MCID: TNS005
MIFTS: 55

Tonsillitis

Categories: Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Oral diseases, Respiratory diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Tonsillitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Tonsillitis:

Name: Tonsillitis 11 53 41 43 14 63 71 75
Chronic Tonsillitis 11 53 71 31
Throat Infection - Tonsillitis 11

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:10456
ICD9CM 34 474.00
MeSH 43 D014069
NCIt 49 C116006
SNOMED-CT 68 195665006 195794009
ICD10 31 J35.0
UMLS 71 C0040425 C0149517

Summaries for Tonsillitis

MedlinePlus: 41 What are tonsils? Tonsils are lumps of tissue at the back of the throat. There are two of them, one on each side. Along with the adenoids, tonsils are part of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system clears away infection and keeps body fluids in balance. Tonsils and adenoids work by trapping the germs coming in through the mouth and nose. What is tonsillitis? Tonsillitis is an inflammation (swelling) of the tonsils. Sometimes along with tonsillitis, the adenoids are also swollen. What causes tonsillitis? The cause of tonsillitis is usually a viral infection. Bacterial infections such as strep throat can also cause tonsillitis. Who is at risk for tonsillitis? Tonsillitis is most common in children over age two. Almost every child in the United States gets it at least once. Tonsillitis caused by bacteria is more common in kids ages 5-15. Tonsillitis caused by a virus is more common in younger children. Adults can get tonsillitis, but it is not very common. Is tonsillitis contagious? Although tonsillitis is not contagious, the viruses and bacteria that cause it are contagious. Frequent handwashing can help prevent spreading or catching the infections. What are the symptoms of tonsillitis? The symptoms of tonsillitis include: A sore throat, which may be severe Red, swollen tonsils Trouble swallowing A white or yellow coating on the tonsils Swollen glands in the neck Fever Bad breath When does my child need to see a health care provider for tonsillitis? You should call your health care provider if your child: Has a sore throat for more than two days Has trouble or pain when swallowing Feels very sick or very weak You should get emergency care right away if your child: Has trouble breathing Starts drooling Has a lot of trouble swallowing How is tonsillitis diagnosed? To diagnose tonsillitis, your child's health care provider will first ask you about your child's symptoms and medical history. The provider will look at your child's throat and neck, checking for things such as redness or white spots on the tonsils and swollen lymph nodes. Your child will probably also have one or more tests to check for strep throat, since it can cause tonsillitis and it requires treatment. It could be a rapid strep test, a throat culture, or both. For both tests, the provider uses a cotton swab to collect a sample of fluids from your child's tonsils and the back of the throat. With the rapid strep test, testing is done in the office, and you get the results within minutes. The throat culture is done in a lab, and it usually takes a few days to get the results. The throat culture is a more reliable test. So sometimes if the rapid strep test is negative (meaning that it does not show any strep bacteria), the provider will also do a throat culture just to make sure that your child does not have strep. What are the treatments for tonsillitis? Treatment for tonsillitis depends on the cause. If the cause is a virus, there is no medicine to treat it. If the cause is a bacterial infection, such as strep throat, your child will need to take antibiotics. It is important for your child to finish the antibiotics even if he or she feels better. If treatment stops too soon, some bacteria may survive and re-infect your child. No matter what is causing the tonsillitis, there are some things you can do to help your child feel better. Make sure that your child: Gets a lot of rest Drinks plenty of fluids Tries eating soft foods if it hurts to swallow Tries eating warm liquids or cold foods like popsicles to soothe the throat Isn't around cigarette smoke or do anything else that could irritate the throat Sleeps in a room with a humidifier Gargles with saltwater Sucks on a lozenge (but do not give them to children under four; they can choke on them) Takes an over-the-counter pain reliever such as acetaminophen. Children and teenagers should not take aspirin. In some cases, your child may need a tonsillectomy. What is a tonsillectomy and why might my child need one? A tonsillectomy is surgery to remove the tonsils. Your child might need it if he or she: Keeps getting tonsillitis Has bacterial tonsillitis that does not get better with antibiotics Has tonsils are too big, and are causing trouble breathing or swallowing Your child usually gets the surgery and goes home later that day. Very young children and people who have complications may need to stay in the hospital overnight. It can take a week or two before your child completely recovers from the surgery.

MalaCards based summary: Tonsillitis, also known as chronic tonsillitis, is related to pharyngitis and haemophilus influenzae, and has symptoms including sore throat An important gene associated with Tonsillitis is DEFB1 (Defensin Beta 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and ERK Signaling. The drugs Iron and Sufentanil have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tonsil, adrenal cortex and t cells, and related phenotypes are no effect and no effect

PubMed Health : 63 Tonsillitis: Sore throats can have a range of causes. Common cold viruses are usually to blame. In rarer cases, sore throats are caused by an infection of the tonsils (tonsillitis). This infection is often bacterial, or sometimes viral. But it isn’t easy to tell what kind of germs are responsible for the infection. Children and teenagers are much more susceptible to tonsillitis than adults are. Acute tonsillitis starts suddenly and usually goes away again within one to two weeks. But tonsillitis can return several times over the course of a year and may become chronic. In chronic tonsillitis, the bacteria become permanently settled in the tonsils, which are always slightly inflamed as a result. People who have chronic tonsillitis might keep getting acute infections with more severe symptoms too. Having chronic tonsillitis can be a real problem, and may also lead to complications in rare cases.

Disease Ontology: 11 An upper respiratory tract disease which is characterized by inflammation of the tonsils resulting from bacterial (Group A streptococcus) and viral (Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus) infections. Symptoms include a severe sore throat, painful or difficult swallowing, coughing, headache, myalgia, fever and chills.

Wikipedia: 75 Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils in the upper part of the throat. Tonsillitis is a type of... more...

Related Diseases for Tonsillitis

Diseases related to Tonsillitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 884)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pharyngitis 31.2 TNF TLR2 LACTB IL6 IL1B CXCL8
2 haemophilus influenzae 30.8 TNF TLR2 LACTB IL1B CXCL8
3 scarlet fever 30.8 TNF IL6 IL1B
4 cervical adenitis 30.7 TNF IL1B IFNG
5 diphtheria 30.7 TNF IL4 IL2 IL1B IFNG
6 apnea, obstructive sleep 30.6 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
7 adenoid hypertrophy 30.5 IL6 IL4 IL10 CXCL8
8 necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis 30.4 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
9 rheumatic fever 30.4 TNF TLR2 MBL2 IL6 IL2 IL1A
10 allergic rhinitis 30.4 IL4 IL10 IFNG CXCL8
11 penicillin allergy 30.4 IL4 IL10 IFNG
12 sleep apnea 30.3 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
13 pericoronitis 30.3 TNF IL6 IL1B
14 cellulitis 30.2 TNF LACTB IL6 IL1B CXCL8
15 kawasaki disease 30.2 TNF TLR2 MBL2 IL1A
16 neutrophilic dermatosis, acute febrile 30.2 TNF IL1B CXCL8
17 necrotizing fasciitis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
18 syphilis 30.1 TNF TLR2 LACTB CD79A
19 exanthem 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B IL10
20 common cold 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B IL10
21 fasciitis 30.0 TNF LTA IL6 IL2 IFNG CXCL8
22 stomatitis 30.0 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B IL10
23 cyclic neutropenia 29.9 TNF IL1B IFNG CXCL8
24 pericarditis 29.9 TNF IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
25 tenosynovitis 29.9 TNF IL6 IL1B
26 subacute thyroiditis 29.9 TNF IL6 IL1B
27 glossitis 29.9 TNF IL6 IL1B
28 rheumatic heart disease 29.9 TNF TLR2 MBL2 IL6 IL4 IL1B
29 headache 29.9 TNF IL2 CXCL8
30 lymphadenitis 29.8 TNF TLR9 TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10
31 glomerulonephritis 29.8 TNF TLR9 MBL2 IL6 IL4 IL1B
32 septic arthritis 29.8 TNF TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
33 graves' disease 29.8 LTA IL4 IL1A IFNG
34 henoch-schoenlein purpura 29.8 TNF IL6 CD79A
35 dental caries 29.8 MBL2 IL6 IL1B DEFB1 CD79A
36 anemia, autoimmune hemolytic 29.8 IL6 IL2 IL10
37 hepatitis a 29.8 TNF TLR4 IL4 IL1B IL10 IFNG
38 alcohol use disorder 29.8 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B
39 allergic disease 29.8 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B IL10
40 acute myocarditis 29.8 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
41 cryptococcosis 29.8 TNF MBL2 IL4 IL10 IFNG
42 aphthous stomatitis 29.7 TNF MBL2 IL6 IL2 IL1B IL10
43 rhinitis 29.7 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL4 IL1B IL10
44 urticaria 29.7 TNF IL6 IL4 IL1B IL10 IFNG
45 food allergy 29.7 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG CXCL8
46 smallpox 29.7 TNF IL4 IL2 IL1B IFNG
47 endocarditis 29.7 TNF TLR2 LACTB IL6 IL1A IL10
48 spondyloarthropathy 1 29.7 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10 CD79A
49 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 29.7 TNF LTA IL6 IL2 IL1B IL1A
50 erythema multiforme 29.7 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B IFNG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Tonsillitis:



Diseases related to Tonsillitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Tonsillitis

UMLS symptoms related to Tonsillitis:


sore throat

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Tonsillitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.15 CD79A CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 DEFB1 IFNG
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.15 CD79A CXCL6 DEFB1 IFNG IL10 IL1A
3 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 10.1 CXCL8 IL10 IL1A IL1B LTA SOD1
4 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 10.1 CXCL8 IL10 IL1B IL2 LTA SOD1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Tonsillitis:

45 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.43 CD79A CXCL1 CXCL6 IFNG IL10 IL1A
2 immune system MP:0005387 10.36 CD79A CXCL1 CXCL6 DEFB1 IFNG IL10
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.26 CD79A IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL2
4 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.25 CXCL1 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL2
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.24 CD79A IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6
6 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 10.16 CD79A DEFB1 IFNG IL4 IL6 MBL2
7 skeleton MP:0005390 10.13 CXCL1 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL4 IL6
8 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.11 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6 TLR2
9 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.09 CD79A CXCL1 CXCL6 IFNG IL10 IL1A
10 respiratory system MP:0005388 10.02 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6 LTA
11 vision/eye MP:0005391 10 CXCL1 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6
12 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.83 CD79A CXCL6 DEFB1 IFNG IL10 IL1B
13 integument MP:0010771 9.32 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Tonsillitis

PubMed Health treatment related to Tonsillitis: 63

The main goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. The following medicines can be used to treat acute tonsillitis : Medication for relieving pain and lowering fever , like ibuprofen or acetaminophen (paracetamol) Antibiotics (for bacterial tonsillitis only) Antibiotics can make the tonsillitis go away a little sooner. They can also lower the risk of developing complications. But they have side effects too. Some people relieve their symptoms by sucking on throat lozenges, or using home remedies such as a neck wrap or gargling with salt water or tea. Recurrent tonsillitis can also be treated with painkillers or antibiotics . The surgical removal of tonsils is a treatment option for people who frequently get tonsillitis.

Drugs for Tonsillitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 125)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Iron Approved Phase 4 7439-89-6 29936
2
Sufentanil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56030-54-7 41693
3
Phenoxymethylpenicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 87-08-1 6869
4
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
5
Acetylsalicylic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
6
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741 5523
7
Codeine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-57-3, 6854-40-6 5284371 5362471
8
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
9
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
10
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3 3680
11
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 3003 5743
12
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
13
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
14
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
15
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
16
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
17
Cathine Approved, Experimental, Illicit, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 14838-15-4, 492-39-7 131954576 4786 26934
18
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Experimental, Vet_approved Phase 4 86347-14-0, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
19
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
20
Hydrocodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 125-29-1 5284569
21
Lactoferrin Investigational Phase 4 151186-19-5
22
Andrographolide Investigational Phase 4 5508-58-7 343585
23
Tinoridine Investigational Phase 4 24237-54-5
24 Hematinics Phase 4
25 Teferrol Phase 4
26 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
27 Andrographis Phase 4
28 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
29 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
30 Dsuvia Phase 4
31 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
32 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
33 Penicillins Phase 4
34 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
35 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
36 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
37 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
38 Anesthetics Phase 4
39 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
40 glucocorticoids Phase 4
41 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
42 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
43 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
44 Antiemetics Phase 4
45 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
46 Hormones Phase 4
47 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
48 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
49 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
50 Anticonvulsants Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 90)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Streptococcus Group A-negative Acute Tonsillitis in Primary Health Care - a Comparison of Phenoxymethylpenicillin and no Antibiotic Treatment Unknown status NCT04083417 Phase 4 Phenoxymethylpenicillin
2 the Effectiveness of Lactoferrin in Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children With Chronic Tonsillitis Unknown status NCT03748043 Phase 4 Lactoferrin;Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose
3 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Treating Acute Tonsillitis With Reyanning Mixture Alone/in Combination With Antibiotics. Unknown status NCT03704506 Phase 4 Reyanning mixture;amoxil capsule;Reyanning mixture simulator;amoxil capsule simulator
4 Combined With Andrographolide Sulfonate on the Basis of Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Tonsillitis: a Randomized, Single Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study Unknown status NCT03134443 Phase 4 Andrographolide sulfonate;Andrographolide sulfonate simulation
5 Comparison of Three Different Rates of Continuous Intravenous Sufentanil Infusion for Postoperative Pain Management Following Coblation Tonsillectomy or Adeno-tonsillectomy in Children Unknown status NCT02205580 Phase 4 continuous intravenous sufentanil 0.02μg•kg-1•h-1 infusion;continuous intravenous sufentanil 0.03μg•kg-1•h-1 infusion;continuous intravenous sufentanil 0.04μg•kg-1•h-1 infusion
6 Randomized Controlled Study of Plasmaknife Tonsillectomy Versus Monopolar Tonsillectomy Unknown status NCT00466544 Phase 4
7 Bizact Versus Electroscissor for Adult Tonsillectomy Unknown status NCT03854279 Phase 4
8 Multicenter, Open, Randomized Comparative Trial To Compare Bacteriological And Clinical Efficacy Of Azithromycin Versus Amoxicillin In Children With Streptococcus Tonsillitis Completed NCT00643539 Phase 4 Zithromax;Clamoxyl
9 Safety and Efficacy of Tinoridine in the Treatment of Pain and Inflammation in Patients With Acute Tonsillitis and/or Acute Pharyngitis: a Randomized, Double-blind Study Versus Placebo Completed NCT01224756 Phase 4 Tinoridine HCl;Placebo
10 Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Single Dose, Parallel Group Study Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of 1000 mg Acetylsalicylic Acid and 1000 mg Paracetamol in Adult Patients With Sore Throat Associated With a Common Cold Completed NCT01465009 Phase 4 Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, BAYE4465);Paracetamol;Placebo
11 A Comparison of Postoperative Tramadol Versus Acetaminophen With Codeine in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy Completed NCT01267136 Phase 4 Codeine with acetaminophen;Tramadol suspension
12 A Randomized Controlled Study of 5 and 10 Days Treatment With Phenoxymethylpenicillin for Pharyngotonsillitis Caused by Streptococcus Group A Completed NCT02712307 Phase 4 Phenoxymethylpenicillin
13 Dexmedetomidine for Immediate Perioperative Analgesia in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy. Completed NCT00654511 Phase 4 Fentanyl;Dexmedetomidine
14 Efficacy of IV vs Oral Administration of Acetaminophen for Pain Control Following Tonsillectomy With or Without Adenoidectomy Completed NCT01721486 Phase 4 IV acetaminophen;PO acetaminophen
15 Clinical Trial for the Assessment of Delayed Antibiotic Treatment Strategies in the Non-complicated Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in General Practice Completed NCT01363531 Phase 4
16 Recurrent Throat Infections and Tonsillectomy Completed NCT00547391 Phase 4
17 A Phase IV Randomize, Single-Blind, Trial of Liposomal Bupivacaine (EXPAREL®) for Pain Control in Post-Tonsillectomy Patients Completed NCT02444533 Phase 4 Liposomal Bupivacaine
18 Gabapentin Premedication to Reduce Postoperative Pain for Pediatric Tonsillectomy/Adenoidectomy: Randomized Control Trial Recruiting NCT03625011 Phase 4 Gabapentin
19 Perioperative Tonsillectomy Protocol Development for Preoperative Acetaminophen and Intraoperative High Dose Dexamethasone: a Randomized Control Trial Recruiting NCT03323047 Phase 4 Acetaminophen;Low-dose Dexamethasone;Placebo Oral Tablet;High-Dose Dexamethasone
20 Opioid-Free Versus Transitional Anesthetic With Opioids From Tonsillectomy Recruiting NCT04528173 Phase 4 Ketorolac;Dexmedetomidine;Morphine;Fentanyl
21 Does Dexmedetomidine Decrease the Incidence of Untoward Airway Events After Deep or Awake Extubation in Patients Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy With or Without Myringotomy and Tube Placement? Terminated NCT02162433 Phase 4 Normal Saline;Dexmedetomidine
22 Comparing Narcotics With Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) Post-operatively in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy Terminated NCT02296840 Phase 4 Ibuprofen;Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen
23 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Comparative Trial of Azithromycin SR Versus Three-Day Azithromycin for the Treatment of Group A β-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis in Adolescents and Adults Completed NCT00644293 Phase 3 azithromycin (Zithromax);placebo;azithromycin SR
24 A Phase III, Open, Randomised, Multicentre Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Pristinamycin, at Dosages of 50 mg/kg/d in 2 Doses for Children, and 1g Twice Daily in Adults for 4 Days Versus Amoxicillin at a Dosage of 50 mg/kg/d in 2 Doses in Children and 1 g Twice Daily in Adults for 6 Days, Consumed Orally, in the Treatment of Tonsillitis Induced by Group-A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococcus in Patients Aged Between 6 and 25 Years. Completed NCT00393744 Phase 3 pristinamycin;amoxicillin
25 A Multicenter, Non-Randomized, Open Label Trial Of Azithromycin Sustained Release (SR) For The Treatment Of Laryngopharyngitis or Tonsillitis or Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis In Japan Adults Completed NCT00393835 Phase 3 Azithromycin SR
26 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Comparative Trial Of Azithromycin SR Versus Amoxicillin For The Treatment Of Group A Β-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis In Children Completed NCT00643149 Phase 3 amoxicillin;azithromycin SR
27 Comparison of Treatment Satisfaction and Treatment Adherence of a Novel Application Form "Dose Sipping Technology" (DST) of Oral Clarithromycin vs. Clarithromycin Syrup in Children Suffering From Acute Otitis Media, Tonsillitis, Pharyngitis, or Acute Bacterial Bronchitis (DoSe iT) Completed NCT04016051 Phase 3 Clarithromycin DST (125 mg);Clarithromycin DST (187.5 mg);Clarithromycin DST (250 mg);Clarithromycin Syrup (125 mg);Clarithromycin Syrup (187.5 mg);Clarithromycin Syrup (250 mg)
28 A Phase III, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety/Efficacy of APC-111 MP Tablet QD vs. Penicillin VK QID Both for 10 Days Treatment of Pharyngitis Secondary to S.Pyogenes in Adolescents/Adults Completed NCT00242281 Phase 3 APC-111 MP Tablet, 775 mg
29 A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 775 mg APC-111 MP Tablet QD for 7 Days vs Penicillin VK 250 mg QID for 10 Days in Patients With Streptococcus Pyogenes Completed NCT00095368 Phase 3 Amoxicillin Pulsatile Release Multiparticulate Tablet (drug)
30 A 4-arm, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo- and Active-controlled, Single Dose, Parallel Group Study Comparing Efficacy and Safety of a Fixed Combination of 500 mg Acetylsalicylic Acid + 4 mg Lidocaine With 500 mg Acetylsalicylic Acid and 4 mg Lidocaine Monotherapy as Well as Placebo in Adult Patients With Sore Throat Associated With a Common Cold. Completed NCT01361399 Phase 3 Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, BAYE4465) & Lidocain;Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin, BAYE4465);Lidocain;Placebo
31 Effectiveness of a Combined Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen Regimen for Management of Post-Tonsillectomy Pain in Pediatric Patients Recruiting NCT04551196 Phase 3 Alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen;Combined Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen
32 Bacteriophage Therapy in Acute Tonsillitis Active, not recruiting NCT04682964 Phase 3 Nebulizer inhalation irrigation of the mucous membranes of the tonsils with a bacteriophage.
33 Multinational, Randomized, Double Blind, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 5 Days Telithromycin 800 mg od Versus 10 Days Penicillin V 500 mg Tid in Adolescent and Adult Subjects Equal to or Over 13 Years With Streptococcus Pyogenes Tonsillitis/Pharyngitis Terminated NCT00315549 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Penicillin
34 Multinational, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double Dummy, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 5 Days Telithromycin 25mg/kg od Versus 10 Days Penicillin V 13.3 mg/kg Tid in Children 6 Months to Less Than 13 Years With Streptococcus Pyogenes Tonsillitis/Pharyngitis Terminated NCT00315042 Phase 3 Telithromycin (HMR3647);Penicillin
35 Prospective, Controlled Clinical Trial of a Novel Hemostatic Sealant Versus Electrocautery Hemostasis and Coblation Dissection in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy Withdrawn NCT00459927 Phase 2, Phase 3
36 Evaluation of Coblation Channeling in Treating Chronic Tonsillitis Unknown status NCT01193790 Phase 2
37 A Phase I/II, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of DL-lactic Acid Syrup (Tonsitin) in Children With Recurrent Tonsillitis. Completed NCT01988558 Phase 1, Phase 2 DL - Lactic Acid
38 Double-blind Study to Compare Efficacy and Safety of Meloxicam 7.5 mg and 15 mg vs. Naproxen Sodium 1100 mg in the Symptomatic Treatment of Acute Non Bacterial Pharyngitis or Pharyngo-tonsillitis Over a Period of 5 Days Completed NCT02183038 Phase 2 Meloxicam low;Meloxicam high;Naproxen sodium;Meloxicam placebo low;Meloxicam placebo high;Naproxen sodium placebo
39 Treatment of Acute Pharyngo-Tonsillitis With Essential Oils of Some Aromatic Medical Plants. Completed NCT00610519 Phase 1, Phase 2
40 Analgesic Effect of Single Dose Intravenous Acetaminophen in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy Completed NCT01691690 Phase 2 Acetaminophen (paracetamol);Normal Saline Flush;Midazolam;Sevoflurane;Nitrous Oxide/Oxygen;Propofol;Morphine;Ondansetron;Dexamethasone
41 Perioperative Use of Celecoxib to Improve Pain Control in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy: a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled Trial Completed NCT00583453 Phase 2 Celecoxib;Placebo
42 Randomized, Controlled Trial of Post-operative Steroids and Pain Control After Tonsillectomy Recruiting NCT03995628 Phase 2 Dexamethasone
43 Pediatric Pain Optimization After Tonsillectomy: A Randomized Double Blind Methadone Pilot Study Recruiting NCT05244226 Phase 2 Fentanyl/Hydromorphone;Methadone
44 Ocular Effects Of Azithromycin Oral Solution In Pediatric Patients With Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis Terminated NCT01919996 Phase 2 Azithromycin
45 KITS Study -Ketorolac In Tonsillectomy Surgery: a Double Blinded, Randomized Clinical Trial Terminated NCT01498796 Phase 2 Ketorolac;Normal Saline
46 Diagnosis of GABHS Tonsillitis - Comparison Between Culture From Tonsills and Culture From the Bucal Surface Unknown status NCT03137823
47 Evaluation of Coblation Channeling Treatment for Chronic Tonsillitis. Unknown status NCT02981810
48 Improving the Diagnosis of Tonsillitis in Emergency Rooms Unknown status NCT02858687
49 Bacteriological Study of Acute Follicular Tonsillitis in Patients Attending the ENT Outpatient Clinic of Assiut University Hospital Unknown status NCT04321733 Amoxicillin Clavulanate
50 Procalcitonin-guided Detection of Streptococcal Acute Tonsillitis Unknown status NCT01657968

Search NIH Clinical Center for Tonsillitis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


CEFTIBUTEN DIHYDRATE

Cochrane evidence based reviews: tonsillitis

Genetic Tests for Tonsillitis

Anatomical Context for Tonsillitis

Organs/tissues related to Tonsillitis:

MalaCards : Tonsil, Adrenal Cortex, T Cells, Lymph Node, B Cells, Heart, Neutrophil

Publications for Tonsillitis

Articles related to Tonsillitis:

(show top 50) (show all 5526)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Challenges in the diagnosis of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome in developing countries-A decade of experience from North India. 62 41
36203600 2022
2
Intravenous lidocaine versus dexamethasone to prevent postoperative vomiting in children tonsillectomy: a prospective randomized controlled trial. 41
36212931 2022
3
Efficacy of Levobupivacaine Versus Levobupivacaine Plus Dexmedetomidine Infiltration for Post-Tonsillectomy Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 41
36247104 2022
4
MPO-ANCA-positive IgA nephropathy successfully treated with tonsillectomy. 53 62
18085396 2007
5
[Therapeutic effects and prognostic factors in tonsillectomy patients with IgA nephropathy]. 53 62
17373325 2007
6
[Hematuria and acanthocyturia in patients with diabetes]. 53 62
16372748 2005
7
Neutrophil chemokines in epithelial inflammatory processes of human tonsils. 53 62
15807854 2005
8
[Expression of human beta-defensin in palatine tonsil]. 53 62
15222256 2004
9
Is IgA nephropathy induced by hyperproduction of interferon-alpha? 53 62
15050119 2004
10
IgA1 molecules produced by tonsillar lymphocytes are under-O-glycosylated in IgA nephropathy. 53 62
12955676 2003
11
Free radicals and scavenging enzymes in chronic tonsillitis. 53 62
12958578 2003
12
Tonsillar IgA1 as a possible source of hypoglycosylated IgA1 in the serum of IgA nephropathy patients. 53 62
12748342 2003
13
[Oxidative profile of tonsil infection. Study of antioxidant enzymes in tonsil and blood]. 53 62
12402489 2002
14
Decreased serum and pharyngeal antibody levels specific to streptococcal lipoteichoic acid in children with recurrent tonsillitis. 53 62
11997155 2002
15
[Tonsillar and erythrocyte levels of superoxide dismutase in children with and without recurrent tonsillitis]. 53 62
11927098 2002
16
Polymorphisms in inflammation genes (angiotensinogen, TAP1 and TNF-beta) in psoriasis. 53 62
11194890 2000
17
[Detection tonsillar pathology by superoxide dismutase levels. Comparative study of surgical indications for tonsillectomy]. 53 62
11270107 2000
18
Induction of IgA against Haemophilus parainfluenzae antigens in tonsillar mononuclear cells from patients with IgA nephropathy. 53 62
10866131 2000
19
Significance of free radicals in chronic tonsillitis. 53 62
10920537 2000
20
Evolution of IgA deficiency to IgG subclass deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency. 53 62
10757854 2000
21
[The measurement of superoxide dismutase levels in recurrent tonsillitis. Its practical use]. 53 62
10502708 1999
22
[Therapeutic effects and prognostic factors of tonsillectomy for IgA nephropathy in long-term follow-up]. 53 62
10025123 1998
23
[Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in recurrent childhood tonsillitis]. 53 62
9951080 1998
24
Microbial factors leading to recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. 53 62
9727652 1998
25
Bacteriology of normal and diseased tonsils assessed by fine-needle aspiration: Haemophilus influenzae and the pathogenesis of recurrent acute tonsillitis. 53 62
9597292 1998
26
[The clinical meaning and determination of the superoxid dismutase activity and malondialehyde content in the serum of the patients suffering from chronic tonsillitis]. 53 62
11189145 1998
27
A study of free radicals and scavenging enzyme in tonsillitis. 53 62
9066174 1996
28
Immunoglobulin-coated bacteria on the tonsillar surface during infectious mononucleosis. 53 62
8733454 1996
29
Concomitant in vivo production of 19 different cytokines in human tonsils. 53 62
7821961 1994
30
[Streptococcal group A carriage: new data on the characteristics of the biology of the causative agent and of the immune response of the host]. 53 62
7856351 1994
31
Tonsil surface and core cultures in recurrent tonsillitis: prevalence of anaerobes and beta-lactamase producing organisms. 53 62
7805681 1994
32
Chronic tonsillitis and IgA nephropathy. 53 62
8033611 1993
33
Immunohistochemical detection of co-localizing cytokine and antibody producing cells in the extrafollicular area of human palatine tonsils. 53 62
8348748 1993
34
Effect of and indication for tonsillectomy in IgA nephropathy. 53 62
8285039 1993
35
Role of serum antibodies to streptococci in patients with IgA nephropathy. 53 62
8285043 1993
36
Chronic tonsillitis and IgA nephropathy. Clinical study of patients with and without tonsillectomy. 53 62
8285040 1993
37
[Immunohistological study on human palatine tonsils in cases with pustulosis palmaris et plantaris--the quantitative study by image analyzer]. 53 62
2181093 1990
38
The crude extract from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge exerts anti-influenza virus effects through modulation of the TLR3 signaling pathway. 62
36152783 2023
39
Treatment outcomes of acute streptococcal tonsillitis according to antibiotic treatment. A retrospective analysis of 242,366 cases treated in the community. 62
35695024 2022
40
ENT Manifestations of Celiac Disease: A Scholarly Review. 62
33155859 2022
41
Shufeng Jiedu capsule inhibits inflammation and apoptosis by activating A2AAR and inhibiting NF-κB to alleviate LPS-induced ALI. 62
36002086 2022
42
A systematic review: Botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacology, toxicology, quality control and pharmacokinetics of Ilex rotunda Thunb. 62
35781006 2022
43
Pathomorphology, immunohistochemical, and molecular detection of an atypical porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) due to PCV-2d-2 in naturally affected grower pigs of India. 62
36038085 2022
44
Secondary metabolite contents and safety assessment study of the aqueous extract from the Algerian Echium trygorrhizum Pomel roots. 62
36206871 2022
45
Dependent factors in the adult patient and their relationship with post-tonsillectomy bleeding and pain in an outpatient setting. 62
36228987 2022
46
Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy in a Young Healthy Patient: A Case Report. 62
36237783 2022
47
Hoarseness Among Young Children in Day-Care Centers. 62
36180276 2022
48
Is Helicobacter pylori colonization associated with chronic tonsillitis? - A meta-analysis and systematic review. 62
35687938 2022
49
Analysis of Microorganism Colonization, Biofilm Production, and Antibacterial Susceptibility in Recurrent Tonsillitis and Peritonsillar Abscess Patients. 62
36142185 2022
50
Not your usual tonsillitis: a lesson for recognizing primary tonsillar syphilis. 62
35758191 2022

Variations for Tonsillitis

Expression for Tonsillitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Tonsillitis.

Pathways for Tonsillitis

Pathways related to Tonsillitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 90)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.96 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SOD1 MBL2
2
Show member pathways
13.95 TNF LTA IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B
3
Show member pathways
13.85 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 MBL2 IL6 IL1B
4
Show member pathways
13.77 TNF TLR4 LTA IL6 IL4 IL2
5
Show member pathways
13.67 TNF LTA IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B
6
Show member pathways
13.63 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4
7
Show member pathways
13.48 TNF SOD1 LTA IL6 IL4 IL2
8
Show member pathways
13.47 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 IL10 IL1A IL1B
9
Show member pathways
13.47 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 IL10 IL1A IL1B
10
Show member pathways
13.03 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 MBL2 IL6
11
Show member pathways
12.91 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 LTA IL6
12
Show member pathways
12.9 TNF LTA IL6 IL4 IL2
13
Show member pathways
12.82 CXCL8 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL2
14
Show member pathways
12.81 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 LTA IL1B
15
Show member pathways
12.81 TNF TLR9 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL1A
16
Show member pathways
12.78 CXCL1 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL2 IL6
17 12.76 CD79A IFNG IL10 IL1B IL2 IL4
18
Show member pathways
12.75 TNF LTA IL1B IL1A IFNG
19
Show member pathways
12.72 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
20
Show member pathways
12.52 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL1A IFNG
21
Show member pathways
12.47 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4
22
Show member pathways
12.42 TNF TLR2 IL6 CXCL8 CXCL1
23 12.39 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IFNG
24 12.37 TNF IL6 IL1B IL1A IL10 CXCL8
25
Show member pathways
12.35 TNF LTA IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
26 12.3 IFNG IL10 IL1A IL1B IL4 IL6
27
Show member pathways
12.28 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG
28
Show member pathways
12.23 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL2 IL1B IL1A
29 12.22 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
30 12.18 TNF IL6 IL4 IL1B IL1A IL10
31 12.16 IL6 IL1B IL1A IFNG CXCL8 CXCL1
32
Show member pathways
12.13 LTA IL4 IL2 IFNG
33
Show member pathways
12.09 IFNG IL1B IL2 IL4
34
Show member pathways
12.09 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4 IL1B
35
Show member pathways
12.08 TLR4 IL6 CXCL8 CXCL6 CXCL1
36 12.01 TNF LTA IL4 IL2 IL1B IL10
37 12 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL1
38 11.99 IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG CXCL8
39 11.98 TLR4 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
40 11.97 TNF TLR9 IL6 IL2 IL1B IL10
41 11.97 TNF IL4 IL2 IL1B IL1A IL10
42
Show member pathways
11.96 IFNG IL10 IL1B IL2 IL6 LTA
43 11.95 CXCL8 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6
44
Show member pathways
11.94 TNF LTA IL1B IFNG
45 11.93 IFNG IL1B IL2 IL4 IL6
46
Show member pathways
11.92 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG CXCL8
47 11.92 CXCL1 CXCL8 IFNG IL1A IL1B IL2
48 11.9 TLR4 IL2 CXCL8
49 11.9 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1A IL10 CXCL8
50 11.88 TNF IL6 IL4 IL1B CXCL8

GO Terms for Tonsillitis

Cellular components related to Tonsillitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.15 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 DEFB1 IFNG IL10
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.8 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 DEFB1 IFNG IL10

Biological processes related to Tonsillitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 92)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.69 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4
2 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.62 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 IFNG IL10 IL1B
3 apoptotic process GO:0006915 10.57 TNF TLR2 SOD1 LTA IL1B IL1A
4 negative regulation of cell population proliferation GO:0008285 10.51 CXCL1 CXCL8 IL10 IL1A IL1B IL6
5 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.51 CXCL8 IFNG IL1A IL1B IL4 IL6
6 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0043123 10.43 TNF TLR9 TLR4 IL1B IL1A
7 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 10.42 TNF TLR9 TLR4 MBL2 IL10 DEFB1
8 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.41 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 IL1A IL1B IL6
9 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 10.38 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
10 chemotaxis GO:0006935 10.37 DEFB1 CXCL8 CXCL6 CXCL1
11 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10.36 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
12 negative regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050728 10.36 IL10 IL2 IL4 SOD1
13 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0046330 10.36 IL1A IL1B TLR4 TLR9 TNF
14 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 10.35 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1A IFNG
15 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium GO:0050829 10.33 DEFB1 IL6 TLR4 TLR9
16 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 10.33 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8 IL1B
17 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 10.33 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL1B
18 antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide GO:0061844 10.32 DEFB1 CXCL8 CXCL6 CXCL1
19 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 10.32 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
20 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 10.32 DEFB1 IL1B IL6 LTA MBL2 TLR2
21 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032731 10.31 IFNG IL6 TLR4 TNF
22 positive regulation of type II interferon production GO:0032729 10.31 IL1B IL2 LTA TLR4 TLR9 TNF
23 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 10.3 IL10 TLR4 TLR9 TNF
24 humoral immune response GO:0006959 10.3 TNF LTA IL6 IFNG
25 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 10.3 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL2 IL1B
26 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 10.28 TNF IL6 IL1B IFNG
27 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 10.28 IL2 IL4 TLR4 TLR9
28 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 10.27 IFNG TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
29 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 10.27 TNF TLR4 IL1B IFNG
30 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 10.27 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
31 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 10.26 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL1B
32 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand GO:0097192 10.26 IL4 IL2 IL1B IL1A
33 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 10.26 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4
34 response to activity GO:0014823 10.25 TNF IL6 IL10
35 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 10.25 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B
36 I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0007249 10.25 IL1B TLR4 TLR9 TNF
37 immune system process GO:0002376 10.24 CD79A IL2 MBL2 TLR2 TLR4 TLR9
38 positive regulation of interferon-beta production GO:0032728 10.24 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
39 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 10.24 IL10 IL2 IL6 TLR9
40 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 10.24 IFNG IL1B MBL2 SOD1 TNF
41 positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT GO:0046427 10.23 IL10 IL6 TNF
42 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand GO:2001240 10.23 IL1A IL1B TNF
43 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 10.22 IL1A IL1B TNF
44 liver regeneration GO:0097421 10.22 TNF IL6 IL10
45 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010575 10.22 IL6 IL1B IL1A
46 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 10.22 TNF TLR9 TLR2 IL4 IFNG
47 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 10.22 IFNG IL1A IL1B IL6 TLR2 TLR4
48 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 10.21 TNF TLR4 IL6
49 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 10.21 TNF IL6 IL1B
50 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process GO:0051770 10.21 IFNG TLR2 TLR4 TLR9

Molecular functions related to Tonsillitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 10.02 TNF TLR4 MBL2 LTA IL6 CXCL1
2 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.96 IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 CXCL1
3 lipopolysaccharide immune receptor activity GO:0001875 9.67 TLR4 TLR2
4 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.64 TNF LTA IL6 IL4 IL2 IL1B
5 CXCR chemokine receptor binding GO:0045236 9.63 CXCL1 CXCL6 CXCL8
6 interleukin-1 receptor binding GO:0005149 9.43 TLR9 IL1B IL1A

Sources for Tonsillitis

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 24-Oct-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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