MCID: TRC012
MIFTS: 47

Trichuriasis

Categories: Blood diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Trichuriasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Trichuriasis:

Name: Trichuriasis 12 53 3 44 15 17 33
Whipworm Infection 53 3
Infection by Trichuris Trichiura 72
Infection by Trichuris Trichura 12
Trichuris Trichiura Infection 12
Trichuriasis Infection 12
Trichocephaliasis 53
Whipworm Disease 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1252
ICD9CM 35 127.3
MeSH 44 D014257
NCIt 50 C128399
SNOMED-CT 68 3752003 60570001
ICD10 33 B79
UMLS 72 C0040954

Summaries for Trichuriasis

CDC : 3 An estimated 604-795 million people in the world are infected with whipworm. Whipworm, hookworm, and Ascaris are known as soil-transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). Together, they account for a major burden of disease worldwide. Whipworms live in the large intestine and whipworm eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If the infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) or if human feces as used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. They can then mature into a form that is infective. Whipworm infection is caused by ingesting eggs. This can happen when hands or fingers that have contaminated dirt on them are put in the mouth or by consuming vegetables or fruits that have not been carefully cooked, washed or peeled. People infected with whipworm can suffer light or heavy infections. People with light infections usually have no symptoms. People with heavy symptoms can experience frequent, painful passage of stool that contains a mixture of mucus, water, and blood. Rectal prolapse can also occur. Children with heavy infections can become severely anemic and growth-retarded. Whipworm infections are treatable with medication prescribed by your health care provider.

MalaCards based summary : Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is related to enterobiasis and ascaridiasis, and has symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea and rectal prolapse. An important gene associated with Trichuriasis is IL9 (Interleukin 9), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TGF-Beta Pathway and Akt Signaling. The drugs Pyrantel and Mebendazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, colon and skin.

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease that involves parasitic infection located in intestine in humans, has material basis in Trichuris trichiura, which is transmitted by ingestion of food contaminated with egg-carrying soil. The infection has symptom abdominal pain, has symptom diarrhea, has symptom rectal prolapse and has symptom growth retardation.

Wikipedia : 75 Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is an infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris... more...

Related Diseases for Trichuriasis

Diseases related to Trichuriasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 230)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enterobiasis 31.3 IL9 IL13
2 ascaridiasis 31.2 STH IL13 IL10
3 cytokine deficiency 31.2 IL9 IL13
4 necatoriasis 30.8 IL10 CXCL8
5 ige responsiveness, atopic 30.6 IL9 IL13 IL10
6 opisthorchiasis 30.4 TNF CXCL8
7 schistosomiasis 30.2 TNF IL13 IL10
8 gastrointestinal system disease 30.2 TNF IL10 CXCL8
9 ulcerative colitis 30.2 TNF IL10 CXCL8
10 colitis 30.0 TNF IL10 CXCL8
11 inflammatory bowel disease 29.9 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
12 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 29.9 TNF STH IL13 IL10
13 tungiasis 29.8 TNF IL10 CXCL8
14 gastroenteritis 29.8 TNF IL10 CXCL8
15 ascaris lumbricoides infection 10.8
16 myelitis 10.5 TNF IL9
17 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.5 TNF IL13
18 actinic prurigo 10.5 TNF IL13
19 nickel allergic contact dermatitis 10.5 IL13 IL10
20 conjunctival disease 10.5 TNF IL13
21 beta-lactam allergy 10.5 IL13 IL10
22 apple allergy 10.5 IL13 IL10
23 eosinophilic meningitis 10.5 IL13 IL10
24 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.4 TNF IL10
25 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 10.4 TNF IL10
26 endomyocardial fibrosis 10.4 TNF IL10
27 ancylostomiasis 10.4
28 multifocal choroiditis 10.4 TNF IL10
29 choroiditis 10.4 TNF IL10
30 transient hypogammaglobulinemia 10.4 TNF IL10
31 cow milk allergy 10.4 TNF IL10
32 idiopathic achalasia 10.4 TNF IL10
33 lipoid nephrosis 10.4 IL13 IL10
34 chronic graft versus host disease 10.4 TNF IL10
35 mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 10.4 TNF IL10
36 trachoma 10.4 TNF IL10
37 ankylostomiasis 10.4
38 autoimmune gastritis 10.4 TNF IL10
39 paranasal sinus disease 10.4 IL13 IL10
40 orofacial granulomatosis 10.4 TNF IL10
41 intermediate uveitis 10.4 TNF IL10
42 autoimmune disease of eyes, ear, nose and throat 10.4 TNF IL10
43 eales disease 10.4 TNF IL10
44 poliomyelitis 10.4 TNF IL10
45 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 10.4 TNF IL10
46 primary systemic mycosis 10.4 TNF IL10
47 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 10.4 TNF IL10
48 coccidiosis 10.4 TNF IL10
49 spotted fever 10.4 TNF IL10
50 scrub typhus 10.4 TNF IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Trichuriasis:



Diseases related to Trichuriasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Trichuriasis

Symptoms:

12
  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • rectal prolapse
  • growth retardation

Drugs & Therapeutics for Trichuriasis

Drugs for Trichuriasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Pyrantel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15686-83-6
2
Mebendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 31431-39-7 4030
3
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
4
Piperazine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 110-85-0 4837
5
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 77-92-9 311
6 Oxantel Experimental Phase 4 36531-26-7
7 Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents Phase 4
8 Citrate Phase 4
9 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
10 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
11 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Phase 4
12 Pyrantel Pamoate Phase 4
13 DMP 777 Phase 4 157341-41-8
14 Piperazine citrate Phase 4
15 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
16 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
17 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
18
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 54965-21-8 2082
19
Ivermectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 70288-86-7 6474909
20 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Tubulin Modulators Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Anthelmintics Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Antimitotic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Milbemycin Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 11)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Efficacy of 5 Anthelmintic Regimes Against T. Trichiura Infections in Schoolchildren in Jimma, Ethiopia Completed NCT01327469 Phase 4 Albendazole, 2 x 400mg;Albendazole 400mg;Mebendazole 500mg;Mebendazole 2 x 500mg;Pyrantel-oxantel + mebendazole
2 Longitudinal Study of Efficacy of Standard Albendazole Treatment Versus Levamisole/Pyrantel Pamoate on Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Completed NCT00659997 Phase 4 Albendazole;Levamisole
3 Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin and Albendazole Co-administration in School-aged Children and Adults Infected With Trichuris Trichiura: a Multi-country Randomized Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03527732 Phase 2, Phase 3 Albendazole;Albendazole and Ivermectin
4 Efficacy and Safety of Ascending Dosages of Moxidectin and Moxidectin-albendazole Against Trichuris Trichiura in Adolescents: a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03501251 Phase 2 Moxidectin 8mg;Moxidectin 8 mg + albendazole 400 mg;Moxidectin 16 mg;Moxidectin 16 mg + albendazole 400 mg;Moxidectin 24 mg;Moxidectin 24 mg + albendazole 400 mg
5 Efficacy and Safety of Ascending Dosages of Albendazole Against T. Trichiura and Hookworm in Preschool- and School-aged Children and Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03527745 Phase 2 Albendazole;Albendazole;Albendazole;Albendazole;Placebo
6 An Assessor Blind, Randomized, Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Different Doses of Oxfendazole Compared to Single Dose Albendazole in the Treatment of Trichuris Trichiura Infection in Adults Not yet recruiting NCT03435718 Phase 2 Oxfendazole;Albendazole
7 Prospective, Parallel-group, Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial of Four Treatment Regimes for Trichuriasis in Pediatric Patients Not yet recruiting NCT04041453 Phase 2 Ivermectin;Albendazole
8 An Open Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Different Doses of Oxfendazole Compared to Single Dose Albendazole in the Treatment of Trichuris Trichiura Infection in Adults Withdrawn NCT02636803 Phase 2 oxfendazole;albendazole
9 Efficacy and Nutritional Assessment Following Albendazole and Combined Albendazole/Ivermectin Treatment for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Rural Guatemalan Schoolchildren Completed NCT00207753 albendazole vs. combined albendazole/ivermectin treatment
10 The Sero-prevalence and Genetic Study for the Infectious Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome in Solomon Islands Completed NCT01080989
11 Study of Patients With Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract Terminated NCT00001162

Search NIH Clinical Center for Trichuriasis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Albendazole
Ivermectin
Ivermectin
Mebendazole
Mebendazole
Nitazoxanide
Pyrantel
Pyrantel Pamoate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: trichuriasis

Genetic Tests for Trichuriasis

Anatomical Context for Trichuriasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Trichuriasis:

41
Testes, Colon, Skin, T Cells, Small Intestine, B Cells

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Trichuriasis:

19
Intestine In Humans

Publications for Trichuriasis

Articles related to Trichuriasis:

(show top 50) (show all 461)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Parasitic infections in Malaysian aborigines with pulmonary tuberculosis: a comparative cross-sectional study. 38
31363922 2019
2
Antihelminthic Efficacy Against Trichuriasis. 38
31211830 2019
3
Biological role of excretory-secretory proteins in endemic parasites of Latin America and the Caribbean. 38
31092301 2019
4
Efficacy of Albendazole and Mebendazole With or Without Levamisole for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. 38
31110573 2019
5
Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and albendazole co-administration in school-aged children and adults infected with Trichuris trichiura: study protocol for a multi-country randomized controlled double-blind trial. 38
30885157 2019
6
Molecular characterization of Trichuris species isolated from humans, dogs and cats in a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. 38
30500371 2019
7
Blood pressure risk factors in early adolescents: results from a Ugandan birth cohort. 38
30804461 2019
8
Unpacking the Pathogen Box-An Open Source Tool for Fighting Neglected Tropical Disease. 38
30614200 2019
9
Pseudohypoadrenocorticism in a Siberian Husky with Trichuris vulpis Infection. 38
31263625 2019
10
Severe whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infection in the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas). 38
30464076 2019
11
Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection. 38
30640950 2019
12
Diagnosis of feline whipworm infection using a coproantigen ELISA and the prevalence in feral cats in southern Florida. 38
31014727 2018
13
Deworming in non-pregnant adolescent girls and adult women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 38
30572948 2018
14
Ascaris lumbricoides infection induces both, reduction and increase of asthma symptoms in a rural community. 38
30040946 2018
15
Association of intestinal pathogens with faecal markers of environmental enteric dysfunction among slum-dwelling children in the first 2 years of life in Bangladesh. 38
30133067 2018
16
Worm Infestation: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. 38
29127616 2018
17
Genetic characterisation and phylogenetic status of whipworms (Trichuris spp.) from captive non-human primates in China, determined by nuclear and mitochondrial sequencing. 38
30236150 2018
18
Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin Against Trichuris trichiura in Preschool-aged and School-aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Dose-finding Trial. 38
29617737 2018
19
2,4-Diaminothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines, a new class of anthelmintic with activity against adult and egg stages of whipworm. 38
29995893 2018
20
Infections of Soil-Transmitted Helminth in Refugees from North Korea. 38
29996634 2018
21
The burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Brazil, 1990-2016: A subnational analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. 38
29864133 2018
22
[Investigation on intestinal nematode infections and their risk factors in Shanpo Sub-district, Jiangxia District, Wuhan City]. 38
30567034 2018
23
Polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes exert in vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity and show significant inhibition of parasite acetylcholinesterases. 38
29207309 2018
24
Trichuriasis. 38
29406051 2018
25
Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa. 38
29378644 2018
26
Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review. 38
29346440 2018
27
Current epidemiological evidence for predisposition to high or low intensity human helminth infection: a systematic review. 38
29382360 2018
28
Pathway of oxfendazole from the host into the worm: Trichuris suis in pigs. 38
29156431 2017
29
Occurrence of the most common helminth infections among children in the Eastern Slovak Republic. 38
28646696 2017
30
Identifying Helminth Infections via Routine Fecal Parasitological Examinations in Korea. 38
28749758 2017
31
[Investigation of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City]. 38
29536713 2017
32
Clinical correlates of trichuriasis diagnosed at colonoscopy. 38
29058208 2017
33
Soil-transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua). 38
27616686 2017
34
Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminthiases-related mortality in Brazil. 38
28103964 2017
35
Dihydrobenz[e][1,4]oxazepin-2(3H)-ones, a new anthelmintic chemotype immobilising whipworm and reducing infectivity in vivo. 38
28182663 2017
36
Identification, Characterization, and Structure of Tm16 from Trichuris muris. 38
28884022 2017
37
Prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. 38
28819509 2017
38
A First Case of Human Trichuriasis from a Roman Lead Coffin in France. 38
27853119 2016
39
Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris. 38
27588682 2016
40
Variability of whipworm infection and humoral immune response in a wild population of mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.). 38
27079461 2016
41
Identification of lead chemotherapeutic agents from medicinal plants against blood flukes and whipworms. 38
27572696 2016
42
Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. 38
27430215 2016
43
Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa. 38
28239667 2016
44
Evaluation of iron deficiency anaemia for gastrointestinal causes in patients without GI symptoms in high prevalent GI malignancy zones. 38
27426957 2016
45
Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease Associated with Overwhelming Polymicrobial Gastrointestinal Infection with Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma. 38
26903604 2016
46
An unusual cause of overt gastrointestinal bleeding in a malnourished child. 38
26264463 2016
47
Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review. 38
26890487 2016
48
Compliance with anthelmintic treatment in the neglected tropical diseases control programmes: a systematic review. 38
26813098 2016
49
Immune Profile of Honduran Schoolchildren with Intestinal Parasites: The Skewed Response against Geohelminths. 38
27882241 2016
50
Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 38
26540412 2015

Variations for Trichuriasis

Expression for Trichuriasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Trichuriasis.

Pathways for Trichuriasis

Pathways related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.27 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
2
Show member pathways
13.15 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
3
Show member pathways
13.11 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
4
Show member pathways
13.05 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
5
Show member pathways
12.66 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
6
Show member pathways
12.35 TNF IL9 IL10
7
Show member pathways
12.18 IL9 IL13 IL10
8
Show member pathways
12.13 TNF IL13 CXCL8
9 11.97 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
10
Show member pathways
11.88 IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
11
Show member pathways
11.86 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
12 11.76 TNF IL10 CXCL8
13 11.68 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
14 11.61 TNF IL10 CXCL8
15 11.57 TNF IL13 IL10
16 11.51 TNF IL13 CXCL8
17 11.38 TNF IL10 CXCL8
18 11.36 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10
19 11.33 IL9 IL13 IL10
20 11.19 TNF IL10
21 11.17 TNF IL10
22 11.11 TNF IL9 IL13
23 11.04 TNF IL13 IL10
24 10.99 TNF CXCL8
25 10.96 IL9 IL13 IL10
26 10.87 TNF CXCL8
27 10.78 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
28 10.61 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
29 10.58 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8

GO Terms for Trichuriasis

Cellular components related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.43 TNF SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.1 TNF SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8

Biological processes related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.69 TNF IL10 CXCL8
2 positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:1904707 9.59 TNF IL10
3 negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:2000352 9.58 IL13 IL10
4 negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle GO:0045930 9.58 TNF IL10
5 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.57 TNF IL10
6 regulation of synapse organization GO:0050807 9.56 TNF IL10
7 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.56 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
8 positive regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050715 9.55 TNF IL10
9 leukocyte chemotaxis GO:0030595 9.54 IL10 CXCL8
10 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.52 TNF IL13
11 embryonic digestive tract development GO:0048566 9.49 TNF CXCL8
12 positive regulation of macrophage activation GO:0043032 9.48 IL13 IL10
13 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.46 TNF IL10
14 negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host GO:0044130 9.43 TNF IL10
15 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.4 IL10 CXCL8
16 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.37 TNF IL10
17 immune response GO:0006955 9.35 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
18 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.32 TNF IL10
19 receptor biosynthetic process GO:0032800 9.16 TNF IL10
20 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.1 TNF SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8

Molecular functions related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.02 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
2 cytokine receptor binding GO:0005126 8.96 IL9 IL13

Sources for Trichuriasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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