Aliases & Classifications for Traumatic Brain Injury

MalaCards integrated aliases for Traumatic Brain Injury:

Name: Traumatic Brain Injury 53 42 3 37

Summaries for Traumatic Brain Injury

MedlinePlus : 42 What is traumatic brain injury (TBI)? Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a sudden injury that causes damage to the brain. It may happen when there is a blow, bump, or jolt to the head. This is a closed head injury. A TBI can also happen when an object penetrates the skull. This is a penetrating injury. Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe. Concussions are a type of mild TBI. The effects of a concussion can sometimes be serious, but most people completely recover in time. More severe TBI can lead to serious physical and psychological symptoms, coma, and even death. What causes traumatic brain injury (TBI)? The main causes of TBI depend on the type of head injury: Some of the common causes of a closed head injury include Falls. This is the most common cause in adults age 65 and older. Motor vehicle crashes. This is the most common cause in young adults. Sports injuries Being struck by an object Child abuse. This is the most common cause in children under age 4. Blast injuries due to explosions Some of the common causes of a penetrating injury include Being hit by a bullet or shrapnel Being hit by a weapon such as a hammer, knife, or baseball bat A head injury that causes a bone fragment to penetrate the skull Some accidents such as explosions, natural disasters, or other extreme events can cause both closed and penetrating TBI in the same person. Who is at risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI)? Certain groups are at higher risk of TBI: Men are more likely to get a TBI than women. They are also more likely to have serious TBI. Adults aged 65 and older are at the greatest risk for being hospitalized and dying from a TBI What are the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI)? The symptoms of TBI depend on the type of injury and how serious the brain damage is. The symptoms of mild TBI can include A brief loss of consciousness in some cases. However, many people with mild TBI remain conscious after the injury. Headache Confusion Lightheadedness Dizziness Blurred vision or tired eyes Ringing in the ears Bad taste in the mouth Fatigue or lethargy A change in sleep patterns Behavioral or mood changes Trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking If you have a moderate or severe TBI, you may have those same symptoms. You may also have other symptoms such as A headache that gets worse or does not go away Repeated vomiting or nausea Convulsions or seizures Not being able to wake up from sleep Larger than normal pupil (dark center) of one or both eyes. This is called dilation of the pupil. Slurred speech Weakness or numbness in the arms and legs Loss of coordination Increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation How is traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosed? If you have a head injury or other trauma that may have caused a TBI, you need to get medical care as soon as possible. To make a diagnosis, your health care provider Will ask about your symptoms and the details of your injury Will do a neurologic exam May do imaging tests, such as a CT scan or MRI May use a tool such as the Glasgow coma scale to determine how severe the TBI is. This scale measures your ability to open your eyes, speak, and move. May do neuropsychological tests to check how your brain is functioning What are the treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI)? The treatments for TBI depend on many factors, including the size, severity, and location of the brain injury. For mild TBI, the main treatment is rest. If you have a headache, you can try taking over-the-counter pain relievers. It is important to follow your health care provider's instructions for complete rest and a gradual return to your normal activities. If you start doing too much too soon, it may take longer to recover. Contact your provider if your symptoms are not getting better or if you have new symptoms. For moderate to severe TBI, the first thing health care providers will do is stabilize you to prevent further injury. They will manage your blood pressure, check the pressure inside your skull, and make sure that there is enough blood and oxygen getting to your brain. Once you are stable, the treatments may include Surgery to reduce additional damage to your brain, for example to Remove hematomas (clotted blood) Get rid of damaged or dead brain tissue Repair skull fractures Relieve pressure in the skull Medicines to treat the symptoms of TBI and to lower some of the risks associated with it, such as Anti-anxiety medication to lessen feelings of nervousness and fear Anticoagulants to prevent blood clots Anticonvulsants to prevent seizures Antidepressants to treat symptoms of depression and mood instability Muscle relaxants to reduce muscle spasms Stimulants to increase alertness and attention Rehabilitation therapies, which can include therapies for physical, emotional, and cognitive difficulties: Physical therapy, to build physical strength, coordination, and flexibility Occupational therapy, to help you learn or relearn how to perform daily tasks, such as getting dressed, cooking, and bathing Speech therapy, to help you to with speech and other communication skills and treat swallowing disorders Psychological counseling, to help you learn coping skills, work on relationships, and improve your emotional well-being Vocational counseling, which focuses on your ability to return to work and deal with workplace challenges Cognitive therapy, to improve your memory, attention, perception, learning, planning, and judgment Some people with TBI may have permanent disabilities. A TBI can also put you at risk for other health problems such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Treating these problems can improve your quality of life. Can traumatic brain injury (TBI) be prevented? There are steps you can take to prevent head injuries and TBIs: Always wear your seatbelt and use car seats and booster seats for children Never drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol Wear a properly fitting helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboarding, and playing sports like hockey and football Prevent falls by Making your house safer. For example, you can install railings on the stairs and grab bars in the tub, get rid of tripping hazards, and use window guards and stair safety gates for young children. Improving your balance and strength with regular physical activity

MalaCards based summary : Traumatic Brain Injury is related to head injury and persistent vegetative state. An important gene associated with Traumatic Brain Injury is APOE (Apolipoprotein E), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Prion disease and Neuroscience. The drugs Diclofenac and Citalopram have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Bone, brain and spinal cord, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and cardiovascular system

CDC : 3 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem in the United States. Each year, traumatic brain injuries contribute to a substantial number of deaths and cases of permanent disability. In 2014, there were approximately 2.87 million TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths in the US, including over 837,000 of these health events among children. 1 A TBI is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. Not all blows or jolts to the head result in a TBI. The severity of a TBI may range from "mild," i.e., a brief change in mental status or consciousness to "severe," i.e., an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury. CDC's research and programs work to prevent TBI and help people better recognize, respond, and recover if a TBI occurs.

NINDS : 53 Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.  Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain. A person with a mild TBI may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. Other symptoms of mild TBI include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking.  A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.

Wikipedia : 74 A traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as an intracranial injury, is an injury to the brain caused... more...

Related Diseases for Traumatic Brain Injury

Diseases related to Traumatic Brain Injury via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 821)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 head injury 33.1 S100B ENO2 APOE
2 persistent vegetative state 32.5 ENO2 APOE
3 amnestic disorder 32.3 S100B BDNF APOE
4 normal pressure hydrocephalus 31.7 IGF1 GFAP BDNF AQP4 APOE
5 agnosia 31.6 IL6 IL1B COMT BDNF
6 brain edema 31.6 IL6 IL1B GFAP AQP4
7 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.6 IL1B DRD2 COMT BDNF APOE
8 dementia 31.5 UCHL1 GFAP DRD2 COMT BDNF APOE
9 cerebral hypoxia 31.4 IGF1 CASP3
10 mild cognitive impairment 31.3 COMT BDNF APOE
11 generalized anxiety disorder 31.2 DRD2 COMT BDNF
12 spinal cord injury 31.2 IL6 GFAP CASP3 BDNF AQP4
13 mood disorder 31.2 IL6 GFAP DRD2 COMT BDNF
14 cardiac arrest 31.1 S100B EPO ENO2
15 status epilepticus 31.0 GFAP ENO2 CASP3 BDNF
16 psychotic disorder 31.0 S100B DRD2 COMT BDNF
17 obsessive-compulsive disorder 30.9 IL6 IL1B IGF1 DRD2 COMT BDNF
18 alcohol use disorder 30.9 DRD2 COMT BDNF ANKK1
19 substance abuse 30.9 IL6 DRD2 COMT BDNF ANKK1
20 aging 30.9 MBP IGF1 APOE
21 mental depression 30.8 IL6 IL1B DRD2 COMT BDNF
22 dysthymic disorder 30.7 IL6 COMT BDNF
23 anxiety 30.7 IL6 IL1B DRD2 COMT BDNF APOE
24 sleep disorder 30.7 IL6 IL1B IGF1 COMT BDNF APOE
25 back pain 30.6 IL6 IL1B COMT
26 akinetic mutism 30.6 S100B MBP ENO2
27 conversion disorder 30.6 COMT BDNF
28 migraine with or without aura 1 30.5 S100B IL6 IL1B DRD2 COMT BDNF
29 neurotic disorder 30.5 IL6 COMT BDNF
30 obstructive hydrocephalus 30.5 GFAP ENO2 AQP4
31 personality disorder 30.5 DRD2 COMT BDNF ANKK1
32 somatization disorder 30.5 IL6 COMT
33 borderline personality disorder 30.5 DRD2 COMT BDNF
34 cerebral degeneration 30.5 MBP GFAP AQP4 APOE
35 cocaine dependence 30.5 DRD2 COMT BDNF
36 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 30.5 S100B IL6 DRD2 COMT BDNF ANKK1
37 meningoencephalitis 30.5 MBP IL6 BDNF
38 decubitus ulcer 30.5 IL6 IL1B IGF1
39 ganglioglioma 30.5 S100B GFAP ENO2
40 arteriovenous malformation 30.4 IL6 IL1B APOE
41 schizoaffective disorder 30.4 DRD2 COMT BDNF
42 alexithymia 30.4 IL6 DRD2 COMT ANKK1
43 chiari malformation 30.4 MBP GFAP
44 major depressive disorder 30.4 S100B IL6 IL1B DRD2 COMT BDNF
45 cerebral artery occlusion 30.4 IL1B BDNF AQP4 APOE
46 ischemia 30.3 GFAP EPO CASP3 BDNF
47 functioning pituitary adenoma 30.3 S100B IGF1 DRD2
48 leukoencephalopathy, hereditary diffuse, with spheroids 30.3 S100B MBP GFAP
49 gastrointestinal stromal tumor 30.3 UCHL1 S100B ENO2 CASP3
50 oppositional defiant disorder 30.3 DRD2 COMT ANKK1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Traumatic Brain Injury:

Diseases related to Traumatic Brain Injury

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Traumatic Brain Injury

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Traumatic Brain Injury:

46 (show all 17)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.35 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 COMT DRD2
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.34 APOE AQP4 CASP3 COMT DRD2 EPO
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.34 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 DRD2 ENO2
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.32 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 COMT DRD2
5 cellular MP:0005384 10.29 APOE BDNF CASP3 DRD2 ENO2 EPO
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.24 APOE AQP4 CASP3 COMT DRD2 EPO
7 immune system MP:0005387 10.23 APOE AQP4 CASP3 COMT DRD2 EPO
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.22 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 DRD2 EPO
9 nervous system MP:0003631 10.17 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 COMT DRD2
10 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.14 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 DRD2 GFAP
11 integument MP:0010771 10.13 APOE BDNF CASP3 DRD2 EPO IGF1
12 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.99 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 IGF1 MBP
13 muscle MP:0005369 9.91 APOE CASP3 DRD2 EPO GFAP IGF1
14 normal MP:0002873 9.86 BDNF DRD2 EPO GFAP IGF1 MBP
15 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.76 APOE AQP4 CASP3 COMT DRD2 IGF1
16 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.7 APOE AQP4 BDNF CASP3 COMT DRD2
17 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 9.02 APOE BDNF CASP3 DRD2 ENO2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury

Drugs for Traumatic Brain Injury (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 340)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Fosphenytoin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 93390-81-9 56339
Dalteparin Approved Phase 4 9005-49-6
Tinzaparin Approved Phase 4 9041-08-1, 9005-49-6 25244225
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4 79902-63-9 54454
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Testosterone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-22-0 6013
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Cisatracurium Approved Phase 4 96946-41-7 62887
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Donepezil Approved Phase 4 120014-06-4 3152
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
18 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Pramipexole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104632-26-0 59868 119570
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Rotigotine Approved Phase 4 99755-59-6, 92206-54-7 57537
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4 120202-66-6, 113665-84-2 60606
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103628-46-2 5358
Zolmitriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139264-17-8 441240 60857
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
Rizatriptan Approved Phase 4 144034-80-0, 145202-66-0 5078
Amantadine Approved Phase 4 768-94-5 2130
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Buspirone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 36505-84-7 2477
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 69-65-8 453 6251
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-03-3
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-23-7 5754
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051
Choline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 62-49-7 305
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
Melatonin Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 73-31-4 896
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
49 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
50 Cytidine Diphosphate Choline Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1017)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Clinical Trial of the Effect of Midazolam on the Cerebral Metabolism and Inflammatory Response in Patients With Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT02071407 Phase 4 Midazolam;Placebo
2 Does Discontinuation of Aspirin Treatment Following Head Trauma Decrease the Incidence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma? Unknown status NCT01470040 Phase 4 discontinuation of aspirin therapy;continuation of aspirin therapy
3 Pilot Study: The Effect of Rozerem on Sleep Disturbance After Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT01207050 Phase 4 Ramelteon
4 A Randomised Control Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of Sensory Stimulation Program in Reducing the Length of Time Spent by Severely Brain Injured Patients in a Vegetative State in the Acute Hospital Environment Unknown status NCT00163878 Phase 4
5 Efficiency and Tolerance of a Small-peptide Enteral Feeding Formula Compared to a Whole-protein Formula in the Critically Ill Patient : a Prospective Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT01833624 Phase 4
6 Normothermia in Patients With Acute Cerebral Damage Unknown status NCT00491192 Phase 4 Diclofenac
7 Effect of Amantadine Administration on Spatial Functioning Following Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT02321761 Phase 4 Amantadine hydrochloride
8 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Antidepressant Maintenance for Major Depression Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT00162916 Phase 4 citalopram;Placebo
9 Randomized Controlled Clinical Study of Intensive Versus Nonintensive Insulin Therapy for Hyperglycemia After Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT02161055 Phase 4 Insulin
10 Citicholine-Amantadine Trial in Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT03430817 Phase 4 Citicholine;Amantadine
11 Improvement of Therapy in Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Differential Impact of Local and Systemic Changes and Routinely Applied Drugs Completed NCT02130674 Phase 4 Dipeptiven
12 Efficacy of Methylphenidate for Management of Long-Term Attention Problems After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Completed NCT01933217 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Placebo
13 Equimolar Doses of Mannitol and Hypertonic Saline in the Treatment of Elevated Intracranial Pressure Completed NCT00447018 Phase 4 20% mannitol;7.45% hypertonic saline solution
14 The Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Major Depression Following Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT00254007 Phase 4 citalopram (celexa)
15 Pharmacological Intervention in Depression After Traumatic Brain Injury (A Research Study Within the Traumatic Brain Injury Model System) Completed NCT00205491 Phase 4 Venlafaxine
16 Using Propranolol in Traumatic Brain Injury to Reduce Sympathetic Storm Phenomenon: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial Injury to Reduce Sympathetic Storm Phenomenon: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT03401515 Phase 4 Propranolol Hydrochloride 1 MG/ML
17 Assessment of Seizure Prophylaxis Protocols Using Intravenous Levetiracetam in a Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit Completed NCT00618436 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Phenytoin
18 Bispectral Index Value Changes During Induction and Surgical Decompression in Head Injury Patients Completed NCT03480880 Phase 4
19 Amantadine Hydrochloride for Treatment of Symptoms of the Post-traumatic Confusional State Among Neurorehabilitation Admissions With TBI: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT00693121 Phase 4 Amantadine hydrochloride;Placebo capsule
20 Phase IV Study of Cognitive Rehabilitation Effectiveness for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT01339806 Phase 4
21 Doxycycline Effects on Neurological Outcomes in Patients With Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT04239755 Phase 4 Doxycycline 100 MG Oral Tablet
22 Treatment Outcomes With Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate (Vyvanse) in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Attention Deficits Completed NCT02712996 Phase 4 Lisdexamfetamine;Placebo
23 Simvastatin: Proof-of-Concept for Prevention of Neurodegeneration in Mild TBI Completed NCT01952288 Phase 4 simvastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
24 Topiramate Treatment of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use in Veterans With TBI Completed NCT01750268 Phase 4 Topiramate;Placebo
25 The Control of Brain Networks After Traumatic Brain Injury: a Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Study of Dopamine and Cognition Completed NCT02015949 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Placebo
26 A 26-Week Open-Label Extension to Protocol No. CENA713BUS11: A 12-Week, Prospective, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multi-center Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Rivastigmine 3 to 6 mg/Day in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) With Persistent Cognitive Deficits Completed NCT00219245 Phase 4 Rivastigmine
27 Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Methylphenidate Effects on Early Recovery Completed NCT00035139 Phase 4 methylphenidate
28 The Use of Low Molecular Weight Heparin in Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT00170378 Phase 4 Enoxaparin
29 Neuroendocrine Dysfunction in Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects of Testosterone Therapy Completed NCT01201863 Phase 4 Androgel (Testosterone Gel);Androgel Placebo
30 Beta-Adrenergic Blockade for Suppression of Catecholamine Surge Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Trial Completed NCT02957331 Phase 4 Propranolol
31 Anterior Pituitary Hormone Replacement in Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT00957671 Phase 4 Recombinant human growth hormone
32 Cerebral Protection of Dexmedetomidine Against Paroxysmal Sympathetic Overexcited in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury Recruiting NCT04006054 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Midazolam
33 Does Short-Term Anti-Seizure Prophylaxis After Traumatic Brain Injury Decrease Seizure Rates? Recruiting NCT03054285 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
34 Potential Impact of Amantadine on Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes Recruiting NCT04527289 Phase 4 Amantadine (100mg) as add on therapy.;Placebo
35 Treatment of Intracranial Hypertension of Severe Tramatic Brain Injured Patients. Physiopathologic Effects of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents. A Controlled Randomized Study Versus Placebo Recruiting NCT02404779 Phase 4 cisatracurium besilate
36 MLC901 for Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Pilot, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04487275 Phase 4 MLC901 or Placebo
37 Quality Improvement and Practice Based Research in Neurology Using the Electronic Medical Record Enrolling by invitation NCT02670161 Phase 4 Listed for each disorder below, up to three drugs per disorder (too many characters to list in this field; see Intervention Description)
38 Non-Invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) Not yet recruiting NCT04437498 Phase 4
39 Combination Treatment With Cerebrolysin and Amantadine on Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness in Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study Not yet recruiting NCT04427241 Phase 4 Amantadine Sulfate plus Cerebrolysin;Amantadine Sulfate;Cerebrolysin
40 Beta Blocker Use In Traumatic Brain Injury Based On The High-Sensitive Troponin T Status: A Randomized Controlled Trial (BBTBBT) Not yet recruiting NCT04508244 Phase 4 Placebo;Propranolol
41 Buspirone and Melatonin for Depression Following Traumatic Brain Injury Not yet recruiting NCT04400266 Phase 4 B+MEL
42 Effects of Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation Therapy in Patients With Elevated Intracranial Pressure Due to Brain Injury or Intracranial Pathology Terminated NCT01824589 Phase 4
43 Double-blind Cross-over Study of the Effect of Namenda on Short Term Memory and Attention in Patients With Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Protocol NAM-MD-44 Terminated NCT00462228 Phase 4 Memantine;Placebo
44 Propofol Versus Midazolam for Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients Who Presented With Traumatic Brain Injury: Cytokine Response and Neuropsychological Assessment (IRRC#1201M) Terminated NCT01712477 Phase 4 Intravenous sedation using propofol;Intravenous sedation with midazolam
45 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Investigate Safety and Efficacy of Cerebrolysin in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury Terminated NCT01606111 Phase 4 Cerebrolysin;0.9% NaCl, saline
46 Compared Effects of 2 Doses of Mannitol on Post Traumatic Intracranial Hypertension Terminated NCT00795587 Phase 4 variation of mannitol dose
47 Placebo Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy in Patients With Growth Hormone Deficiency After Traumatic Brain Injury. Terminated NCT00555009 Phase 4 Genotropin;Placebo
48 Does Maintenance of Normoglycemia Change Neurological Outcome in Patients Recovering From Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachnoid or Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage? Terminated NCT01137773 Phase 4 Insulin;Conventional insulin treatment
49 Phase IV Study to Evaluate the Neuropsychological Effects of Hydrocortisone Substitution in Patients With Partial Adrenal Insufficiency After Traumatic Brain Injury or Subarachnoidal Haemorrhage Terminated NCT01089075 Phase 4 Hydrocortisone;Placebo
50 Head Trauma With Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Multicenter, Phase IV Study to Evaluate the Effects of Genotropin in Adult Patients With Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) Caused by Trauma and/or Head Injury Terminated NCT00638053 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Traumatic Brain Injury

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Traumatic Brain Injury cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Traumatic Brain Injury:
MultiStem, bone marrow-derived cells for neurological disorders
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Traumatic Brain Injury:
Bone marrow-derived adherent progenitor cells (MultiStem) PMIDs: 23205020 20637752 23020860 21175285 21248119

Genetic Tests for Traumatic Brain Injury

Anatomical Context for Traumatic Brain Injury

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Traumatic Brain Injury:

Brain, Spinal Cord, Cortex, Pituitary, Bone Marrow, Endothelial, Eye
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Traumatic Brain Injury:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Bone Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Traumatic Brain Injury

Articles related to Traumatic Brain Injury:

(show top 50) (show all 30003)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Epidural analgesia, intrapartum hyperthermia, and neonatal brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 42
33218673 2021
Neuropsychology of executive functions in patients with focal lesion in the prefrontal cortex: A systematic review. 42
33221658 2020
Effect of hyperglycemia on all-cause mortality from pediatric brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 42
33235087 2020
A nomogram based on serum cystatin C for predicting acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic brain injury. 61
33478333 2021
Kv1.3 inhibition attenuates neuroinflammation through disruption of microglial calcium signaling. 61
33356832 2021
Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase aggravates brain injury in diabetic rats with traumatic brain injury. 61
33433486 2021
Comparative transcriptomic analysis of rat versus mouse cerebral cortex after traumatic brain injury. 61
33318400 2021
Collagen/heparan sulfate porous scaffolds loaded with neural stem cells improve neurological function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. 61
33269752 2021
Current application and future directions of photobiomodulation in central nervous diseases. 61
33269767 2021
Impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury on hippocampal neurogenesis. 61
33229731 2021
Targeting chronic and evolving neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury to improve long-term outcomes: insights from microglial-depletion models. 61
33229740 2021
The interaction between brain and liver regulates lipid metabolism in the TBI pathology. 61
33444711 2021
Efficacy of epothilones in central nervous system trauma treatment: what has age got to do with it? 61
33063710 2021
Evaluation of diffusion measurements reveals radial diffusivity indicative of microstructural damage following acute, mild traumatic brain injury. 61
33359428 2021
ER stress mediated‑autophagy contributes to neurological dysfunction in traumatic brain injury via the ATF6 UPR signaling pathway. 61
33537827 2021
A "hot Spot"-Enhanced paper lateral flow assay for ultrasensitive detection of traumatic brain injury biomarker S-100β in blood plasma. 61
33429202 2021
Experimental diffuse brain injury and a model of Alzheimer's disease exhibit disease-specific changes in sleep and incongruous peripheral inflammation. 61
33319441 2021
Batroxobin inhibits astrocyte activation following nigrostriatal pathway injury. 61
33063734 2021
Increased short- and long-term risk of sleep disorders in people with traumatic brain injury. 61
31696782 2021
KLF4 Exerts Sedative Effects in Pentobarbital-Treated Mice. 61
32789565 2021
Decompressive Surgery for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. 61
33563379 2021
Causes of early mortality in pediatric trauma patients. 61
33492107 2021
Estrogen Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibiting the Activation of Microglia and Astrocyte-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Responses. 61
33085047 2021
Papaverine provides neuroprotection by suppressing neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the traumatic brain injury via RAGE- NF-<kappa>B pathway. 61
33476858 2021
Hsp90 inhibition protects the brain microvascular endothelium against oxidative stress. 61
33569547 2021
Interhemispheric differences in P1 and N1 amplitude in EEG and MEG differ across older individuals with a concussion compared with age-matched controls. 61
33347633 2021
Epigenetic Blockade of Hippocampal SOD2 Via DNMT3b-Mediated DNA Methylation: Implications in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Persistent Oxidative Damage. 61
33099744 2021
Sleep moderates symptom experience in combat veterans. 61
33418372 2021
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Variations for Traumatic Brain Injury

Expression for Traumatic Brain Injury

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Traumatic Brain Injury.

Pathways for Traumatic Brain Injury

GO Terms for Traumatic Brain Injury

Cellular components related to Traumatic Brain Injury according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.86 S100B IL6 IL1B IGF1 EPO ENO2
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.81 SPTAN1 S100B IL6 IL1B IGF1 EPO
3 cell body GO:0044297 9.5 GFAP EPO COMT
4 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 9.35 UCHL1 MBP ENO2 CASP3 APOE
5 astrocyte end-foot GO:0097450 8.62 GFAP AQP4

Biological processes related to Traumatic Brain Injury according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.83 S100B IL6 IL1B IGF1 EPO
2 axonogenesis GO:0007409 9.67 UCHL1 S100B DRD2
3 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.63 MBP IL6 IL1B
4 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.56 IL1B EPO COMT CASP3
5 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.54 IL6 IGF1 EPO
6 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.48 IL6 IL1B
7 negative regulation of synaptic transmission GO:0050805 9.4 IL1B DRD2
8 negative regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043407 9.33 UCHL1 IL1B APOE
9 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.32 IL6 IL1B
10 regulation of neurotransmitter uptake GO:0051580 8.96 GFAP DRD2
11 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 8.8 IL6 IL1B GFAP

Molecular functions related to Traumatic Brain Injury according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.55 UCHL1 SPTAN1 S100B MBP IL6 IL1B

Sources for Traumatic Brain Injury

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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