MCID: TBC004
MIFTS: 64

Tobacco Addiction

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Tobacco Addiction

MalaCards integrated aliases for Tobacco Addiction:

Name: Tobacco Addiction 57 75 33
Nicotine Dependence 57 11 28 14 16 71 33
Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility to 57 28 5
Tobacco Use Disorder 11 5 43
Nicotine Dependence, Protection Against 57 5
Nicotine Addiction, Protection from 57 12
Nicotine Addiction 57 33
Smoking Habit 57 53
Cigarette Habituation, Susceptibility to 57
Nicotine Dependence, Susceptibility to 57
Nicotine Addiction, Susceptibility to 57
Addiction, Tobacco, Susceptibility to 38
Smoking Habit, Susceptibility to 57
Compulsive Tobacco User Syndrome 33
Tobacco Dependence Syndrome 33
Cigarette Habituation 57
Cigarette Dependence 33
Cigarette Addiction 33
Tobacco Dependence 33
Smoking Addiction 33
Smokers Syndrome 33

Characteristics:


Inheritance:

Genetic factors seem to contribute only in light smokers and heavy smokers 57

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:0050742
OMIM® 57 188890
MeSH 43 D014029
NCIt 49 C54203
SNOMED-CT 68 56294008
ICD10 31 F17 Z72.0
MedGen 40 C1861063
UMLS 71 C0028043

Summaries for Tobacco Addiction

Disease Ontology: 11 A substance dependence that is characterized by a physical dependence on nicotine.

MalaCards based summary: Tobacco Addiction, also known as nicotine dependence, is related to alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder. An important gene associated with Tobacco Addiction is SLC6A3 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism and Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency. The drugs Naltrexone and Oxytocin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, brain and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and nervous system

More information from OMIM: 188890

Related Diseases for Tobacco Addiction

Diseases related to Tobacco Addiction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 375)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 alcohol dependence 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
2 major depressive disorder 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
3 mood disorder 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
4 personality disorder 31.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
5 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
6 smoking as a quantitative trait locus 3 31.4 CHRNA5 CHRNA3
7 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 31.3 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
8 panic disorder 31.2 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
9 schizophrenia 31.2 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA GSTM1 GABBR2
10 conduct disorder 31.2 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
11 substance dependence 31.2 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MIR504 MAOA DRD2
12 psychotic disorder 31.1 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
13 antisocial personality disorder 31.1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
14 eating disorder 31.1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
15 pathological gambling 31.0 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
16 brunner syndrome 31.0 TPH1 MAOA COMT
17 chronic pain 30.9 OPRM1 COMT
18 social phobia 30.9 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
19 substance abuse 30.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
20 cocaine dependence 30.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT CHRNB4 CHRNA5
21 dysthymic disorder 30.7 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
22 bulimia nervosa 30.7 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
23 generalized anxiety disorder 30.7 TPH1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
24 endogenous depression 30.7 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
25 anxiety 30.7 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
26 anorexia nervosa 30.7 TPH1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
27 opiate dependence 30.6 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
28 withdrawal disorder 30.6 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
29 polysubstance abuse 30.6 DRD2 COMT
30 narcolepsy 30.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
31 delusional disorder 30.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
32 intermittent explosive disorder 30.5 MAOA DRD2 COMT
33 kleptomania 30.5 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
34 pyromania 30.5 MAOA DRD2 CHRNA7
35 bowel dysfunction 30.5 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1
36 disease of mental health 30.5 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
37 tardive dyskinesia 30.5 DRD2 COMT
38 impulse control disorder 30.5 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
39 alcohol use disorder 30.5 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT ALDH2
40 gilles de la tourette syndrome 30.5 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
41 drug dependence 30.5 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT CHRNB4
42 alexithymia 30.4 DRD2 COMT
43 obsessive-compulsive disorder 30.4 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT CHRNA7
44 cannabis abuse 30.4 DRD2 COMT
45 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 30.4 SLC6A3 MAOA GSTM1 DRD2 CYP2A6 COMT
46 bipolar disorder 30.4 TPH1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA DRD2 COMT
47 sudden infant death syndrome 30.4 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA CHRNB2 CHRNA7
48 drug psychosis 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
49 drug-induced mental disorder 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT
50 substance-induced psychosis 10.5 SLC6A3 DRD2 COMT

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Tobacco Addiction:



Diseases related to Tobacco Addiction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Tobacco Addiction

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
Misc:
smoking habit

Clinical features from OMIM®:

188890 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Tobacco Addiction:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.32 ADH1B ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA7
2 nervous system MP:0003631 10.31 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.13 ADH1B ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
4 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 ALDH2 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
5 muscle MP:0005369 10.01 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2
6 immune system MP:0005387 9.97 ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.77 ADH1B ALDH2 APOB CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA7
8 integument MP:0010771 9.28 ALDH2 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Tobacco Addiction

Drugs for Tobacco Addiction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 247)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
2
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-56-6 439302 53477758
3
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
4
Tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4 16129878 16129778
5
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 581 12035
6
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3, 1095-90-5 4095
7
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 318-98-9, 525-66-6 62882 4946
8
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 31677-93-7, 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
9
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
10
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
11
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
12
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-88-5 493570
13
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 52-90-4 594 5862
14 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
15 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
16 Narcotics Phase 4
17 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
18 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
19 Neurosteroids Phase 4
20 Liver Extracts Phase 4
21 Vitamins Phase 4
22 Trace Elements Phase 4
23 Micronutrients Phase 4
24 Folate Phase 4
25 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
26 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
27 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 4
28
Vitamin B2 Phase 4
29 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
30 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
31 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
32 Expectorants Phase 4
33 Antidotes Phase 4
34 N-monoacetylcystine Phase 4
35 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
36 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 4
37 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
38 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4
39 Estrogens Phase 4
40 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
41 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
42 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
43 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
44 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
45 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
46
Ethanol Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 64-17-5 702
47
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 8042-47-5
48
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 54910-89-3 3386
49
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 52485-79-7, 53152-21-9 644073 40400
50
Metyrapone Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 54-36-4 4174

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 878)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Bipolar Patients With and Without Tobacco Use Disorder Unknown status NCT02252341 Phase 4
2 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) as Add on Therapy for Treatment of Tobacco Dependence by Standardized Behaviour Therapy - Active and Placebo Controlled Double Blind Study Unknown status NCT01729507 Phase 4
3 Effectiveness of an E-mail Tracking Intervention Among the Continued Abstinence of Tobacco Consumption (TABATIC). A Randomized Controlled Multicentric Trial Unknown status NCT01494246 Phase 4
4 Duration of Behavioral Counseling Treatment Needed to Optimize Smoking Abstinence Unknown status NCT01038414 Phase 4
5 Behavioral/Pharmacological Treatments for Alcohol-Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT00000447 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia);nicotine replacement patch
6 Nicotine Dependence, Withdrawal and Replacement Therapy Assessed by PET Imaging Completed NCT01664741 Phase 4 Nicotine patch - transdermal;placebo
7 Treatment of Nicotine Dependence and Acute Depression Completed NCT00186446 Phase 4 bupropion and smoking cessation behavioral intervention
8 Validation of a Novel Paradigm for Screening Medications for Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT00948649 Phase 4 Placebo;Varenicline
9 An Effectiveness Trial of Maintenance Therapy for Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT01047527 Phase 4 Transdermal nicotine patch
10 A Behavioral Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Reducing Cue- and Withdrawal-induced Craving in Daily Dependent Smokers Completed NCT02108626 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
11 Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on Cigarette Smoking Completed NCT02595749 Phase 4 Oxytocin;Placebo
12 Varenicline Treatment in Alcohol and Nicotine Dependent Patients With Schizophrenia - a Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial Completed NCT00727103 Phase 4 Varenicline;Placebo
13 Association of Functional COMT Val108/Met Polymorphism With Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy Completed NCT01980550 Phase 4 sublingual nicotine
14 Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing a Medication, i.e., Sustained-Release Bupropion (Zyban®) With an Ultrashort (1 1/2 d) Manual-Based Psychotherapeutic Intervention, Psychodynamic Model Training® Completed NCT00484692 Phase 4 sustained-release bupropion (Zyban(R))
15 Multimodal Imaging of Progesterone/Neurosteroid Effects in Nicotine Addiction Completed NCT01954966 Phase 4 Progesterone;Placebo
16 Varenicline (Chantix) Treatment for Waterpipe Smoking Cessation Completed NCT02575183 Phase 4 Varinecline (Chantix);Placebo (for Varenicline)
17 Assessment of Smoking Topography and Behaviors During Response to Varenicline Completed NCT00948155 Phase 4 Varenicline
18 Project 3: Identifying Optimal Strategies of Increasing Smokers' Adherence to Cessation Medications Completed NCT01120704 Phase 4 Short Term Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patch + gum);Long Term Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patch + gum)
19 Project 2: Identifying Optimal Smoking Cessation Intervention Components Completed NCT01116986 Phase 4 Long Term Nicotine Patch+ Nicotine Gum During Quit Attempt;Short Term Nicotine Patch + Nicotine Gum during the quit attempt;Pre-Quit Nicotine Gum;Pre-Quit Nicotine Patch;Pre-Quit Nicotine Patch + Pre-Quit Nicotine Gum
20 Identifying Optimal, Translatable Smoking Cessation Intervention Components Completed NCT01122238 Phase 4 Nicotine Patch;Nicotine Gum;Nicotine Patch + Nicotine Gum
21 Clinical Relevance of Stress Neuroadaptation in Tobacco Dependence Completed NCT03262233 Phase 4
22 Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy Completed NCT01656733 Phase 4 Nicotrol Inhaler;Placebo Inhaler
23 Behavioral Activation and Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Depressed Smokers Completed NCT02378714 Phase 4 Varenicline
24 NRT & Bupropion Mechanisms of Effectiveness in Smokers: Phase IV Trial Completed NCT01048944 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Nicotine Patch;Placebo Patch and Placebo Pill
25 Pharmacotherapies: Efficacy, Mechanisms and Algorithms Completed NCT00332644 Phase 4 nicotine patch;nicotine lozenge;nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge;bupropion;bupropion + lozenge;placebo
26 Bupropion for ADHD in Adolescents With Substance Use Disorder Completed NCT00936299 Phase 4 Bupropion
27 Preparing Those With Significant and Persistent Mental Illness to Quit Smoking Completed NCT01783912 Phase 4 Nicotine Patch
28 A Comparative Effectiveness & Long Term Health Study in Wisconsin Smokers Completed NCT01553084 Phase 4 Varenicline;Nicotine lozenge;Nicotine Patch
29 Neuropsychological and Psychopathological Prognosis Factors of Smoking Cessation Completed NCT01554436 Phase 4
30 Evaluation of NCI Smoking Intervention Resources Completed NCT01342523 Phase 4
31 Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Nicotine-dependent Arrestees: a Monocentric Randomized Simple Blind Study Completed NCT02905734 Phase 4 Nicotine patch
32 Enhancing Tobacco Use Treatment for African American Light Smokers Completed NCT00666978 Phase 4 bupropion hydrochloride
33 Evaluation of the Safety Profile, Quit and Reduction Rate After Nicorette® Gum and Patch Treatment Completed NCT00749463 Phase 4 Nicotine Gum;Nicotine Patch
34 Abstinence Reinforcement Therapy (ART) for Homeless Veteran Smokers Completed NCT02245308 Phase 4 Nicotine Patches;Nicotine rescue method;Bupropion
35 Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of Varenicline for Co-occurring Cannabis and Tobacco Use Completed NCT04595318 Phase 4 Standard clinical care and varenicline
36 Evaluation of Varenicline's Clinical Efficacy for Continued Smoking Abstinence When Used in the Clinical Treatment of Schizophrenic Patients Hospitalized in an Institution With a Ban on Cigarette Smoking Completed NCT00548470 Phase 4 Varenicline
37 1. The Pharmacogenetic Study of Interaction Among Antipsychotics, Readiness to Change, and Pharmacological Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Schizophrenic Patients 2. Stages of Change and Outcomes of Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Completed NCT00495352 Phase 4 Hihg-doseNRT, Low-dose NRT, bupropion
38 Effectiveness of Bupropion Used in Combination With the Nicotine Replacement Patch and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Treating Nicotine Dependent Individuals - 1 Completed NCT00142831 Phase 4 Pharmacotherapies for Smoking Cessation
39 An Innovative Approach to Maximizing the Impact of Efficacious Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Attempts. Completed NCT01023659 Phase 4 bupropion;varenicline
40 The STOP Study: Real World Effectiveness of Zyban Treatment in a Clinical Population Completed NCT01015170 Phase 4 bupropion HCl
41 Self-determination and Maintaining Tobacco Abstinence Completed NCT00178685 Phase 4
42 The Effects of ERT on Appetitive Behavior and Withdrawal in Short-term Smoking Cessation Compared to Smoking ad Lib in Postmenopausal Female Smokers. Completed NCT00061061 Phase 4
43 A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Bupropion SR and Individual Smoking Cessation Counseling Completed NCT01621009 Phase 4 Active bupropion + counseling;Active bupropion, No counseling;Placebo medication + counseling;Placebo medication, No counseling
44 Varenicline OTC Trial on Efficacy and Safety Completed NCT03557294 Phase 4 1.0mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.5mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.0mg placebo Varenicline b.i.d.
45 A Comparison of Bupropion SR and Placebo for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00176449 Phase 4 Bupropion SR;Placebo Oral Tablet
46 Bupropion and Weight Control for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00006170 Phase 4 Bupropion;Placebo
47 UW Quitting Using Intensive Treatment Study Completed NCT03176784 Phase 4 Varenicline;Nicotine patch
48 Nicotine and Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00307203 Phase 4 bupropion SR;nicotine replacement therapy
49 Tobacco Dependence: Treatment and Outcomes; Pharmacotherapies: Effectiveness in Primary Care Completed NCT00296647 Phase 4 nicotine patch;nicotine lozenge;bupropion;patch + lozenge;bupropion + lozenge
50 Comparing the Lozenge to the Patch for Smoking Cessation Completed NCT00365508 Phase 4 nicotine lozenge;nicotine patch

Search NIH Clinical Center for Tobacco Addiction

Cochrane evidence based reviews: tobacco use disorder

Genetic Tests for Tobacco Addiction

Genetic tests related to Tobacco Addiction:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility to 28 CHRNA4 CYP2A6 GABBR2 SLC6A3
2 Nicotine Dependence 28

Anatomical Context for Tobacco Addiction

Organs/tissues related to Tobacco Addiction:

MalaCards : Lung, Brain, Prefrontal Cortex, Heart, Skin, Endothelial, Prostate

Publications for Tobacco Addiction

Articles related to Tobacco Addiction:

(show top 50) (show all 15651)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Evidence suggesting the role of specific genetic factors in cigarette smoking. 53 62 57 5
9925041 1999
2
Single- and multilocus allelic variants within the GABA(B) receptor subunit 2 (GABAB2) gene are significantly associated with nicotine dependence. 62 57 5
15759211 2005
3
A genetic association for cigarette smoking behavior. 57 5
9925040 1999
4
A common haplotype of the nicotine acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene is associated with vulnerability to nicotine addiction in men. 53 62 57
15154117 2004
5
A genetically modulated, intrinsic cingulate circuit supports human nicotine addiction. 62 57
20643934 2010
6
Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior. 62 57
20418888 2010
7
Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15. 62 57
19628476 2009
8
Bitter taste receptor gene polymorphisms are an important factor in the development of nicotine dependence in African Americans. 62 57
18524836 2008
9
Linkage of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior on 10q, 7q and 11p in twins with homogeneous genetic background. 62 57
17549066 2008
10
A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. 62 57
18385739 2008
11
Significant association of DRD1 with nicotine dependence. 62 57
18092181 2008
12
Identifying susceptibility loci for nicotine dependence: 2008 update based on recent genome-wide linkage analyses. 62 57
18205015 2008
13
Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area. 62 57
17928304 2008
14
A generalized combinatorial approach for detecting gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment interactions with application to nicotine dependence. 62 57
17503330 2007
15
Genetic linkage to chromosome 22q12 for a heavy-smoking quantitative trait in two independent samples. 62 57
17436240 2007
16
Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence. 62 57
17158188 2007
17
Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713 SNPs. 62 57
17135278 2007
18
A genomewide search finds major susceptibility loci for nicotine dependence on chromosome 10 in African Americans. 62 57
16960812 2006
19
Haplotype analysis indicates an association between the DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) gene and nicotine dependence. 62 57
15879433 2005
20
Association of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with smoking behavior among adolescents. 62 57
15806583 2005
21
Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior. 57
20418890 2010
22
Meta-analysis and imputation refines the association of 15q25 with smoking quantity. 57
20418889 2010
23
Association of the serotonin transporter gene with smoking behavior. 57
15863794 2005
24
Progress in searching for susceptibility loci and genes for smoking-related behaviour. 57
15479180 2004
25
Results of a genomewide linkage scan: support for chromosomes 9 and 11 loci increasing risk for cigarette smoking. 57
15211640 2004
26
Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. 57
12595690 2003
27
Multifactor-dimensionality reduction reveals high-order interactions among estrogen-metabolism genes in sporadic breast cancer. 57
11404819 2001
28
Evidence for genetic linkage to alcohol dependence on chromosomes 4 and 11 from an autosome-wide scan in an American Indian population. 57
9603607 1998
29
Genetic models for the natural history of smoking: evidence for a genetic influence on smoking persistence. 57
8465673 1993
30
Genetic influence on smoking--a study of male twins. 57
1508241 1992
31
Association study of a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism and smoking in healthy Caucasian subjects. 53 62
20188797 2010
32
The effect of dopamine partial agonists on the nicotine dependency in patients with schizophrenia. 53 62
20033907 2010
33
The effect of smoking on MAOA promoter methylation in DNA prepared from lymphoblasts and whole blood. 53 62
19777560 2010
34
The D2 dopamine receptor gene and nicotine dependence among bladder cancer patients and controls. 53 62
19842028 2010
35
Meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide linkage scans of smoking behavior. 53 62
19819424 2010
36
High prevalence of low serum paraoxonase-1 in subjects with coronary artery disease. 53 62
19902017 2009
37
Interaction of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype and smoking habit in Taiwanese lung cancer patients. 53 62
20065319 2009
38
Influences of polymorphic variants of DRD2 and SLC6A3 genes, and their combinations on smoking in Polish population. 53 62
19761593 2009
39
Effect of abstinence challenge on brain function and cognition in smokers differs by COMT genotype. 53 62
19065145 2009
40
Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 polymorphisms with nicotine dependence in 5500 Germans. 53 62
19290018 2009
41
Shiftwork and impaired glucose metabolism: a 14-year cohort study on 7104 male workers. 53 62
19637051 2009
42
Association of C677T polymorphism in MTHFR gene, high homocysteine and low HDL cholesterol plasma values in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. 53 62
20065615 2009
43
Gene-gene interactions among CHRNA4, CHRNB2, BDNF, and NTRK2 in nicotine dependence. 53 62
18534558 2008
44
An integrated approach to biomonitoring exposure to styrene and styrene-(7,8)-oxide using a repeated measurements sampling design. 53 62
18608187 2008
45
Shift work is a risk factor for increased blood pressure in Japanese men: a 14-year historical cohort study. 53 62
18625889 2008
46
Genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associated with smoking progression in adolescence. 53 62
18434921 2008
47
Association of low striatal dopamine d2 receptor availability with nicotine dependence similar to that seen with other drugs of abuse. 53 62
18316420 2008
48
Association of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotypes with fasting plasma glucose levels in Japanese male and female workers. 53 62
18216179 2008
49
The role of CARD15 mutations and smoking in the course of Crohn's disease in a Mediterranean area. 53 62
18341489 2008
50
Relationship between shift work and hypercholesterolemia in Japan. 53 62
18427696 2008

Variations for Tobacco Addiction

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Tobacco Addiction:

5 (show top 50) (show all 55)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 GABBR2 NM_005458.8(GABBR2):c.1662+5118G>A SNV Protective
3333 rs3780422 GRCh37: 9:101142804-101142804
GRCh38: 9:98380522-98380522
2 SLC6A3 SLC6A3*9 MICROSAT Protective
16762 rs28363170 GRCh37: 5:1394014-1394015
GRCh38: 5:1393899-1393900
3 GABBR2 NM_005458.8(GABBR2):c.360A>G (p.Ala120=) SNV Risk Factor
3331 rs3750344 GRCh37: 9:101340316-101340316
GRCh38: 9:98578034-98578034
4 GABBR2 NM_005458.8(GABBR2):c.1893+21406C>T SNV Risk Factor
3332 rs1435252 GRCh37: 9:101103591-101103591
GRCh38: 9:98341309-98341309
5 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.274G>C (p.Glu92Gln) SNV Uncertain Significance
205043 rs146651027 GRCh37: 20:61987436-61987436
GRCh38: 20:63356084-63356084
6 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1316A>C (p.Lys439Thr) SNV Uncertain Significance
205026 rs796052318 GRCh37: 20:61981447-61981447
GRCh38: 20:63350095-63350095
7 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1667C>G (p.Pro556Arg) SNV Uncertain Significance
452325 rs77345643 GRCh37: 20:61981096-61981096
GRCh38: 20:63349744-63349744
8 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1430C>T (p.Ala477Val) SNV Uncertain Significance
205030 rs200243948 GRCh37: 20:61981333-61981333
GRCh38: 20:63349981-63349981
9 SLC6A3 NM_001044.5(SLC6A3):c.499C>T (p.Leu167Phe) SNV Uncertain Significance
377082 rs71653633 GRCh37: 5:1432733-1432733
GRCh38: 5:1432618-1432618
10 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1792A>G (p.Ile598Val) SNV Uncertain Significance
420395 rs1019612389 GRCh37: 20:61978182-61978182
GRCh38: 20:63346830-63346830
11 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.358C>T (p.Arg120Trp) SNV Uncertain Significance
205046 rs200010568 GRCh37: 20:61987352-61987352
GRCh38: 20:63356000-63356000
12 SLC6A3 NM_001044.5(SLC6A3):c.70G>A (p.Val24Met) SNV Uncertain Significance
538067 rs201800694 GRCh37: 5:1443243-1443243
GRCh38: 5:1443128-1443128
13 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1001C>T (p.Ser334Leu) SNV Not Provided
98300 rs121912262 GRCh37: 20:61981762-61981762
GRCh38: 20:63350410-63350410
14 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1109G>A (p.Arg370Gln) SNV Not Provided
98305 rs121912267 GRCh37: 20:61981654-61981654
GRCh38: 20:63350302-63350302
15 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1224C>T (p.Phe408=) SNV Not Provided
98309 rs121912271 GRCh37: 20:61981539-61981539
GRCh38: 20:63350187-63350187
16 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1266C>T (p.Cys422=) SNV Not Provided
98312 rs121912274 GRCh37: 20:61981497-61981497
GRCh38: 20:63350145-63350145
17 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1359C>T (p.His453=) SNV Not Provided
98314 rs121912276 GRCh37: 20:61981404-61981404
GRCh38: 20:63350052-63350052
18 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1425C>T (p.Gly475=) SNV Not Provided
98317 rs121912279 GRCh37: 20:61981338-61981338
GRCh38: 20:63349986-63349986
19 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.461C>T (p.Pro154Leu) SNV Not Provided
98325 rs121912244 GRCh37: 20:61982302-61982302
GRCh38: 20:63350950-63350950
20 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.462G>A (p.Pro154=) SNV Not Provided
98326 rs121912245 GRCh37: 20:61982301-61982301
GRCh38: 20:63350949-63350949
21 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.510C>T (p.Phe170=) SNV Not Provided
98328 rs121912247 GRCh37: 20:61982253-61982253
GRCh38: 20:63350901-63350901
22 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.585C>G (p.His195Gln) SNV Not Provided
98329 rs121912248 GRCh37: 20:61982178-61982178
GRCh38: 20:63350826-63350826
23 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.693G>A (p.Pro231=) SNV Not Provided
98331 rs121912250 GRCh37: 20:61982070-61982070
GRCh38: 20:63350718-63350718
24 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.915C>T (p.Leu305=) SNV Not Provided
98339 rs121912258 GRCh37: 20:61981848-61981848
GRCh38: 20:63350496-63350496
25 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1002G>A (p.Ser334=) SNV Not Provided
98301 rs121912263 GRCh37: 20:61981761-61981761
GRCh38: 20:63350409-63350409
26 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1184C>T (p.Thr395Met) SNV Not Provided
98307 rs121912269 GRCh37: 20:61981579-61981579
GRCh38: 20:63350227-63350227
27 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1200C>T (p.Ser400=) SNV Not Provided
98308 rs121912270 GRCh37: 20:61981563-61981563
GRCh38: 20:63350211-63350211
28 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1311T>C (p.Ala437=) SNV Not Provided
98313 rs121912275 GRCh37: 20:61981452-61981452
GRCh38: 20:63350100-63350100
29 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.504C>T (p.Phe168=) SNV Not Provided
98327 rs121912246 GRCh37: 20:61982259-61982259
GRCh38: 20:63350907-63350907
30 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.617G>C (p.Ser206Thr) SNV Not Provided
98330 rs121912249 GRCh37: 20:61982146-61982146
GRCh38: 20:63350794-63350794
31 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.705T>C (p.Tyr235=) SNV Not Provided
98332 rs121912251 GRCh37: 20:61982058-61982058
GRCh38: 20:63350706-63350706
32 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.707C>T (p.Ala236Val) SNV Not Provided
98333 rs121912252 GRCh37: 20:61982056-61982056
GRCh38: 20:63350704-63350704
33 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.753C>T (p.Ile251=) SNV Not Provided
98335 rs121912254 GRCh37: 20:61982010-61982010
GRCh38: 20:63350658-63350658
34 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.775T>C (p.Cys259Arg) SNV Not Provided
98336 rs121912255 GRCh37: 20:61981988-61981988
GRCh38: 20:63350636-63350636
35 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.799C>T (p.Leu267=) SNV Not Provided
98337 rs121912256 GRCh37: 20:61981964-61981964
GRCh38: 20:63350612-63350612
36 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.953C>T (p.Thr318Ile) SNV Not Provided
98341 rs121912260 GRCh37: 20:61981810-61981810
GRCh38: 20:63350458-63350458
37 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.442C>T (p.Arg148Trp) SNV Not Provided
98324 rs121912243 GRCh37: 20:61982321-61982321
GRCh38: 20:63350969-63350969
38 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1054G>A (p.Val352Met) SNV Not Provided
98302 rs121912264 GRCh37: 20:61981709-61981709
GRCh38: 20:63350357-63350357
39 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.729G>A (p.Pro243=) SNV Not Provided
98334 rs121912253 GRCh37: 20:61982034-61982034
GRCh38: 20:63350682-63350682
40 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.948C>T (p.Phe316=) SNV Not Provided
98340 rs121912259 GRCh37: 20:61981815-61981815
GRCh38: 20:63350463-63350463
41 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1066C>T (p.Leu356Phe) SNV Not Provided
98303 rs121912265 GRCh37: 20:61981697-61981697
GRCh38: 20:63350345-63350345
42 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1087G>A (p.Val363Met) SNV Not Provided
98304 rs121912266 GRCh37: 20:61981676-61981676
GRCh38: 20:63350324-63350324
43 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1169G>A (p.Gly390Glu) SNV Not Provided
98306 rs121912268 GRCh37: 20:61981594-61981594
GRCh38: 20:63350242-63350242
44 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1228G>A (p.Val410Ile) SNV Not Provided
98310 rs121912272 GRCh37: 20:61981535-61981535
GRCh38: 20:63350183-63350183
45 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1265G>A (p.Cys422Tyr) SNV Not Provided
98311 rs121912273 GRCh37: 20:61981498-61981498
GRCh38: 20:63350146-63350146
46 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1373C>T (p.Pro458Leu) SNV Not Provided
98315 rs121912277 GRCh37: 20:61981390-61981390
GRCh38: 20:63350038-63350038
47 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1402G>A (p.Val468Ile) SNV Not Provided
98316 rs121912278 GRCh37: 20:61981361-61981361
GRCh38: 20:63350009-63350009
48 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1460G>A (p.Arg487Gln) SNV Not Provided
98318 rs121912280 GRCh37: 20:61981303-61981303
GRCh38: 20:63349951-63349951
49 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1625C>T (p.Pro542Leu) SNV Not Provided
98319 rs121912281 GRCh37: 20:61981138-61981138
GRCh38: 20:63349786-63349786
50 CHRNA4 NM_000744.7(CHRNA4):c.1634C>T (p.Thr545Met) SNV Not Provided
98320 rs121912282 GRCh37: 20:61981129-61981129
GRCh38: 20:63349777-63349777

Copy number variations for Tobacco Addiction from CNVD:

6
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 256991 9 99300000 102600000 Gain or loss GABBR2 Nicotine dependence

Expression for Tobacco Addiction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Tobacco Addiction.

Pathways for Tobacco Addiction

Pathways related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.71 TPH1 MAOA GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1 COMT
2
Show member pathways
13.14 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
3
Show member pathways
12.84 ADH1B ALDH2 COMT CYP1A1 CYP2A6 GSTM1
4
Show member pathways
12.6 ADH1B ALDH2 CYP1A1 CYP2A6 MAOA
5 12.45 TPH1 OPRM1 GABBR2 COMT
6
Show member pathways
12.31 SLC6A3 MAOA GABBR2 COMT CHRNB4 CHRNB2
7
Show member pathways
12.11 TPH1 MAOA CYP2A6 CYP1A1 ALDH2 ADH1B
8 11.83 TPH1 MAOA CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4
9
Show member pathways
11.49 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNB2 DRD2
10
Show member pathways
11.38 CYP2A6 CYP1A1 ALDH2
11
Show member pathways
11.34 CYP2A6 CYP1A1 COMT
12
Show member pathways
11.34 TPH1 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
13
Show member pathways
11.28 COMT ALDH2 ADH1B
14
Show member pathways
11.28 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
15
Show member pathways
11.2 GSTM1 CYP1A1 COMT
16
Show member pathways
11.1 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT ALDH2
17 11.05 GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
18
Show member pathways
10.98 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 COMT
19 10.91 MAOA COMT ADH1B
20 10.86 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
21 10.71 MAOA COMT
22 10.54 MAOA ALDH2
23
Show member pathways
10.48 CHRNB4 CHRNA3
24 10.26 MAOA COMT

GO Terms for Tobacco Addiction

Cellular components related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane GO:0016020 10.71 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
2 membrane GO:0016021 10.71 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
3 plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.5 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
4 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.5 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
5 synapse GO:0045202 10.28 GABBR2 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5
6 neuron projection GO:0043005 10.16 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
7 plasma membrane raft GO:0044853 9.99 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA3
8 presynaptic membrane GO:0042734 9.88 CHRNB2 DRD2 OPRM1 SLC6A3
9 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.88 CHRNA5 DRD2 SLC6A3
10 cholinergic synapse GO:0098981 9.83 CHRNB4 CHRNB2
11 cellular anatomical entity GO:0110165 9.8 GABBR2 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
12 acetylcholine-gated channel complex GO:0005892 9.73 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
13 obsolete integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.67 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB2
14 obsolete integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.63 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2
15 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.53 SLC6A3 OPRM1 GABBR2 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB2

Biological processes related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 monoatomic ion transport GO:0006811 10.32 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
2 monoatomic ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 10.3 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.3 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
4 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 10.26 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CYP1A1 DRD2
5 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 10.21 CHRNA3 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 DRD2 SLC6A3
6 regulation of membrane potential GO:0042391 10.18 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
7 lipid metabolic process GO:0006629 10.14 GSTM1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1 COMT APOB ADH1B
8 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 10.1 OPRM1 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
9 response to cocaine GO:0042220 10.1 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB2
10 nervous system process GO:0050877 10.1 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
11 cognition GO:0050890 10.09 CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2
12 response to ethanol GO:0045471 10.06 CHRNB2 DRD2 OPRM1 SLC6A3
13 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 10.04 DRD2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
14 acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway GO:0095500 10.02 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA3
15 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 10.01 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
16 behavioral response to nicotine GO:0035095 9.96 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
17 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.95 SLC6A3 CHRNB2
18 response to acetylcholine GO:1905144 9.95 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA3
19 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.94 OPRM1 DRD2
20 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.94 MAOA COMT
21 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.93 SLC6A3 DRD2
22 synaptic transmission, cholinergic GO:0007271 9.93 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
23 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 9.91 SLC6A3 DRD2
24 coumarin metabolic process GO:0009804 9.91 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
25 synaptic transmission involved in micturition GO:0060084 9.91 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA3
26 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051583 9.89 SLC6A3 DRD2
27 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.86 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
28 alcohol metabolic process GO:0006066 9.8 ALDH2 ADH1B
29 regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:0060078 9.77 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
30 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.65 MAOA COMT
31 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.44 SLC6A3 DRD2 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5

Molecular functions related to Tobacco Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 10.18 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
2 transmitter-gated monoatomic ion channel activity involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:1904315 10.1 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
3 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 10.08 GABBR2 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4
4 ligand-gated monoatomic ion channel activity GO:0015276 10.07 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
5 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 10.05 TPH1 MAOA CYP2A6 CYP1A1 ALDH2 ADH1B
6 acetylcholine binding GO:0042166 10.03 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
7 excitatory extracellular ligand-gated monoatomic ion channel activity GO:0005231 10.03 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
8 monoatomic ion channel activity GO:0005216 10 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
9 heterocyclic compound binding GO:1901363 9.97 SLC6A3 DRD2 CHRNB2
10 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.84 TPH1 CYP2A6 CYP1A1
11 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.83 SLC6A3 DRD2
12 acetylcholine-gated monoatomic cation-selective channel activity GO:0022848 9.73 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3
13 extracellular ligand-gated monoatomic ion channel activity GO:0005230 9.63 CHRNA3 CHRNA4 CHRNA5 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4
14 acetylcholine receptor activity GO:0015464 9.4 CHRNB4 CHRNB2 CHRNA7 CHRNA5 CHRNA4 CHRNA3

Sources for Tobacco Addiction

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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