase 4 Quetiapine;risperidone
21 1. The Pharmacogenetic Study of Interaction Among Antipsychotics, Readiness to Change, and Pharmacological Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Schizophrenic Patients 2. Stages of Change and Outcomes of Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Completed NCT00495352 Phase 4 Hihg-doseNRT, Low-dose NRT, bupropion
22 Comparison of Combination Olanzapine and Lithium and Combination Chlorpromazine and Lithium in the Treatment of a First Manic Episode With Psychotic Features. Completed NCT00202293 Phase 4 Olanzapine;Lithium;Chlorpromazine
23 A Phase 4, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Withdrawal Study to Evaluate the Persistence of Effect and Safety of Valbenazine for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Recruiting NCT03891862 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
24 Effect of Varenicline on Smoking Cessation in Patients With Schizophrenia: Evaluation of Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Neurological Symptoms as Correlates of Response Recruiting NCT03495024 Phase 4 Varenicline
25 A Pilot and Feasibility Study to Determine if a Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Locus Modulates Differential Response to Antiarrhythmic Drugs Recruiting NCT02347111 Phase 4 Flecainide;Sotalol
26 Levetiracetam Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00291213 Phase 3 levetiracetam;placebo
27 A Double-Blind, Randomised, Parallel-Group Comparison of Extract of Ginkgo Biloba(EGB-761) Versus Placebo as Add-on Medication in Patients With Established Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT00672373 Phase 3 Extract of Ginkgo Biloba (EGb-761 capsules);Placebo
28 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of SD-809 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02195700 Phase 2, Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
29 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Safety and Tolerability Study of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02405091 Phase 3 NBI-98854
30 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of SD-809 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02291861 Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
31 Open-Label Rollover Study for Continuing Valbenazine (NBI-98854) Administration for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02736955 Phase 3 Valbenazine
32 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel, Fixed-Dose Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of NBI-98854 for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02274558 Phase 3 NBI-98854;Placebo
33 Therapeutic Use of Piracetam for Treatment of Patients Suffering From Tardive Dyskinesia: a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study Completed NCT00190008 Phase 3 piracetam
34 Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children Completed NCT00399698 Phase 3 Risperdal
35 Study of Efficacy and Acceptability of Tetrabenazine in the Late Dyskinetic Syndrome With Neuroleptics: A Randomized, Parallel Group, Double-blind Placebo Controlled Multicentre Trial Completed NCT01543321 Phase 3 Tetrabenazine;Placebo
36 A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial of Fluvoxamine and Sertraline in Childhood Autism - Does SSRI Therapy Improve Behaviour and/or Mood? Completed NCT00655174 Phase 3 fluvoxamine;sertraline;Placebo
37 Pharmacokinetics, Tolerability, and Safety of Paliperidone After Repeated Intramuscular Injection of Paliperidone Palmitate in the Arm or the Buttock of Subjects With Schizophrenia Completed NCT00073320 Phase 3 Paliperidone Palmitate
38 Quetiapine Treatment for Symptoms Associated With Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT00122070 Phase 3 Quetiapine Fumarate
39 Efficacy of Risperidone Consta for Improving Ability to Benefit From Skills Training in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00148083 Phase 3 Risperdal Consta (drug)
40 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of TEV-50717 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Dyskinesia in Cerebral Palsy in Children and Adolescents Recruiting NCT03813238 Phase 3 Deutetrabenazine;Placebo
41 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel, Fixed-Dose Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of MT-5199 for the Treatment in Patients With Tardive Dyskinesia (J-KINECT) Active, not recruiting NCT03176771 Phase 2, Phase 3 MT-5199;Placebo
42 An Open-Label, Long-Term Safety Study of SD-809 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Tardive Dyskinesia Active, not recruiting NCT02198794 Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
43 Effect of Vitamin B6 and B12 in the Treatment of Movement Disorders Induced by Antipsychotics Not yet recruiting NCT03790345 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pyridoxine;Cobalamin;Placebo Oral Tablet
44 Safety and Efficacy of Propranolol in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Withdrawn NCT03254186 Phase 2, Phase 3 Propranolol Hydrochloride;Placebo Oral Tablet
45 Pyridoxal Kinase Activity in Schizophrenia Patients Without Versus With Tardive Dyskinesia Treated With Vitamin B6 Withdrawn NCT01908452 Phase 3 Pyridoxine
46 Multicenter, Randomized Trial on the Effects of Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Tardive Dystonia Unknown status NCT00331669 Phase 2
47 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of Omega-3 Supplementation With Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Tardive Dyskinesia Unknown status NCT00621634 Phase 2
48 Randomized Evaluation of Octreotide Versus Compazine for Emergency Department Treatment of Migraine Headache Unknown status NCT00274170 Phase 1, Phase 2 Octreotide
49 An 8-week Exploratory, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Trial: Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam up to 3000 mg/Day (250-500 mg Oral Tablets in b.i.d. Administration) on Neuroleptic-induced Tardive Dyskinesia in Subjects With Stable Axis I Psychiatric Disorder, Aged From at Least 18 Years to 80 Years. Completed NCT00175955 Phase 2 Levetiracetam
50 A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Orally Administered SNC-102 in Subjects With Drug-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02064010 Phase 2 SNC-102;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Tardive Dyskinesia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Genetic Tests for Tardive Dyskinesia

Genetic tests related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Tardive Dyskinesia 29

Anatomical Context for Tardive Dyskinesia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

Tongue, Brain, Eye, Pineal, Testes, Globus Pallidus, Heart

Publications for Tardive Dyskinesia

Articles related to Tardive Dyskinesia:

(show top 50) (show all 4142)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Genetic underpinnings of tardive dyskinesia: passing the baton to pharmacogenetics. 38 8
18781856 2008
Familial occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. 38 8
11722319 2001
Familial tardive dyskinesia. 38 8
6118067 1981
Exploring the multifaceted neuroprotective actions of Emblica officinalis (Amla): a review. 38
30848470 2019
Tardive Dyskinesia: Treatment Update. 38
31420757 2019
Abnormal involuntary movement scale in tardive dyskinesia: Minimal clinically important difference. 38
31234240 2019
New insights into tardive dyskinesia genetics: Implementation of whole-exome sequencing approach. 38
31153890 2019
Effect of tardive dyskinesia on quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. 38
31435866 2019
Liability and Failure to Warn a Patient. 38
31356297 2019
A review and guide to drug-associated oral adverse effects-Dental, salivary and neurosensory reactions. Part 1. 38
31192500 2019
Metoclopramide for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. 38
31314613 2019
Brexpiprazole for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. 38
31431092 2019
Clozapine and tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review. 38
31347436 2019
Aripiprazole Combined with Lamotrigine in the Treatment of a Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenic Patient with Tardive Dyskinesia and Supersensitivity Psychosis. 38
31291629 2019
Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs for Patients with Tardive Dyskinesia. 38
31232207 2019
Tardive Dyskinesia Suppression Seen During A Catatonic State: A Case Report. 38
30119838 2019
Long-term safety and efficacy of deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. 38
31296586 2019
The burden of tardive dyskinesia secondary to antipsychotic medication use among patients with mental disorders. 38
30638073 2019
Characteristics of Patients Experiencing Extrapyramidal Symptoms or Other Movement Disorders Related to Dopamine Receptor Blocking Agent Therapy. 38
31205194 2019
Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) in Psychiatric Practice, Part 6: Pharmacodynamic Considerations. 38
31291209 2019
Risk assessment and prediction of TD incidence in psychiatric patients taking concomitant antipsychotics: a retrospective data analysis. 38
31325958 2019
Pineal gland and schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 38
30831343 2019
Treatment Recommendations for Tardive Dyskinesia. 38
30791698 2019
Haloperidol-Induced Preclinical Tardive Dyskinesia Model in Rats. 38
31216395 2019
Tardive dyskinesia after drug withdrawal in two older adults: Clinical features, complications and management. 38
31157524 2019
Comorbidity of Physical Disorders Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness With and Without Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 38
31164045 2019
The TAAR5 agonist α-NETA causes dyskinesia in mice. 38
30986441 2019
Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia: update on epidemiology and management. 38
30720484 2019
Tardive Dyskinesia: New Treatments Available. 38
31042295 2019
Gastroparesis, metoclopramide, and tardive dyskinesia: Risk revisited. 38
31050085 2019
[Antipsychotic-induced motor symptoms in schizophrenic psychoses-Part 3 : Tardive dyskinesia]. 38
30341543 2019
Tardive dyskinesia is associated with altered putamen Akt/GSK-3β signaling in nonhuman primates. 38
30675935 2019
Antioxidants for the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia: AIMing to Find the Best Treatment Option. 38
31087824 2019
Risperidone as an effective choice for obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tardive dyskinesia in an Indian quadragenarian with schizo-obsessive disorder. 38
31142912 2019
Analysis of risk factors and outcomes in psychiatric inpatients with tardive dyskinesia: A nationwide case-control study. 38
31193370 2019
Severe tardive dyskinesia induced by domperidone in presenile and non-dementia type 2 diabetes man with alcohol misuse showing albuminocytological dissociation and white matter hyperintensity. 38
31147409 2019
Deutetrabenazine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. 38
30702019 2019
Valbenazine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. 38
30724115 2019
[Prevention and Treatment of Antipsychotic-induced Tardive Dyskinesia]. 38
29996156 2019
[Respiratory dyskinesia]. 38
31036137 2019
Giant Tongue in a Patient With Chiari Malformation and Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia. 38
30614996 2019
The effects of valbenazine on tardive dyskinesia in patients with a primary mood disorder. 38
30583148 2019
Olanzapine Associated Acute Peripheral Edema and Pericardial Effusion: A Case Report. 38
30911243 2019
Impact of Deuterium Substitution on the Pharmacokinetics of Pharmaceuticals. 38
30136594 2019
45 Long-term Treatment with Deutetrabenazine Is Associated with Continued Improvement in Tardive Dyskinesia: Results from an Open-label Extension Study. 38
30859973 2019
Tardive dyskinesia: Who gets it and why. 38
30522959 2019
Tardive Dyskinesia Should Not Be Overlooked. 38
30388034 2019
Current treatment of tardive dyskinesia. 38
30591350 2019
Lithium monotherapy-induced tardive dyskinesia. 38
30321768 2019
35 Long-term Improvements in Site-Rated Outcomes with Deutetrabenazine Treatment in Patients with Tardive Dyskinesia. 38
30859964 2019

Variations for Tardive Dyskinesia

Expression for Tardive Dyskinesia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Tardive Dyskinesia.

Pathways for Tardive Dyskinesia

Pathways related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 12.05 SOD2 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
Show member pathways
11.54 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2
Show member pathways
11.27 CYP1A2 COMT
Show member pathways
11.23 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
5 11.21 NQO1 CYP1A2
6 11.19 NQO1 CYP1A2
Show member pathways
11.09 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
8 11.05 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
9 10.95 SOD2 NQO1
10 10.78 DRD3 DRD2
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
10.66 NQO1 CYP1A2 COMT
Show member pathways
10.61 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
14 10.51 NQO1 COMT

GO Terms for Tardive Dyskinesia

Cellular components related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocytic vesicle GO:0030139 9.26 DRD3 DRD2
2 dendrite GO:0030425 9.26 NQO1 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
3 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.16 HTR2A DRD2
4 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 8.62 DRD3 DRD2

Biological processes related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 46)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidation-reduction process GO:0055114 9.98 SOD2 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
2 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.77 NQO1 CYP1A2 COMT
3 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.74 NQO1 DRD3 DRD2
4 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007188 9.7 DRD3 DRD2
5 negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051898 9.7 DRD3 DRD2
6 xenobiotic metabolic process GO:0006805 9.7 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
7 circadian regulation of gene expression GO:0032922 9.69 DRD3 DRD2
8 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.69 HTR2A DRD2
9 visual learning GO:0008542 9.69 DRD3 DRD2
10 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.68 DRD3 DRD2
11 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 9.68 HTR2A DRD2
12 positive regulation of cytokinesis GO:0032467 9.68 DRD3 DRD2
13 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.67 DRD3 DRD2
14 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.67 HTR2A DRD3
15 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.67 DRD3 DRD2
16 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.66 DRD3 DRD2
17 exogenous drug catabolic process GO:0042738 9.66 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
18 drug metabolic process GO:0017144 9.65 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
19 arachidonic acid secretion GO:0050482 9.65 DRD3 DRD2
20 aging GO:0007568 9.65 NQO1 HTR2A
21 superoxide metabolic process GO:0006801 9.64 SOD2 NQO1
22 long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process GO:0042759 9.64 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
23 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.63 HTR2A DRD2
24 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.63 DRD3 DRD2
25 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.62 DRD3 DRD2
26 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.62 DRD3 DRD2
27 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.61 DRD3 DRD2
28 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.61 DRD3 DRD2
29 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.59 DRD3 DRD2
30 removal of superoxide radicals GO:0019430 9.58 SOD2 NQO1
31 G protein-coupled receptor internalization GO:0002031 9.58 DRD3 DRD2
32 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.56 DRD3 DRD2
33 oxidative demethylation GO:0070989 9.55 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
34 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.54 HTR2A DRD2
35 heterocycle metabolic process GO:0046483 9.51 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
36 monoterpenoid metabolic process GO:0016098 9.49 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
37 drug catabolic process GO:0042737 9.48 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
38 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.46 DRD3 DRD2
39 negative regulation of dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060160 9.43 DRD3 DRD2
40 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.4 DRD3 DRD2
41 regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior GO:0090325 9.37 DRD3 DRD2
42 response to drug GO:0042493 9.35 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP1A2 COMT
43 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.33 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2
44 acid secretion GO:0046717 9.32 DRD3 DRD2
45 alkaloid metabolic process GO:0009820 9.26 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
46 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 8.8 DRD3 DRD2 COMT

Molecular functions related to Tardive Dyskinesia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.73 SOD2 NQO1 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
2 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.48 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
3 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016712 9.46 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
4 aromatase activity GO:0070330 9.4 CYP2D6 CYP1A2
5 adrenergic receptor activity GO:0004935 9.37 DRD3 DRD2
6 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.32 DRD3 DRD2
7 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.26 DRD3 DRD2
8 superoxide dismutase activity GO:0004784 9.16 SOD2 NQO1
9 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 8.96 DRD3 DRD2
10 drug binding GO:0008144 8.92 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 CYP2D6

Sources for Tardive Dyskinesia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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