MCID: TBC004
MIFTS: 64

Tobacco Addiction

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Tobacco Addiction

MalaCards integrated aliases for Tobacco Addiction:

Name: Tobacco Addiction 58
Nicotine Dependence 58 12 30 15 17 74
Tobacco Use Disorder 12 30 6 45
Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility to 58 30 6
Nicotine Dependence, Protection Against 58 6
Nicotine Addiction, Protection from 58 13
Smoking Habit 58 56
Cigarette Habituation, Susceptibility to 58
Nicotine Dependence, Susceptibility to 58
Nicotine Addiction, Susceptibility to 58
Addiction, Tobacco, Susceptibility to 41
Smoking Habit, Susceptibility to 58
Cigarette Habituation 58
Nicotine Addiction 58

Characteristics:

OMIM:

58
Inheritance:
genetic factors seem to contribute only in light smokers and heavy smokers


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050742
OMIM 58 188890
MeSH 45 D014029
NCIt 51 C54203
SNOMED-CT 69 56294008
UMLS 74 C0028043

Summaries for Tobacco Addiction

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance dependence that is characterized by a physical dependence on nicotine.

MalaCards based summary : Tobacco Addiction, also known as nicotine dependence, is related to pathological gambling and major depressive disorder. An important gene associated with Tobacco Addiction is SLC6A3 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency. The drugs Varenicline and Nicotine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and lung, and related phenotypes are no effect and behavior/neurological

Wikipedia : 77 Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted... more...

Description from OMIM: 188890

Related Diseases for Tobacco Addiction

Diseases related to Tobacco Addiction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 175)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pathological gambling 30.6 DRD2 MAOA SLC6A3
2 major depressive disorder 30.5 COMT DRD2 MAOA SLC6A3 TPH1
3 bipolar disorder 30.5 COMT DRD2 SLC6A3 TPH1
4 substance abuse 30.5 COMT DRD2 MAOA SLC6A3
5 smoking as a quantitative trait locus 3 30.4 CHRNA3 CHRNA5
6 mood disorder 30.4 COMT DRD2 MAOA TPH1
7 mental depression 30.3 COMT MAOA TPH1
8 anxiety 30.3 COMT MAOA TPH1
9 eating disorder 30.2 COMT DRD2 SLC6A3
10 alexithymia 30.2 ANKK1 COMT DRD2
11 alcohol dependence 30.1 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
12 disease of mental health 30.1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT CHRNA4
13 drug dependence 30.0 ANKK1 CHRNA6 CHRNB3 DRD2 OPRM1
14 personality disorder 30.0 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ANKK1
15 schizophrenia 30.0 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 COMT DRD2 MAOA
16 conduct disorder 29.9 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
17 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.9 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
18 cocaine dependence 29.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB3 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
19 substance dependence 29.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA GSTM1 DRD2 CHRNB4
20 depression 10.5
21 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 3 10.5 CHRNA4 CHRNB2
22 autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 2 10.5 CHRNA4 CHRNB2
23 alcohol-induced mental disorder 10.4 DRD2 SLC6A3
24 schizophreniform disorder 10.4 COMT DRD2
25 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
26 phobia, specific 10.4 COMT MAOA
27 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
28 opioid addiction 10.4 COMT DRD2 OPRM1
29 avoidant personality disorder 10.4 MAOA TPH1
30 kleine-levin hibernation syndrome 10.4 COMT SLC6A3 TPH1
31 polysubstance abuse 10.4 COMT DRD2
32 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.4 COMT DRD2 MAOA
33 specific developmental disorder 10.4 COMT OPRM1 SLC6A3
34 heroin dependence 10.4 ANKK1 DRD2 OPRM1
35 gilles de la tourette syndrome 10.4 COMT DRD2 SLC6A3
36 toxic encephalopathy 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1 SLC6A3
37 brunner syndrome 10.4 COMT MAOA TPH1
38 isolated cleft lip 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
39 borderline personality disorder 10.4 COMT MAOA TPH1
40 oppositional defiant disorder 10.4 COMT DRD2 MAOA SLC6A3
41 opiate dependence 10.4 DRD2 OPRM1 TPH1
42 somatoform disorder 10.4 COMT OPRM1 TPH1
43 neonatal abstinence syndrome 10.4 COMT OPRM1
44 lung cancer 10.4
45 tardive dyskinesia 10.3 COMT DRD2
46 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 10.3 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 OPRM1
47 generalized anxiety disorder 10.3 COMT DRD2 MAOA TPH1
48 migraine with or without aura 1 10.3 COMT DRD2 MAOA TPH1
49 alcoholic psychosis 10.3 DRD2 SLC6A3
50 impulse control disorder 10.3 ANKK1 DRD2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Tobacco Addiction:



Diseases related to Tobacco Addiction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Tobacco Addiction

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

58
Misc:
smoking habit

Clinical features from OMIM:

188890

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

27
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 9.92 AKR1B10 ANKK1 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Tobacco Addiction:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 AKR1B10 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.93 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 COMT
3 integument MP:0010771 9.56 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2 GABBR2 OPRM1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.44 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Tobacco Addiction

Drugs for Tobacco Addiction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 249)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 249296-44-4 5310966
2
Nicotine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 54-11-5 942 89594
3
Bupropion Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
4
Ethanol Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 64-17-5 702
5
Carbon monoxide Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 630-08-0 281
6
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
7
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 16590-41-3 5360515
8
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
9
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 51-84-3 187
10
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
11
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 54910-89-3 3386
12
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
13
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
14
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585
15
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 52485-79-7 40400 644073
16
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 465-65-6 5284596
17
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 1,Not Applicable 57-83-0 5994
18
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
19
tannic acid Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 1401-55-4
20
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 50-56-6 439302 53477758
21
Methadone Approved Phase 4,Phase 1,Not Applicable 76-99-3 4095
22
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
23
Lobeline Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 90-69-7
24 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
25 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
26 Nicotinic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
27 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
28 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
29 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
30 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
31 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
32 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
33 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
34 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
35 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
36 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
37 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
38 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
39 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
40 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
41 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
42 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
43 Dopamine Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
44 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
45 Narcotics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
46 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
47 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 1
48 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
49 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
50 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 637)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Duration of Behavioral Counseling Treatment Needed to Optimize Smoking Abstinence Unknown status NCT01038414 Phase 4
2 Extended (6-Week) Varenicline Preloading: Does it Facilitate Smoking Reduction and Cessation? Unknown status NCT02634281 Phase 4 Varenicline;placebo
3 High Cessation Rates in Smokers Using Personal Vaporizers Completed NCT02124200 Phase 4
4 An Effectiveness Trial of Maintenance Therapy for Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT01047527 Phase 4 Transdermal nicotine patch
5 Treatment of Nicotine Dependence and Acute Depression Completed NCT00186446 Phase 4 bupropion and smoking cessation behavioral intervention
6 Effects of Chantix on Relapse Prevention for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00948649 Phase 4 Placebo;Varenicline
7 Behavioral/Drug Therapy for Alcohol-Nicotine Dependence (Naltrexone/Nicotine Patch) Completed NCT00000447 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia);nicotine replacement patch
8 Bupropion for ADHD in Adolescents With Substance Use Disorder Completed NCT00936299 Phase 4 Bupropion
9 Bupropion as an Adjunct to the Nicotine Patch Plus CBT Completed NCT00142831 Phase 4 Pharmacotherapies for Smoking Cessation
10 Stress Neuroadaptation in Tobacco Dependence Completed NCT03262233 Phase 4
11 Association of Functional COMT Val108/Met Polymorphism With Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy Completed NCT01980550 Phase 4 sublingual nicotine
12 Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and Bupropion Mechanisms of Effectiveness in Smokers Completed NCT01048944 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Nicotine Patch;Placebo Patch and Placebo Pill
13 Measuring Smoking Behaviors While Using Varenicline Completed NCT00948155 Phase 4 Varenicline
14 Smoking Cessation Medications: Efficacy, Mechanisms and Algorithms Completed NCT00332644 Phase 4 nicotine patch;nicotine lozenge;nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge;bupropion;bupropion + lozenge;placebo
15 Behaviorally Enhanced Counseling on Nicotine Dependence (BEACON) Trial. Completed NCT00991081 Phase 4 Pharmacotherapy
16 Helping Those With Mental Illness Quit Smoking Completed NCT01783912 Phase 4 Nicotine Patch
17 Neuropsychological Prognosis Factors of Smoking Cessation Completed NCT01554436 Phase 4
18 Varenicline in Drug Treatment Completed NCT01286584 Phase 4 varenicline;placebo
19 Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy Completed NCT01656733 Phase 4 Nicotrol Inhaler
20 Electronic Cigarettes in Daily Dependent Smokers Completed NCT02108626 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
21 Feasibility Trial of a Tailored Smoking Cessation App for People With Serious Mental Illness Completed NCT03069482 Phase 4 Nicotine patch;Nicotine lozenge
22 Evaluation of the Safety Profile, Quit and Reduction Rate After Nicorette® Gum and Patch Treatment Completed NCT00749463 Phase 4 Nicotine Gum;Nicotine Patch
23 Identifying Treatments to Motivate Smokers to Quit Completed NCT01122238 Phase 4 Nicotine Patch;Nicotine Gum;Nicotine Patch + Nicotine Gum
24 A Comparison of Bupropion SR and Placebo for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00176449 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Placebo Oral Tablet
25 Effect of Switch to Aripiprazole on Health and Smoking Parameters in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study Completed NCT00167817 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
26 STOP Study: Effectiveness of Zyban in a Clinical Population Completed NCT01015170 Phase 4 bupropion HCl
27 A Comparative Effectiveness & Long Term Health Study in Wisconsin Smokers Completed NCT01553084 Phase 4 Varenicline;Nicotine lozenge;Nicotine Patch
28 Evaluation of National Cancer Institute (NCI) Smoking Intervention Resources Completed NCT01342523 Phase 4
29 Identifying Optimal Smoking Cessation Intervention Components (Cessation) Completed NCT01116986 Phase 4 Long Term Nicotine Patch+ Nicotine Gum During Quit Attempt;Short Term Nicotine Patch + Nicotine Gum during the quit attempt;Pre-Quit Nicotine Gum;Pre-Quit Nicotine Patch;Pre-Quit Nicotine Patch + Pre-Quit Nicotine Gum
30 Varenicline Effects In Schizophrenic Smokers Completed NCT00548470 Phase 4 Varenicline
31 Randomized Trial of Ultrashort Psychotherapy vs Sustained-Release Bupropion for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00484692 Phase 4 sustained-release bupropion (Zyban(R))
32 Safety And Efficacy Of 12 Weeks Of Varenicline For Smoking Cessation In Smokers With Depression Completed NCT01078298 Phase 4 varenicline;placebo
33 Smoking Cessation in Alcoholism Treatment Completed NCT00000454 Phase 4 nicotine replacement patch
34 A Study of Varenicline for Prevention of Relapse to Smoking in Patients With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Completed NCT00621777 Phase 4 Varenicline;Placebo
35 Predictors of Antidepressant Response Completed NCT02178696 Phase 4 Celexa or other antidepressant as clinically indicated
36 The Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal on Reward Responsivity in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00373126 Phase 4 transdermal nicotine patch
37 Varenicline for Light Smokers Completed NCT01639560 Phase 4 Varenicline;Placebo
38 The END Perioperative Smoking Pilot Study Completed NCT02482233 Phase 4 NRT (NicoDerm CQ)
39 Impact of Smoking Cessation on Sleep - 5 Completed NCT00132821 Phase 4 Bupropion;Transdermal Nicotine Patch;Placebo Bupropion;Placebo transdermal nicotine patch
40 Message Priming and Enrollment in, and Response to, a Smoking Cessation Program: A Pilot Study Completed NCT00596882 Phase 4
41 Randomized Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Varenicline Tartrate to Placebo in Smoking Cessation When Subjects Are Allowed to Set Their Own Quit Date Completed NCT00691483 Phase 4 placebo;varenicline
42 Evaluation of Treatments to Improve Smoking Cessation Medication Adherence Completed NCT01120704 Phase 4 Short Term Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patch + gum);Long Term Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patch + gum)
43 Advancing Tobacco Use Treatment for African American Smokers Completed NCT02360631 Phase 4 Chantix;Placebo
44 Controlled Study of the Ability of a Smokefree Tobacco Product to Increase the Quit Rate Among Cigarette Smokers Completed NCT00843622 Phase 4 Low-nitrosamine smokefree tobacco product for oral use
45 Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Atomoxetine in Young Adults and Its Effects on Functional Outcomes Completed NCT00510276 Phase 4 Atomoxetine hydrochloride;Placebo
46 Trial Comparing Different Methods of Support With Stopping Smoking (PORTSSS/Stop Together Trial) Completed NCT00775944 Phase 4 Offer of voucher for cost-free Nicotine Replacement Therapy
47 Treatment of Smoking Lapses and Relapses Completed NCT01807871 Phase 4 nicotine patch, experimental use;nicotine patch, labeled use
48 Appetite Increase in Schizophrenia Patients Treated With Atypical Antipsychotics Completed NCT00290121 Phase 4 Olanzapine
49 Extended-Release Naltrexone vs. Buprenorphine for Opioid Treatment Completed NCT02032433 Phase 4 Extended-Release Naltrexone;Buprenorphine-Naloxone
50 Nicotine Dependence, Withdrawal and Replacement Therapy Assessed by PET Imaging Recruiting NCT01664741 Phase 4 Nicotine patch - transdermal;placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Tobacco Addiction

Cochrane evidence based reviews: tobacco use disorder

Genetic Tests for Tobacco Addiction

Genetic tests related to Tobacco Addiction:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility to 30 CHRNA4 CYP2A6 GABBR2 SLC6A3
2 Nicotine Dependence 30
3 Tobacco Use Disorder 30

Anatomical Context for Tobacco Addiction

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Tobacco Addiction:

42
Testes, Brain, Lung, Skin, Endothelial, Heart, Cortex

Publications for Tobacco Addiction

Articles related to Tobacco Addiction:

(show top 50) (show all 1304)
# Title Authors Year
1
Developmental Trajectories of Religious Service Attendance: Predictors of Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Dependence/Abuse in Early Midlife. ( 30879207 )
2019
2
Utilization of "Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment" Approach for Tobacco Addiction in Day-to-Day Clinical Practice in India: The Need of the Hour. ( 30765963 )
2019
3
Nicotine dependence as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in the National Lung Screening Trial. ( 30669994 )
2019
4
Analyzing the pathways enriched in genes associated with nicotine dependence in the context of human protein-protein interaction network. ( 29546796 )
2019
5
Considerations when selecting pharmacotherapy for nicotine dependence. ( 30496692 )
2019
6
Differences in quality of life among older adults in Brazil according to smoking status and nicotine dependence. ( 30606205 )
2019
7
Effect of preoperative smoking cessation on postoperative pain outcomes in elderly patients with high nicotine dependence. ( 30653178 )
2019
8
Cross-Sectional Study to Characterise Nicotine Dependence in Central Vietnamese Men. ( 30728715 )
2019
9
Demonstration of critical role of GRIN3A in nicotine dependence through both genetic association and molecular functional studies. ( 30741440 )
2019
10
A study on the prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among adolescents of Burdwan Town, West Bengal. ( 30745660 )
2019
11
Nicotine Dependence and Pre-Enlistment Suicidal Behavior Among U.S. Army Soldiers. ( 30777160 )
2019
12
Impact of a Novel Smartphone App (CureApp Smoking Cessation) on Nicotine Dependence: Prospective Single-Arm Interventional Pilot Study. ( 30777848 )
2019
13
Effects of different pharmacologic smoking cessation treatments on body weight changes and success rates in patients with nicotine dependence: A network meta-analysis. ( 30816006 )
2019
14
Associations of nicotine dependence and fat distribution in Chinese male adults: a cross-sectional study in Lanxi, China. ( 30862630 )
2019
15
How Does Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Change after Onset of Vaping? A Retrospective Analysis of Dual Users. ( 30883640 )
2019
16
Building the case for comprehensive hospital-based tobacco addiction services: Applying the Ottawa Model to the City of Manchester. ( 29739705 )
2018
17
A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of contingency management for treatment of waterpipe tobacco addiction. ( 29569328 )
2018
18
What role does dopamine really play in tobacco addiction? ( 29766605 )
2018
19
Mental health service user and staff perspectives on tobacco addiction and smoking cessation: A meta-synthesis of published qualitative studies. ( 29498459 )
2018
20
Twenty Years of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group: Past, Present, and Future. ( 27798085 )
2018
21
Correlates of nicotine dependence in men with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 33-year follow-up. ( 30171588 )
2018
22
Genome-wide association study identifies glutamate ionotropic receptor GRIA4 as a risk gene for comorbid nicotine dependence and major depression. ( 30287806 )
2018
23
Probability and correlates of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without major depressive disorder: Results from the national epidemiology survey on alcohol and related conditions. ( 29350765 )
2018
24
Psychophysical evaluation of contrast sensitivity using Gabor patches in tobacco addiction. ( 30195990 )
2018
25
Nicotine dependence in Croatian male inpatients with schizophrenia. ( 29357830 )
2018
26
Integrative Data Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Measurement Invariance in Nicotine Dependence Symptoms. ( 29396761 )
2018
27
Is the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence invariant across secular trends in smoking? A question for cross-birth cohort analysis of nicotine dependence. ( 29438887 )
2018
28
Not all smokers appear to seek nicotine for the same reasons: implications for preclinical research in nicotine dependence. ( 29480575 )
2018
29
Preclinical evidence for combining the 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin and varenicline as a treatment for nicotine dependence. ( 29498158 )
2018
30
Perception of Lung Cancer Risk: Impact of Smoking Status and Nicotine Dependence. ( 29508085 )
2018
31
Sex Differences in Attaining Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Milestones Among Novice Smokers. ( 29522067 )
2018
32
Associations between opioid and nicotine dependence in nationally representative samples of United States adult daily smokers. ( 29579724 )
2018
33
The Effects of Nicotine and Tobacco use on Brain Reward Function: Interaction with Nicotine Dependence Severity. ( 29584917 )
2018
34
The latent trait of ICD-11 nicotine dependence criteria: Dimensional and categorical phenotypes. ( 29605101 )
2018
35
E-cigarette- specific symptoms of nicotine dependence among Texas adolescents. ( 29627634 )
2018
36
Work Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Fishermen With a Smoking Habit: A Mediator Role of Nicotine Dependence and Possible Moderator Role of Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal. ( 29632504 )
2018
37
Differences in nicotine dependence, smoke exposure and consumer characteristics between smokers of machine-injected roll-your-own cigarettes and factory-made cigarettes. ( 29655031 )
2018
38
Association and cis-mQTL analysis of variants in CHRNA3-A5, CHRNA7, CHRNB2, and CHRNB4 in relation to nicotine dependence in a Chinese Han population. ( 29666375 )
2018
39
Nicotine dependence predicts cannabis use disorder symptoms among adolescents and young adults. ( 29680677 )
2018
40
Cancer Patients Enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial: Characteristics and Correlates of Smoking Rate and Nicotine Dependence. ( 29682394 )
2018
41
Income as a moderator of psychological stress and nicotine dependence among adult smokers. ( 29729584 )
2018
42
Assessing nicotine dependence in adolescent E-cigarette users: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for electronic cigarettes. ( 29753155 )
2018
43
The Role of CYP2A6 Genetic Polymorphism in Nicotine Dependence and Tobacco Consumption among Bataknese Male Smokers. ( 29875862 )
2018
44
Brain Structure Alterations in Respect to Tobacco Consumption and Nicotine Dependence: A Comparative Voxel-Based Morphometry Study. ( 29881337 )
2018
45
The association between nicotine dependence and physical health among people receiving injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone for the treatment of chronic opioid use disorder. ( 29892701 )
2018
46
Determinants of progression of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescent waterpipe smokers. ( 29895703 )
2018
47
Emotion recognition and its relation to prefrontal function and network in heroin plus nicotine dependence: a pilot study. ( 29901032 )
2018
48
Associations Between Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Nicotine Dependence and Smoking Cessation Attempts Among Adult Tobacco Users With a Psychiatric Disorder. ( 29902928 )
2018
49
Investigating the dimensional diagnosis of ICD-11 nicotine dependence. ( 29927280 )
2018
50
Effect of nicotine dependence on quality of life and sleep quality in patients with lung cancer who continue to smoke after diagnosis. ( 29997919 )
2018

Variations for Tobacco Addiction

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Tobacco Addiction:

6 (show top 50) (show all 100)
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1316A> C (p.Lys439Thr) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs796052318 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981447: 61981447
2 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1316A> C (p.Lys439Thr) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs796052318 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350095: 63350095
3 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.274G> C (p.Glu92Gln) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs146651027 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61987436: 61987436
4 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.274G> C (p.Glu92Gln) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs146651027 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63356084: 63356084
5 GABBR2 NM_005458.7(GABBR2): c.360A> G (p.Ala120=) single nucleotide variant no interpretation for the single variant rs3750344 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 101340316: 101340316
6 GABBR2 NM_005458.7(GABBR2): c.360A> G (p.Ala120=) single nucleotide variant no interpretation for the single variant rs3750344 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 98578034: 98578034
7 GABBR2 GABABR2, HAPLOTYPE, TATA (rs1435252, rs3780422, rs2779562, rs3750344) undetermined variant risk factor
8 GABBR2 GABABR2, HAPLOTYPE, CACA (rs1435252, rs3780422, rs2779562, rs3750344) undetermined variant protective
9 SLC6A3 SLC6A3*9 undetermined variant protective
10 GABBR2 NM_005458.7(GABBR2): c.1236+11101G= single nucleotide variant no interpretation for the single variant rs2491397 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 101205162: 101205162
11 GABBR2 NM_005458.7(GABBR2): c.1236+11101G= single nucleotide variant no interpretation for the single variant rs2491397 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 98442880: 98442880
12 GABBR2 NM_005458.7(GABBR2): c.460-23G= single nucleotide variant no interpretation for the single variant rs2184026 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 101304348: 101304348
13 GABBR2 NM_005458.7(GABBR2): c.460-23G= single nucleotide variant no interpretation for the single variant rs2184026 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 98542066: 98542066
14 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.963C> T (p.Ile321=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912261 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981800: 61981800
15 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.963C> T (p.Ile321=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912261 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350448: 63350448
16 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.963C> T (p.Ile321=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912261 NCBI36 Chromosome 20, 61452244: 61452244
17 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1001C> T (p.Ser334Leu) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912262 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981762: 61981762
18 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1001C> T (p.Ser334Leu) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912262 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350410: 63350410
19 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1002G> A (p.Ser334=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912263 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981761: 61981761
20 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1002G> A (p.Ser334=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912263 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350409: 63350409
21 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1054G> A (p.Val352Met) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912264 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981709: 61981709
22 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1054G> A (p.Val352Met) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912264 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350357: 63350357
23 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1066C> T (p.Leu356Phe) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912265 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981697: 61981697
24 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1066C> T (p.Leu356Phe) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912265 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350345: 63350345
25 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1087G> A (p.Val363Met) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs121912266 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981676: 61981676
26 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1087G> A (p.Val363Met) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs121912266 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350324: 63350324
27 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1109G> A (p.Arg370Gln) single nucleotide variant Likely benign rs121912267 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981654: 61981654
28 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1109G> A (p.Arg370Gln) single nucleotide variant Likely benign rs121912267 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350302: 63350302
29 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1169G> A (p.Gly390Glu) single nucleotide variant Likely benign rs121912268 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981594: 61981594
30 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1169G> A (p.Gly390Glu) single nucleotide variant Likely benign rs121912268 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350242: 63350242
31 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1184C> T (p.Thr395Met) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912269 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981579: 61981579
32 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1184C> T (p.Thr395Met) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912269 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350227: 63350227
33 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1200C> T (p.Ser400=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912270 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981563: 61981563
34 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1200C> T (p.Ser400=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912270 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350211: 63350211
35 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1224C> T (p.Phe408=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912271 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981539: 61981539
36 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1224C> T (p.Phe408=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912271 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350187: 63350187
37 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1228G> A (p.Val410Ile) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs121912272 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981535: 61981535
38 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1228G> A (p.Val410Ile) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs121912272 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350183: 63350183
39 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1265G> A (p.Cys422Tyr) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912273 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981498: 61981498
40 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1265G> A (p.Cys422Tyr) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912273 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350146: 63350146
41 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1266C> T (p.Cys422=) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912274 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981497: 61981497
42 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1266C> T (p.Cys422=) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912274 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350145: 63350145
43 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1311T> C (p.Ala437=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912275 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981452: 61981452
44 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1311T> C (p.Ala437=) single nucleotide variant not provided rs121912275 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350100: 63350100
45 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1359C> T (p.His453=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs121912276 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981404: 61981404
46 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1359C> T (p.His453=) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs121912276 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350052: 63350052
47 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1373C> T (p.Pro458Leu) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912277 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981390: 61981390
48 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1373C> T (p.Pro458Leu) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912277 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350038: 63350038
49 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1402G> A (p.Val468Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912278 GRCh37 Chromosome 20, 61981361: 61981361
50 CHRNA4 NM_000744.6(CHRNA4): c.1402G> A (p.Val468Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs121912278 GRCh38 Chromosome 20, 63350009: 63350009

Copy number variations for Tobacco Addiction from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 256991 9 99300000 102600000 Gain or loss GPR51 Nicotine dependence

Expression for Tobacco Addiction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Tobacco Addiction.

Pathways for Tobacco Addiction

Pathways related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.34 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
2
Show member pathways
13.11 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
3
Show member pathways
13.03 AKR1B10 COMT CYP2A6 GSTM1 GSTT1 MAOA
4
Show member pathways
12.63 CHRNA7 CYP2A6 GSTM1 GSTT1 MAOA
5
Show member pathways
12.6 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
6 12.41 COMT GABBR2 OPRM1 TPH1
7
Show member pathways
12.26 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
8 11.95 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 MAOA TPH1
9
Show member pathways
11.81 DRD2 MAOA SLC6A3
10
Show member pathways
11.64 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNB2 DRD2
11
Show member pathways
11.57 CYP2A6 GSTM1 GSTT1
12 11.27 CHRNA4 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
13
Show member pathways
11.07 COMT MAOA SLC6A3
14 10.99 CYP2A6 GSTM1 GSTT1
15
Show member pathways
10.92 COMT MAOA TPH1
16
Show member pathways
10.72 COMT MAOA
17 10.68 COMT MAOA
18
Show member pathways
10.57 AKR1B10 CYP2A6

GO Terms for Tobacco Addiction

Cellular components related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dendrite GO:0030425 9.92 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 COMT DRD2 OPRM1
2 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.85 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
3 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.8 CHRNA4 CHRNA6 CHRNB2 DRD2 OPRM1 SLC6A3
4 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.76 CHRNA6 DRD2 OPRM1 SLC6A3
5 plasma membrane raft GO:0044853 9.67 CHRNA3 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
6 acetylcholine-gated channel complex GO:0005892 9.56 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
7 cholinergic synapse GO:0098981 9.54 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
8 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.17 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNB2 CHRNB3 DRD2
9 membrane GO:0016020 10.42 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
10 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.35 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
11 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.32 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
12 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.15 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
13 cell junction GO:0030054 10.09 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
14 synapse GO:0045202 10.06 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
15 neuron projection GO:0043005 10 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2

Biological processes related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 40)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.97 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNB2 CHRNB3 DRD2
2 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.96 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
3 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.92 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 DRD2
4 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.91 CHRNB2 DRD2 OPRM1 SLC6A3
5 regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:0060078 9.91 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB3
6 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.88 CHRNB2 DRD2 OPRM1 SLC6A3
7 neuromuscular synaptic transmission GO:0007274 9.87 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNB2 CHRNB3
8 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.85 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
9 acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway GO:0095500 9.83 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
10 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.8 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 OPRM1
11 behavioral response to nicotine GO:0035095 9.8 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
12 cognition GO:0050890 9.79 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
13 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.79 CHRNA4 CHRNA6 CHRNB2
14 membrane depolarization GO:0051899 9.77 CHRNA4 CHRNA6 CHRNB2
15 action potential GO:0001508 9.77 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
16 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.76 COMT MAOA SLC6A3
17 response to acetylcholine GO:1905144 9.72 CHRNA3 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
18 synaptic transmission involved in micturition GO:0060084 9.71 CHRNA3 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
19 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.68 GSTM1 GSTT1
20 regulation of smooth muscle contraction GO:0006940 9.68 CHRNA3 CHRNB4
21 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007194 9.68 GABBR2 OPRM1
22 positive regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation GO:1900273 9.67 CHRNA7 DRD2
23 response to iron ion GO:0010039 9.67 DRD2 SLC6A3
24 smooth muscle contraction GO:0006939 9.67 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
25 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.66 COMT DRD2
26 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.66 DRD2 SLC6A3
27 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.65 COMT MAOA
28 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.65 COMT MAOA
29 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.65 CHRNB2 SLC6A3
30 short-term memory GO:0007614 9.64 CHRNA7 COMT
31 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.64 DRD2 SLC6A3
32 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.63 DRD2 OPRM1
33 nervous system process GO:0050877 9.56 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
34 synaptic transmission, cholinergic GO:0007271 9.23 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
35 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.31 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
36 ion transport GO:0006811 10.16 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
37 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 10.11 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
38 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.11 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
39 regulation of membrane potential GO:0042391 10.03 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
40 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 10.02 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2 OPRM1

Molecular functions related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ion channel activity GO:0005216 9.97 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
2 acetylcholine binding GO:0042166 9.92 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
3 acetylcholine receptor activity GO:0015464 9.86 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
4 acetylcholine-gated cation-selective channel activity GO:0022848 9.76 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
5 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 9.73 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
6 drug binding GO:0008144 9.71 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2 SLC6A3
7 extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0005230 9.56 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA6 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
8 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.46 DRD2 SLC6A3
9 ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0015276 9.02 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNB2 CHRNB4

Sources for Tobacco Addiction

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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