MCID: TBC004
MIFTS: 63

Tobacco Addiction

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Tobacco Addiction

MalaCards integrated aliases for Tobacco Addiction:

Name: Tobacco Addiction 57
Nicotine Dependence 57 12 29 15 17 70
Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility to 57 29 6
Tobacco Use Disorder 12 6 44
Nicotine Dependence, Protection Against 57 6
Nicotine Dependence, Susceptibility to 57 6
Nicotine Addiction, Protection from 57 13
Smoking Habit 57 54
Cigarette Habituation, Susceptibility to 57
Nicotine Addiction, Susceptibility to 57
Addiction, Tobacco, Susceptibility to 39
Smoking Habit, Susceptibility to 57
Cigarette Habituation 57
Nicotine Addiction 57

Characteristics:

OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
Inheritance:
genetic factors seem to contribute only in light smokers and heavy smokers


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050742
OMIM® 57 188890
MeSH 44 D014029
NCIt 50 C54203
SNOMED-CT 67 56294008
ICD10 32 F17 Z72.0
UMLS 70 C0028043

Summaries for Tobacco Addiction

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance dependence that is characterized by a physical dependence on nicotine.

MalaCards based summary : Tobacco Addiction, also known as nicotine dependence, is related to alcohol dependence and mood disorder. An important gene associated with Tobacco Addiction is SLC6A3 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency. The drugs Ethanol and Naltrexone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, lung and cortex, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Wikipedia : 73 Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke is breathed in to be tasted... more...

More information from OMIM: 188890

Related Diseases for Tobacco Addiction

Diseases related to Tobacco Addiction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 256)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 alcohol dependence 31.6 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
2 mood disorder 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
3 mental depression 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
4 smoking as a quantitative trait locus 3 31.5 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
5 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.4 MAOA DRD2 COMT
6 personality disorder 31.4 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
7 major depressive disorder 31.4 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
8 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 31.3 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
9 schizophrenia 31.3 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
10 conduct disorder 31.2 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
11 panic disorder 31.2 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
12 antisocial personality disorder 31.2 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2 ADH1B
13 substance dependence 31.1 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA GSTM1 DRD2
14 eating disorder 31.1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
15 pathological gambling 31.0 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
16 psychotic disorder 31.0 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
17 cocaine dependence 30.9 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT CHRNB3 CHRNA5
18 social phobia 30.9 MAOA DRD2 COMT
19 substance abuse 30.9 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
20 polysubstance abuse 30.9 DRD2 COMT
21 schizoaffective disorder 30.8 DRD2 COMT CHRNA7
22 dysthymic disorder 30.8 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
23 generalized anxiety disorder 30.8 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
24 kleptomania 30.6 MAOA DRD2 COMT
25 opiate dependence 30.6 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
26 chronic pain 30.6 OPRM1 COMT
27 narcolepsy 30.6 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
28 tardive dyskinesia 30.6 DRD2 COMT
29 pyromania 30.6 MAOA CHRNA7
30 drug dependence 30.6 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB3 ADH1B
31 impulse control disorder 30.6 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
32 somatoform disorder 30.6 TPH1 OPRM1 COMT
33 gilles de la tourette syndrome 30.5 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
34 endogenous depression 30.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
35 anxiety 30.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
36 alcohol use disorder 30.5 SLC6A3 OPRM1 GABBR2 DRD2 COMT ALDH2
37 bipolar disorder 30.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT CHRNA7
38 intermittent explosive disorder 30.5 MAOA COMT
39 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 30.5 SLC6A3 MAOA GSTM1 DRD2 CYP2A6 COMT
40 disease of mental health 30.0 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA GSTM1 GABBR2
41 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 2 10.5 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
42 drug psychosis 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
43 drug-induced mental disorder 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
44 substance-induced psychosis 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
45 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.5 GSTM1 ALDH2
46 schizophreniform disorder 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
47 tic disorder 10.5 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
48 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 3 10.5 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
49 bestiality 10.5 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
50 opioid abuse 10.5 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Tobacco Addiction:



Diseases related to Tobacco Addiction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Tobacco Addiction

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
Misc:
smoking habit

Clinical features from OMIM®:

188890 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 9.6 MAOA
2 Decreased viability GR00240-S-1 9.6 COMT
3 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.6 CHRNA3 CHRNB2 COMT CYP2A6 GSTM1 TPH1
4 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.6 CYP1A1 GSTM1
5 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.6 ALDH2 APOB CHRNB4 COMT CYP1A1 GSTM1
6 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.6 CHRNA7 GABBR2 OPRM1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Tobacco Addiction:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.24 ALDH2 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.2 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
3 immune system MP:0005387 10.03 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
4 integument MP:0010771 9.85 ALDH2 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2
5 muscle MP:0005369 9.56 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.47 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7

Drugs & Therapeutics for Tobacco Addiction

Drugs for Tobacco Addiction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 241)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
2
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
3
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-56-6 53477758 439302
4
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
5
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
6
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
7
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
8
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
9
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
10
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
11
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 52-90-4 5862
12 Narcotics Phase 4
13 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
14 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
15 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
16 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
17 Protective Agents Phase 4
18 Antidotes Phase 4
19 Expectorants Phase 4
20 N-monoacetylcystine Phase 4
21 Antioxidants Phase 4
22 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
23 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
24 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
25 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
26 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
27 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
28 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
29 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
30 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
31
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 525-66-6 4946
32
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 8042-47-5
33
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 54910-89-3 3386
34
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 52485-79-7 644073 40400
35
Menthol Approved Phase 3 2216-51-5 16666
36
Topiramate Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 97240-79-4 5284627
37 Hops Approved Phase 3
38
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 56-40-6 750
39
Methionine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 63-68-3 6137
40
Glutamic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 56-86-0 33032
41
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
42
Lobeline Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 90-69-7
43 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
44 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
45 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 3
46 Adrenergic Agents Phase 3
47 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 3
48 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 3
49 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 3
50 Emollients Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 866)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Bipolar Patients With and Without Tobacco Use Disorder Unknown status NCT02252341 Phase 4
2 Effectiveness of an E-mail Tracking Intervention Among the Continued Abstinence of Tobacco Consumption (TABATIC). A Randomized Controlled Multicentric Trial Unknown status NCT01494246 Phase 4
3 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) as Add on Therapy for Treatment of Tobacco Dependence by Standardized Behaviour Therapy - Active and Placebo Controlled Double Blind Study Unknown status NCT01729507 Phase 4
4 Duration of Behavioral Counseling Treatment Needed to Optimize Smoking Abstinence Unknown status NCT01038414 Phase 4
5 The STOP Study: Real World Effectiveness of Zyban Treatment in a Clinical Population Completed NCT01015170 Phase 4 bupropion HCl
6 Effectiveness of Bupropion Used in Combination With the Nicotine Replacement Patch and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Treating Nicotine Dependent Individuals - 1 Completed NCT00142831 Phase 4 Pharmacotherapies for Smoking Cessation
7 Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing a Medication, i.e., Sustained-Release Bupropion (Zyban®) With an Ultrashort (1 1/2 d) Manual-Based Psychotherapeutic Intervention, Psychodynamic Model Training® Completed NCT00484692 Phase 4 sustained-release bupropion (Zyban(R))
8 Comparing the Lozenge to the Patch for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00365508 Phase 4 nicotine lozenge;nicotine patch
9 Enhancing Tobacco Use Treatment for African American Light Smokers Completed NCT00666978 Phase 4 bupropion hydrochloride
10 Smoking Cessation in Hospitalized Smokers Completed NCT01289275 Phase 4 Nicotine Patches
11 Treatment of Smoking Lapses and Relapses Completed NCT01807871 Phase 4 nicotine patch, experimental use;nicotine patch, labeled use
12 Message Priming and Enrollment in, and Response to, a Smoking Cessation Program: A Pilot Study Completed NCT00596882 Phase 4
13 Varenicline for Light Smokers Completed NCT01639560 Phase 4 Varenicline;Placebo
14 Behavioral Activation and Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Depressed Smokers Completed NCT02378714 Phase 4 Varenicline
15 An Effectiveness Trial of Maintenance Therapy for Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT01047527 Phase 4 Transdermal nicotine patch
16 NRT & Bupropion Mechanisms of Effectiveness in Smokers: Phase IV Trial Completed NCT01048944 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Nicotine Patch;Placebo Patch and Placebo Pill
17 Pharmacotherapies: Efficacy, Mechanisms and Algorithms Completed NCT00332644 Phase 4 nicotine patch;nicotine lozenge;nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge;bupropion;bupropion + lozenge;placebo
18 Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on Cigarette Smoking Completed NCT02595749 Phase 4 Oxytocin;Placebo
19 Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy Completed NCT01656733 Phase 4 Nicotrol Inhaler;Placebo Inhaler
20 Association of Functional COMT Val108/Met Polymorphism With Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy Completed NCT01980550 Phase 4 sublingual nicotine
21 Varenicline (Chantix) Treatment for Waterpipe Smoking Cessation Completed NCT02575183 Phase 4 Varinecline (Chantix);Placebo (for Varenicline)
22 Assessment of Smoking Topography and Behaviors During Response to Varenicline Completed NCT00948155 Phase 4 Varenicline
23 Validation of a Novel Paradigm for Screening Medications for Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT00948649 Phase 4 Placebo;Varenicline
24 Clinical Relevance of Stress Neuroadaptation in Tobacco Dependence Completed NCT03262233 Phase 4
25 Nicotine Dependence, Withdrawal and Replacement Therapy Assessed by PET Imaging Completed NCT01664741 Phase 4 Nicotine patch - transdermal;placebo
26 Treatment of Nicotine Dependence and Acute Depression Completed NCT00186446 Phase 4 bupropion and smoking cessation behavioral intervention
27 Behavioral/Pharmacological Treatments for Alcohol-Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT00000447 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia);nicotine replacement patch
28 The Effects of ERT on Appetitive Behavior and Withdrawal in Short-term Smoking Cessation Compared to Smoking ad Lib in Postmenopausal Female Smokers. Completed NCT00061061 Phase 4
29 Self-determination and Maintaining Tobacco Abstinence Completed NCT00178685 Phase 4
30 A Comparison of Bupropion SR and Placebo for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00176449 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Placebo Oral Tablet
31 Bupropion and Weight Control for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00006170 Phase 4 Bupropion;Placebo
32 Abstinence Reinforcement Therapy (ART) for Homeless Veteran Smokers Completed NCT02245308 Phase 4 Nicotine Patches;Nicotine rescue method;Bupropion
33 Nicotine and Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00307203 Phase 4 bupropion SR;nicotine replacement therapy
34 An Innovative Approach to Maximizing the Impact of Efficacious Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Attempts. Completed NCT01023659 Phase 4 bupropion;varenicline
35 Preparing Those With Significant and Persistent Mental Illness to Quit Smoking Completed NCT01783912 Phase 4 Nicotine Patch
36 1. The Pharmacogenetic Study of Interaction Among Antipsychotics, Readiness to Change, and Pharmacological Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Schizophrenic Patients 2. Stages of Change and Outcomes of Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Completed NCT00495352 Phase 4 Hihg-doseNRT, Low-dose NRT, bupropion
37 Identifying Optimal, Translatable Smoking Cessation Intervention Components Completed NCT01122238 Phase 4 Nicotine Patch;Nicotine Gum;Nicotine Patch + Nicotine Gum
38 Project 3: Identifying Optimal Strategies of Increasing Smokers' Adherence to Cessation Medications Completed NCT01120704 Phase 4 Short Term Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patch + gum);Long Term Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patch + gum)
39 UW Quitting Using Intensive Treatment Study Completed NCT03176784 Phase 4 Varenicline;Nicotine patch
40 Tobacco Dependence: Treatment and Outcomes; Pharmacotherapies: Effectiveness in Primary Care Completed NCT00296647 Phase 4 nicotine patch;nicotine patch;nicotine lozenge;bupropion;patch + lozenge;bupropion + lozenge
41 Project 2: Identifying Optimal Smoking Cessation Intervention Components Completed NCT01116986 Phase 4 Long Term Nicotine Patch+ Nicotine Gum During Quit Attempt;Short Term Nicotine Patch + Nicotine Gum during the quit attempt;Pre-Quit Nicotine Gum;Pre-Quit Nicotine Patch;Pre-Quit Nicotine Patch + Pre-Quit Nicotine Gum
42 Evaluation of NCI Smoking Intervention Resources Completed NCT01342523 Phase 4
43 Bupropion for ADHD in Adolescents With Substance Use Disorder Completed NCT00936299 Phase 4 Bupropion
44 Helping Hospitalized Patients Quit Smoking Completed NCT01575145 Phase 4
45 A Comparative Effectiveness & Long Term Health Study in Wisconsin Smokers Completed NCT01553084 Phase 4 Varenicline;Nicotine lozenge;Nicotine Patch
46 Bupropion for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy Completed NCT01390246 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Placebo
47 Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of Varenicline for Co-occurring Cannabis and Tobacco Use Completed NCT04595318 Phase 4 Standard clinical care and varenicline
48 A Behavioral Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Reducing Cue- and Withdrawal-induced Craving in Daily Dependent Smokers Completed NCT02108626 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
49 A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Bupropion SR and Individual Smoking Cessation Counseling Completed NCT01621009 Phase 4 Active bupropion + counseling;Active bupropion, No counseling;Placebo medication + counseling;Placebo medication, No counseling
50 Efficacy of Bupropion Alone and in Combination With Nicotine Gum Completed NCT01621022 Phase 4 bupropion + nicotine gum;Active bupropion-Placebo gum;Placebo bupropion-Placebo gum

Search NIH Clinical Center for Tobacco Addiction

Cochrane evidence based reviews: tobacco use disorder

Genetic Tests for Tobacco Addiction

Genetic tests related to Tobacco Addiction:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility to 29 CHRNA4 CYP2A6 GABBR2 SLC6A3
2 Nicotine Dependence 29

Anatomical Context for Tobacco Addiction

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Tobacco Addiction:

40
Brain, Lung, Cortex, Heart, Prostate, Endothelial, Skin

Publications for Tobacco Addiction

Articles related to Tobacco Addiction:

(show top 50) (show all 6387)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Evidence suggesting the role of specific genetic factors in cigarette smoking. 6 57 54 61
9925041 1999
2
A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. 61 6 57
18385739 2008
3
Single- and multilocus allelic variants within the GABA(B) receptor subunit 2 (GABAB2) gene are significantly associated with nicotine dependence. 61 57 6
15759211 2005
4
A genetically modulated, intrinsic cingulate circuit supports human nicotine addiction. 57 6
20643934 2010
5
A genetic association for cigarette smoking behavior. 57 6
9925040 1999
6
A common haplotype of the nicotine acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene is associated with vulnerability to nicotine addiction in men. 61 57 54
15154117 2004
7
Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior. 57 61
20418888 2010
8
Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15. 61 57
19628476 2009
9
Risk for nicotine dependence and lung cancer is conferred by mRNA expression levels and amino acid change in CHRNA5. 61 6
19443489 2009
10
Bitter taste receptor gene polymorphisms are an important factor in the development of nicotine dependence in African Americans. 61 57
18524836 2008
11
Linkage of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior on 10q, 7q and 11p in twins with homogeneous genetic background. 57 61
17549066 2008
12
Significant association of DRD1 with nicotine dependence. 61 57
18092181 2008
13
Identifying susceptibility loci for nicotine dependence: 2008 update based on recent genome-wide linkage analyses. 61 57
18205015 2008
14
Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area. 61 57
17928304 2008
15
A generalized combinatorial approach for detecting gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment interactions with application to nicotine dependence. 57 61
17503330 2007
16
Genetic linkage to chromosome 22q12 for a heavy-smoking quantitative trait in two independent samples. 61 57
17436240 2007
17
Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713 SNPs. 57 61
17135278 2007
18
Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence. 61 57
17158188 2007
19
A genomewide search finds major susceptibility loci for nicotine dependence on chromosome 10 in African Americans. 61 57
16960812 2006
20
Haplotype analysis indicates an association between the DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) gene and nicotine dependence. 57 61
15879433 2005
21
Association of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with smoking behavior among adolescents. 61 57
15806583 2005
22
Meta-analysis and imputation refines the association of 15q25 with smoking quantity. 57
20418889 2010
23
Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior. 57
20418890 2010
24
Genome-wide association scan of tag SNPs identifies a susceptibility locus for lung cancer at 15q25.1. 6
18385676 2008
25
A susceptibility locus for lung cancer maps to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes on 15q25. 6
18385738 2008
26
Association of the serotonin transporter gene with smoking behavior. 57
15863794 2005
27
Progress in searching for susceptibility loci and genes for smoking-related behaviour. 57
15479180 2004
28
Results of a genomewide linkage scan: support for chromosomes 9 and 11 loci increasing risk for cigarette smoking. 57
15211640 2004
29
Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. 57
12595690 2003
30
Multifactor-dimensionality reduction reveals high-order interactions among estrogen-metabolism genes in sporadic breast cancer. 57
11404819 2001
31
Evidence for genetic linkage to alcohol dependence on chromosomes 4 and 11 from an autosome-wide scan in an American Indian population. 57
9603607 1998
32
Genetic models for the natural history of smoking: evidence for a genetic influence on smoking persistence. 57
8465673 1993
33
Genetic influence on smoking--a study of male twins. 57
1508241 1992
34
Association study of a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism and smoking in healthy Caucasian subjects. 54 61
20188797 2010
35
The effect of smoking on MAOA promoter methylation in DNA prepared from lymphoblasts and whole blood. 61 54
19777560 2010
36
The effect of dopamine partial agonists on the nicotine dependency in patients with schizophrenia. 54 61
20033907 2010
37
The D2 dopamine receptor gene and nicotine dependence among bladder cancer patients and controls. 61 54
19842028 2010
38
Meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide linkage scans of smoking behavior. 61 54
19819424 2010
39
Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 polymorphisms with nicotine dependence in 5500 Germans. 61 54
19290018 2009
40
Effect of abstinence challenge on brain function and cognition in smokers differs by COMT genotype. 61 54
19065145 2009
41
Gene-gene interactions among CHRNA4, CHRNB2, BDNF, and NTRK2 in nicotine dependence. 61 54
18534558 2008
42
Genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associated with smoking progression in adolescence. 54 61
18434921 2008
43
Association of low striatal dopamine d2 receptor availability with nicotine dependence similar to that seen with other drugs of abuse. 61 54
18316420 2008
44
Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism. 54 61
18004205 2007
45
CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome. 61 54
17768273 2007
46
Why do young women smoke? IV. Role of genetic variation in the dopamine transporter and lifetime traumatic experience. 54 61
17427187 2007
47
Heavy nicotine and alcohol use in alcohol dependence is associated with D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) polymorphism. 61 54
16766132 2007
48
The role of the TPH1 and TPH2 genes for nicotine dependence: a genetic association study in two different age cohorts. 54 61
17986837 2007
49
CYP2A6 gene polymorphism and personality traits for NEO-FFI on the smoking behavior of youths. 61 54
17934923 2007
50
Haplotype spanning TTC12 and ANKK1, flanked by the DRD2 and NCAM1 loci, is strongly associated to nicotine dependence in two distinct American populations. 61 54
17085484 2006

Variations for Tobacco Addiction

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Tobacco Addiction:

6 (show top 50) (show all 57)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 GABBR2 GABABR2, HAPLOTYPE, CACA (rs1435252, rs3780422, rs2779562, rs3750344) Variation protective 3333 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
2 SLC6A3 SLC6A3*9 Variation protective 16762 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
3 CHRNA5 NM_000745.3(CHRNA5):c.1192G>A (p.Asp398Asn) SNV risk factor 17497 rs16969968 GRCh37: 15:78882925-78882925
GRCh38: 15:78590583-78590583
4 GABBR2 NM_005458.8(GABBR2):c.360A>G (p.Ala120=) SNV risk factor 3331 rs3750344 GRCh37: 9:101340316-101340316
GRCh38: 9:98578034-98578034
5 GABBR2 GABABR2, HAPLOTYPE, TATA (rs1435252, rs3780422, rs2779562, rs3750344) Variation risk factor 3332 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
6 CHRNA3 NM_000743.5(CHRNA3):c.645C>T (p.Tyr215=) SNV risk factor 17503 rs1051730 GRCh37: 15:78894339-78894339
GRCh38: 15:78601997-78601997
7 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.274G>C (p.Glu92Gln) SNV Uncertain significance 205043 rs146651027 GRCh37: 20:61987436-61987436
GRCh38: 20:63356084-63356084
8 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1316A>C (p.Lys439Thr) SNV Uncertain significance 205026 rs796052318 GRCh37: 20:61981447-61981447
GRCh38: 20:63350095-63350095
9 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1792A>G (p.Ile598Val) SNV Uncertain significance 420395 rs1019612389 GRCh37: 20:61978182-61978182
GRCh38: 20:63346830-63346830
10 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1667C>G (p.Pro556Arg) SNV Uncertain significance 452325 rs77345643 GRCh37: 20:61981096-61981096
GRCh38: 20:63349744-63349744
11 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1430C>T (p.Ala477Val) SNV Uncertain significance 205030 rs200243948 GRCh37: 20:61981333-61981333
GRCh38: 20:63349981-63349981
12 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.358C>T (p.Arg120Trp) SNV Uncertain significance 205046 rs200010568 GRCh37: 20:61987352-61987352
GRCh38: 20:63356000-63356000
13 SLC6A3 NM_001044.5(SLC6A3):c.499C>T (p.Leu167Phe) SNV Uncertain significance 377082 rs71653633 GRCh37: 5:1432733-1432733
GRCh38: 5:1432618-1432618
14 SLC6A3 NM_001044.5(SLC6A3):c.70G>A (p.Val24Met) SNV Uncertain significance 538067 rs201800694 GRCh37: 5:1443243-1443243
GRCh38: 5:1443128-1443128
15 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.858C>T (p.Thr286=) SNV not provided 98338 rs121912257 GRCh37: 20:61981905-61981905
GRCh38: 20:63350553-63350553
16 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1087G>A (p.Val363Met) SNV not provided 98304 rs121912266 GRCh37: 20:61981676-61981676
GRCh38: 20:63350324-63350324
17 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1228G>A (p.Val410Ile) SNV not provided 98310 rs121912272 GRCh37: 20:61981535-61981535
GRCh38: 20:63350183-63350183
18 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1634C>T (p.Thr545Met) SNV not provided 98320 rs121912282 GRCh37: 20:61981129-61981129
GRCh38: 20:63349777-63349777
19 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1635G>A (p.Thr545=) SNV not provided 98321 rs121912283 GRCh37: 20:61981128-61981128
GRCh38: 20:63349776-63349776
20 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.729G>A (p.Pro243=) SNV not provided 98334 rs121912253 GRCh37: 20:61982034-61982034
GRCh38: 20:63350682-63350682
21 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1001C>T (p.Ser334Leu) SNV not provided 98300 rs121912262 GRCh37: 20:61981762-61981762
GRCh38: 20:63350410-63350410
22 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1054G>A (p.Val352Met) SNV not provided 98302 rs121912264 GRCh37: 20:61981709-61981709
GRCh38: 20:63350357-63350357
23 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1373C>T (p.Pro458Leu) SNV not provided 98315 rs121912277 GRCh37: 20:61981390-61981390
GRCh38: 20:63350038-63350038
24 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.442C>T (p.Arg148Trp) SNV not provided 98324 rs121912243 GRCh37: 20:61982321-61982321
GRCh38: 20:63350969-63350969
25 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1169G>A (p.Gly390Glu) SNV not provided 98306 rs121912268 GRCh37: 20:61981594-61981594
GRCh38: 20:63350242-63350242
26 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1002G>A (p.Ser334=) SNV not provided 98301 rs121912263 GRCh37: 20:61981761-61981761
GRCh38: 20:63350409-63350409
27 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1066C>T (p.Leu356Phe) SNV not provided 98303 rs121912265 GRCh37: 20:61981697-61981697
GRCh38: 20:63350345-63350345
28 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1200C>T (p.Ser400=) SNV not provided 98308 rs121912270 GRCh37: 20:61981563-61981563
GRCh38: 20:63350211-63350211
29 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1224C>T (p.Phe408=) SNV not provided 98309 rs121912271 GRCh37: 20:61981539-61981539
GRCh38: 20:63350187-63350187
30 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1311T>C (p.Ala437=) SNV not provided 98313 rs121912275 GRCh37: 20:61981452-61981452
GRCh38: 20:63350100-63350100
31 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.504C>T (p.Phe168=) SNV not provided 98327 rs121912246 GRCh37: 20:61982259-61982259
GRCh38: 20:63350907-63350907
32 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.617G>C (p.Ser206Thr) SNV not provided 98330 rs121912249 GRCh37: 20:61982146-61982146
GRCh38: 20:63350794-63350794
33 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.693G>A (p.Pro231=) SNV not provided 98331 rs121912250 GRCh37: 20:61982070-61982070
GRCh38: 20:63350718-63350718
34 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.705T>C (p.Tyr235=) SNV not provided 98332 rs121912251 GRCh37: 20:61982058-61982058
GRCh38: 20:63350706-63350706
35 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.707C>T (p.Ala236Val) SNV not provided 98333 rs121912252 GRCh37: 20:61982056-61982056
GRCh38: 20:63350704-63350704
36 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.753C>T (p.Ile251=) SNV not provided 98335 rs121912254 GRCh37: 20:61982010-61982010
GRCh38: 20:63350658-63350658
37 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.775T>C (p.Cys259Arg) SNV not provided 98336 rs121912255 GRCh37: 20:61981988-61981988
GRCh38: 20:63350636-63350636
38 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.799C>T (p.Leu267=) SNV not provided 98337 rs121912256 GRCh37: 20:61981964-61981964
GRCh38: 20:63350612-63350612
39 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.915C>T (p.Leu305=) SNV not provided 98339 rs121912258 GRCh37: 20:61981848-61981848
GRCh38: 20:63350496-63350496
40 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.953C>T (p.Thr318Ile) SNV not provided 98341 rs121912260 GRCh37: 20:61981810-61981810
GRCh38: 20:63350458-63350458
41 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1184C>T (p.Thr395Met) SNV not provided 98307 rs121912269 GRCh37: 20:61981579-61981579
GRCh38: 20:63350227-63350227
42 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1265G>A (p.Cys422Tyr) SNV not provided 98311 rs121912273 GRCh37: 20:61981498-61981498
GRCh38: 20:63350146-63350146
43 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1425C>T (p.Gly475=) SNV not provided 98317 rs121912279 GRCh37: 20:61981338-61981338
GRCh38: 20:63349986-63349986
44 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1625C>T (p.Pro542Leu) SNV not provided 98319 rs121912281 GRCh37: 20:61981138-61981138
GRCh38: 20:63349786-63349786
45 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.585C>G (p.His195Gln) SNV not provided 98329 rs121912248 GRCh37: 20:61982178-61982178
GRCh38: 20:63350826-63350826
46 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.948C>T (p.Phe316=) SNV not provided 98340 rs121912259 GRCh37: 20:61981815-61981815
GRCh38: 20:63350463-63350463
47 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.963C>T (p.Ile321=) SNV not provided 72824 rs121912261 GRCh37: 20:61981800-61981800
GRCh38: 20:63350448-63350448
48 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1109G>A (p.Arg370Gln) SNV not provided 98305 rs121912267 GRCh37: 20:61981654-61981654
GRCh38: 20:63350302-63350302
49 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1266C>T (p.Cys422=) SNV not provided 98312 rs121912274 GRCh37: 20:61981497-61981497
GRCh38: 20:63350145-63350145
50 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1359C>T (p.His453=) SNV not provided 98314 rs121912276 GRCh37: 20:61981404-61981404
GRCh38: 20:63350052-63350052

Copy number variations for Tobacco Addiction from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 256991 9 99300000 102600000 Gain or loss GABBR2 Nicotine dependence

Expression for Tobacco Addiction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Tobacco Addiction.

Pathways for Tobacco Addiction

Pathways related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 27)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.48 OPRM1 GABBR2 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2
2
Show member pathways
13.17 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
3
Show member pathways
13.12 MAOA GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1 COMT ALDH2
4
Show member pathways
12.75 MAOA GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1 CHRNA7 ALDH2
5
Show member pathways
12.48 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT CHRNB4 CHRNB2
6
Show member pathways
12.25 SLC6A3 MAOA GABBR2 COMT CHRNB4 CHRNB3
7 12.01 TPH1 MAOA CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4
8
Show member pathways
11.88 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2
9
Show member pathways
11.86 DRD2 CHRNB2 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
10
Show member pathways
11.79 TPH1 MAOA CYP1A1 ALDH2
11
Show member pathways
11.76 TPH1 MAOA CYP2A6 ALDH2 ADH1B
12
Show member pathways
11.68 MAOA COMT ADH1B
13
Show member pathways
11.67 GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
14
Show member pathways
11.41 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
15 11.34 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4
16
Show member pathways
11.26 GSTM1 CYP1A1 COMT
17
Show member pathways
11.12 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT ALDH2
18 11.09 GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
19
Show member pathways
11.03 TPH1 MAOA COMT
20
Show member pathways
11.03 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
21
Show member pathways
10.8 ALDH2 ADH1B
22 10.77 MAOA COMT
23
Show member pathways
10.73 MAOA ALDH2
24
Show member pathways
10.73 MAOA COMT ALDH2 ADH1B
25
Show member pathways
10.65 CYP2A6 ADH1B
26 10.55 MAOA ALDH2
27
Show member pathways
10.49 CHRNB4 CHRNA3

GO Terms for Tobacco Addiction

Cellular components related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.34 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA GABBR2 DRD2 CYP2A6
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.3 SLC6A3 OPRM1 GABBR2 DRD2 COMT CHRNB4
3 cell junction GO:0030054 10.03 GABBR2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5
4 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10 SLC6A3 OPRM1 GABBR2 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3
5 synapse GO:0045202 9.97 GABBR2 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7
6 dendrite GO:0030425 9.92 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT CHRNA4 CHRNA3
7 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.81 GABBR2 COMT CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7
8 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.71 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB2
9 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.7 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 GABBR2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3
10 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.69 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
11 plasma membrane raft GO:0044853 9.65 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA3
12 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.54 SLC6A3 DRD2 CHRNA5
13 acetylcholine-gated channel complex GO:0005892 9.17 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4

Biological processes related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 39)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.27 OPRM1 GABBR2 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2
2 oxidation-reduction process GO:0055114 10.1 TPH1 MAOA CYP2A6 CYP1A1 ALDH2 ADH1B
3 ion transport GO:0006811 10.1 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
4 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 10.04 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
5 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.01 GABBR2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5
6 response to drug GO:0042493 9.97 SLC6A3 DRD2 CYP1A1 COMT
7 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.95 DRD2 CYP1A1 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4
8 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.91 OPRM1 CYP1A1 COMT APOB
9 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.89 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB2
10 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.87 SLC6A3 DRD2 CHRNB2 CHRNA3
11 regulation of membrane potential GO:0042391 9.87 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
12 regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:0060078 9.85 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
13 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.81 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB2
14 nervous system process GO:0050877 9.8 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
15 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.79 OPRM1 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
16 cognition GO:0050890 9.77 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4
17 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.76 DRD2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
18 behavioral response to nicotine GO:0035095 9.73 CHRNB2 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
19 acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway GO:0095500 9.71 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA3
20 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.7 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
21 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.7 SLC6A3 DRD2 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5
22 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007194 9.68 GABBR2 DRD2
23 response to iron ion GO:0010039 9.68 SLC6A3 DRD2
24 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.67 DRD2 COMT
25 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.67 OPRM1 DRD2
26 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.66 MAOA COMT
27 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.66 SLC6A3 DRD2
28 ethanol oxidation GO:0006069 9.65 ALDH2 ADH1B
29 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.65 MAOA COMT
30 short-term memory GO:0007614 9.65 COMT CHRNA7
31 response to acetylcholine GO:1905144 9.65 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA3
32 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.64 SLC6A3 CHRNB2
33 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.64 OPRM1 DRD2
34 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.63 SLC6A3 DRD2
35 synaptic transmission involved in micturition GO:0060084 9.63 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA3
36 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 9.62 SLC6A3 DRD2
37 coumarin metabolic process GO:0009804 9.62 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
38 synaptic transmission, cholinergic GO:0007271 9.5 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
39 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.28 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7

Molecular functions related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ion channel activity GO:0005216 9.98 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
2 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 9.97 GABBR2 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5
3 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.93 TPH1 MAOA CYP2A6 CYP1A1 ALDH2 ADH1B
4 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.87 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
5 ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0015276 9.8 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
6 extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0005230 9.8 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
7 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.67 TPH1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
8 acetylcholine binding GO:0042166 9.63 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
9 acetylcholine-gated cation-selective channel activity GO:0022848 9.5 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
10 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.48 SLC6A3 DRD2
11 acetylcholine receptor activity GO:0015464 9.17 CHRNB4 CHRNB3 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4

Sources for Tobacco Addiction

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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