MCID: TRC012
MIFTS: 45

Trichuriasis

Categories: Blood diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Trichuriasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Trichuriasis:

Name: Trichuriasis 12 52 3 43 15 17 32
Whipworm Infection 52 3
Infection by Trichuris Trichiura 71
Infection by Trichuris Trichura 12
Trichuris Trichiura Infection 12
Trichuriasis Infection 12
Trichocephaliasis 52
Whipworm Disease 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1252
ICD9CM 34 127.3
MeSH 43 D014257
NCIt 49 C128399
SNOMED-CT 67 60570001
ICD10 32 B79
UMLS 71 C0040954

Summaries for Trichuriasis

CDC : 3 An estimated 604-795 million people in the world are infected with whipworm. Whipworm, hookworm, and Ascaris are known as soil-transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). Together, they account for a major burden of disease worldwide. Whipworms live in the large intestine and whipworm eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If the infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) or if human feces as used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. They can then mature into a form that is infective. Whipworm infection is caused by ingesting eggs. This can happen when hands or fingers that have contaminated dirt on them are put in the mouth or by consuming vegetables or fruits that have not been carefully cooked, washed or peeled. People infected with whipworm can suffer light or heavy infections. People with light infections usually have no symptoms. People with heavy symptoms can experience frequent, painful passage of stool that contains a mixture of mucus, water, and blood. Rectal prolapse can also occur. Children with heavy infections can become severely anemic and growth-retarded. Whipworm infections are treatable with medication prescribed by your health care provider.

MalaCards based summary : Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is related to cytokine deficiency and trichinosis, and has symptoms including abdominal pain, rectal prolapse and diarrhea. An important gene associated with Trichuriasis is IL13 (Interleukin 13), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PAK Pathway and Allograft rejection. The drugs Sodium citrate and Mebendazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include intestine in humans, testes and colon.

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease that involves parasitic infection located in intestine in humans, has material basis in Trichuris trichiura, which is transmitted by ingestion of food contaminated with egg-carrying soil. The infection has symptom abdominal pain, has symptom diarrhea, has symptom rectal prolapse and has symptom growth retardation.

Wikipedia : 74 Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is an infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris... more...

Related Diseases for Trichuriasis

Diseases related to Trichuriasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 291)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine deficiency 31.2 IL9 IL13
2 trichinosis 30.6 IL9 IL13 IL10
3 irritable bowel syndrome 30.6 TNF IL10 CXCL8
4 ulcerative colitis 30.4 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
5 schistosomiasis 30.3 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10
6 colitis 30.3 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
7 diarrhea 30.3 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
8 enterobiasis 30.2 STH EPGN
9 gastroenteritis 30.2 TNF IL10 CXCL8
10 ascaris lumbricoides infection 30.1 STH IL13 IL10 EPGN CXCL8
11 celiac disease 1 30.0 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
12 strongyloidiasis 30.0 STH IL13 EPGN
13 taeniasis 29.9 TNF STH IL10
14 onchocerciasis 29.9 STH SERPINA3 IL13
15 dysentery 29.4 TNF STH IL10 CXCL8
16 opisthorchiasis 29.3 TNF SERPINA3 EPGN CXCL8
17 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 28.6 TNF STH SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 IL10
18 ascaridiasis 10.8
19 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.5 TNF IL10
20 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 10.5 TNF IL10
21 endomyocardial fibrosis 10.5 TNF IL10
22 multifocal choroiditis 10.5 TNF IL10
23 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia 10.5 TNF IL13
24 spotted fever rickettsiosis 10.5 TNF IL10
25 ancylostomiasis 10.5
26 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.5 TNF IL10
27 inflammatory bowel disease 10.4
28 actinic prurigo 10.4 TNF IL13
29 metal allergy 10.4 TNF IL10
30 mikulicz disease 10.4 IL13 IL10
31 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 10.4 TNF IL10
32 orofacial granulomatosis 10.4 TNF IL10
33 mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 10.4 TNF IL13 IL10
34 african tick-bite fever 10.4 TNF IL13 IL10
35 peanut allergy 10.4 IL9 IL13 IL10
36 cryptococcosis 10.4 TNF IL13 IL10
37 mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia 10.4 TNF IL13 IL10
38 eales disease 10.3 TNF IL10
39 acute transverse myelitis 10.3 IL10 CXCL8
40 transient hypogammaglobulinemia 10.3 TNF IL10
41 posterior uveitis 10.3 TNF IL9 IL13
42 idiopathic anterior uveitis 10.3 TNF CXCL8
43 chemical colitis 10.3 TNF IL10
44 anemia, x-linked, with or without neutropenia and/or platelet abnormalities 10.3
45 deficiency anemia 10.3
46 necatoriasis 10.3
47 neurosyphilis 10.3 IL10 CXCL8
48 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 10.3 TNF CXCL8
49 haemophilus influenzae 10.3 TNF CXCL8
50 ige responsiveness, atopic 10.3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Trichuriasis:



Diseases related to Trichuriasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Trichuriasis

Symptoms:

12
  • abdominal pain
  • rectal prolapse
  • diarrhea
  • growth retardation

Drugs & Therapeutics for Trichuriasis

Drugs for Trichuriasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 23)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
2
Mebendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 31431-39-7 4030
3
Piperazine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 110-85-0 4837
4
Pyrantel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15686-83-6
5
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 77-92-9 311
6 Oxantel Experimental Phase 4 36531-26-7
7 Citrate Phase 4
8 Pyrantel Pamoate Phase 4
9 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Phase 4
10 Piperazine citrate Phase 4
11 DMP 777 Phase 4 157341-41-8
12 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
13 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
14 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
15
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 54965-21-8 2082
16
Ivermectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 70288-86-7 6474909
17 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Anthelmintics Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Tubulin Modulators Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Antimitotic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Milbemycin Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 12)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Efficacy of 5 Anthelmintic Regimes Against T. Trichiura Infections in Schoolchildren in Jimma, Ethiopia Completed NCT01327469 Phase 4 Albendazole, 2 x 400mg;Albendazole 400mg;Mebendazole 500mg;Mebendazole 2 x 500mg;Pyrantel-oxantel + mebendazole
2 Longitudinal Study of Efficacy of Standard Albendazole Treatment Versus Levamisole/Pyrantel Pamoate on Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Completed NCT00659997 Phase 4 Albendazole;Levamisole
3 Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin and Albendazole Co-administration in School-aged Children and Adults Infected With Trichuris Trichiura: a Multi-country Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03527732 Phase 2, Phase 3 Albendazole;Albendazole and Ivermectin
4 Efficacy and Safety of Ascending Dosages of Moxidectin and Moxidectin-albendazole Against Trichuris Trichiura in Adolescents: a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03501251 Phase 2 Moxidectin 8mg;Moxidectin 8 mg + albendazole 400 mg;Moxidectin 16 mg;Moxidectin 16 mg + albendazole 400 mg;Moxidectin 24 mg;Moxidectin 24 mg + albendazole 400 mg
5 Efficacy and Safety of Ascending Dosages of Albendazole Against T. Trichiura and Hookworm in Preschool- and School-aged Children and Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial Active, not recruiting NCT03527745 Phase 2 Albendazole;Albendazole;Albendazole;Albendazole;Placebo
6 An Assessor Blind, Randomized, Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Different Doses of Oxfendazole Compared to Single Dose Albendazole in the Treatment of Trichuris Trichiura Infection in Adults Not yet recruiting NCT03435718 Phase 2 Oxfendazole;Albendazole
7 Prospective, Parallel-group, Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial of Four Treatment Regimes for Trichuriasis in Pediatric Patients Not yet recruiting NCT04041453 Phase 2 Ivermectin;Albendazole
8 An Open Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Different Doses of Oxfendazole Compared to Single Dose Albendazole in the Treatment of Trichuris Trichiura Infection in Adults Withdrawn NCT02636803 Phase 2 oxfendazole;albendazole
9 Efficacy and Nutritional Assessment Following Albendazole and Combined Albendazole/Ivermectin Treatment for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Rural Guatemalan Schoolchildren Completed NCT00207753 albendazole vs. combined albendazole/ivermectin treatment
10 The Sero-prevalence and Genetic Study for the Infectious Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome in Solomon Islands Completed NCT01080989
11 Re-infection Rates of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infections Among School-aged Children Following a Single or a 4-monthly Health Hygiene Education: an Open Label Clinical Trial Active, not recruiting NCT04227834
12 Study of Patients With Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract Terminated NCT00001162

Search NIH Clinical Center for Trichuriasis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Albendazole
Ivermectin
Mebendazole
Pyrantel
Pyrantel Pamoate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: trichuriasis

Genetic Tests for Trichuriasis

Anatomical Context for Trichuriasis

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Trichuriasis:

19
Intestine In Humans

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Trichuriasis:

40
Testes, Colon, T Cells, Skin, Small Intestine, B Cells

Publications for Trichuriasis

Articles related to Trichuriasis:

(show top 50) (show all 474)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Interactions between helminths and tuberculosis infections: Implications for tuberculosis diagnosis and vaccination in Africa. 61
32498074 2020
2
Enteric parasitic infections in children and dogs in resource-poor communities in northeastern Brazil: Identifying priority prevention and control areas. 61
32516309 2020
3
Whipworm and roundworm infections. 61
32467581 2020
4
Efficacy and safety of ascending dosages of albendazole against Trichuris trichiura in preschool-aged children, school-aged children and adults: A multi-cohort randomized controlled trial. 61
32405623 2020
5
Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) diagnostic test for detection of whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, in faecal samples. 61
32238209 2020
6
Characterisation of cuticular inflation development and ultrastructure in Trichuris muris using correlative X-ray computed tomography and electron microscopy. 61
32246000 2020
7
In silico design of a T-cell epitope vaccine candidate for parasitic helminth infection. 61
32203551 2020
8
Chronic whipworm infection exacerbates Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced hepatopathology in non-human primates. 61
32111243 2020
9
Whipworm Infection Promotes Bacterial Invasion, Intestinal Microbiota Imbalance, and Cellular Immunomodulation. 61
31843966 2020
10
Distribution of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. 61
32511237 2020
11
Trichuriasis. 61
32489874 2020
12
Toxocariasis: A neglected infection for the Anthropocene epoch. 61
32381232 2020
13
Parasitic infections in Malaysian aborigines with pulmonary tuberculosis: a comparative cross-sectional study. 61
31363922 2019
14
BioStruct-Africa: empowering Africa-based scientists through structural biology knowledge transfer and mentoring - recent advances and future perspectives. 61
31490179 2019
15
Blood pressure risk factors in early adolescents: results from a Ugandan birth cohort. 61
30804461 2019
16
Antihelminthic Efficacy Against Trichuriasis. 61
31211830 2019
17
Biological role of excretory-secretory proteins in endemic parasites of Latin America and the Caribbean. 61
31092301 2019
18
Efficacy of Albendazole and Mebendazole With or Without Levamisole for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. 61
31110573 2019
19
Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and albendazole co-administration in school-aged children and adults infected with Trichuris trichiura: study protocol for a multi-country randomized controlled double-blind trial. 61
30885157 2019
20
Molecular characterization of Trichuris species isolated from humans, dogs and cats in a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. 61
30500371 2019
21
Unpacking the Pathogen Box-An Open Source Tool for Fighting Neglected Tropical Disease. 61
30614200 2019
22
Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection. 61
30640950 2019
23
Pseudohypoadrenocorticism in a Siberian Husky with Trichuris vulpis Infection. 61
31263625 2019
24
Severe whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infection in the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas). 61
30464076 2019
25
Diagnosis of feline whipworm infection using a coproantigen ELISA and the prevalence in feral cats in southern Florida. 61
31014727 2018
26
Deworming in non-pregnant adolescent girls and adult women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
30572948 2018
27
Ascaris lumbricoides infection induces both, reduction and increase of asthma symptoms in a rural community. 61
30040946 2018
28
Worm Infestation: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. 61
29127616 2018
29
Association of intestinal pathogens with faecal markers of environmental enteric dysfunction among slum-dwelling children in the first 2 years of life in Bangladesh. 61
30133067 2018
30
Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin Against Trichuris trichiura in Preschool-aged and School-aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Dose-finding Trial. 61
29617737 2018
31
Genetic characterisation and phylogenetic status of whipworms (Trichuris spp.) from captive non-human primates in China, determined by nuclear and mitochondrial sequencing. 61
30236150 2018
32
2,4-Diaminothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines, a new class of anthelmintic with activity against adult and egg stages of whipworm. 61
29995893 2018
33
Infections of Soil-Transmitted Helminth in Refugees from North Korea. 61
29996634 2018
34
The burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Brazil, 1990-2016: A subnational analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. 61
29864133 2018
35
[Investigation on intestinal nematode infections and their risk factors in Shanpo Sub-district, Jiangxia District, Wuhan City]. 61
30567034 2018
36
Polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes exert in vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity and show significant inhibition of parasite acetylcholinesterases. 61
29207309 2018
37
Trichuriasis. 61
29406051 2018
38
Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa. 61
29378644 2018
39
Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review. 61
29346440 2018
40
Current epidemiological evidence for predisposition to high or low intensity human helminth infection: a systematic review. 61
29382360 2018
41
Pathway of oxfendazole from the host into the worm: Trichuris suis in pigs. 61
29156431 2017
42
Occurrence of the most common helminth infections among children in the Eastern Slovak Republic. 61
28646696 2017
43
Identifying Helminth Infections via Routine Fecal Parasitological Examinations in Korea. 61
28749758 2017
44
[Investigation of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City]. 61
29536713 2017
45
Clinical correlates of trichuriasis diagnosed at colonoscopy. 61
29058208 2017
46
Soil-transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua). 61
27616686 2017
47
Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminthiases-related mortality in Brazil. 61
28103964 2017
48
Dihydrobenz[e][1,4]oxazepin-2(3H)-ones, a new anthelmintic chemotype immobilising whipworm and reducing infectivity in vivo. 61
28182663 2017
49
Prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. 61
28819509 2017
50
Identification, Characterization, and Structure of Tm16 from Trichuris muris. 61
28884022 2017

Variations for Trichuriasis

Expression for Trichuriasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Trichuriasis.

Pathways for Trichuriasis

Pathways related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.13 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8 CCL23
2
Show member pathways
12.68 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
3
Show member pathways
12.16 TNF IL10 CXCL8 CCL23
4
Show member pathways
12.04 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8
5 11.97 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
6 11.85 TNF IL10 CXCL8
7
Show member pathways
11.79 TNF PRKAG1 CREB5
8 11.75 TNF IL10 CXCL8
9 11.68 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
10 11.6 TNF IL10 CXCL8
11 11.49 TNF IL13 CXCL8
12 11.37 TNF IL10 CXCL8
13 11.32 IL9 IL13 IL10
14 11.16 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10
15 11.09 TNF IL9 IL13
16 11.01 TNF IL13 IL10
17 10.88 TNF CXCL8
18 10.75 IL9 IL13 IL10
19 10.64 IL9 IL13
20 10.64 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8 CCL23
21 10.61 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8

GO Terms for Trichuriasis

Cellular components related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.56 TNF SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 IL10 EPGN
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.28 VNN2 TNF SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 IL10

Biological processes related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.73 TNF IL13 IL10 CXCL8
2 positive regulation of macrophage activation GO:0043032 9.49 IL13 IL10
3 embryonic digestive tract development GO:0048566 9.48 TNF CXCL8
4 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.46 TNF IL10
5 immune response GO:0006955 9.43 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8 CCL23
6 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.4 IL10 CXCL8
7 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.37 TNF IL10
8 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.32 TNF IL10
9 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.26 TNF IL10
10 receptor biosynthetic process GO:0032800 9.16 TNF IL10
11 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.1 TNF SERPINA3 IL9 IL13 CXCL8 CCL23

Molecular functions related to Trichuriasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.1 TNF IL9 IL13 IL10 CXCL8 CCL23

Sources for Trichuriasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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