TTTS
MCID: TWN001
MIFTS: 49

Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS)

Categories: Blood diseases, Fetal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

Name: Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome 41 12 76 53 15
Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome 53 59
Fetal Blood Loss from Fetal Hemorrhage into Co-Twin 12
Fetus-to-Fetus Placental Transfusion Syndrome 73
Feto-Fetal Transfusion Syndrome 59
Twin Twin Transfusion Syndrome 41
Fetofetal Transfusion Syndrome 53
Fetal Hemorrhage into Co-Twin 12
Twin-to-Twin Blood Transfer 12
Fetal Transfusion Syndrome 53
Twin to Twin Transfusion 12
Fetofetal Transfusion 44
Ttts 53

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13576
ICD10 33 O43.02 O43.029
MeSH 44 D005330
NCIt 50 C113824
SNOMED-CT 68 13404009
Orphanet 59 ORPHA95431
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 O43.0
UMLS 73 C2909036

Summaries for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare condition that occurs during a twin pregnancy when blood moves from one twin (the �??donor twin�?�) to the other (the �??recipient twin�?�) while in the womb. TTTS is a complication that specifically occurs in identical (monozygotic) twin pregnancies that share the same "egg" sac (monochorionic) that may or may not share the same amniotic sac (monoamniotic). TTTS usually develops between 15 and 26 weeks of pregnancy. The donor twin may be born smaller, with paleness, anemia, and dehydration. The recipient twin may be born larger, with redness, too much blood, and increased blood pressure, resulting in an increased risk for heart failure. Treatment may require repeated amniocentesis during pregnancy. Fetal laser surgery may be done to interrupt the flow of blood from one twin to the other. After birth, treatment depends on the infant's specific symptoms. The donor twin may need a blood transfusion to treat anemia. The recipient twin may need to have the volume of body fluid reduced. This may involve an exchange transfusion. Medications may be given to treat heart failure in the recipient twin.

MalaCards based summary : Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, also known as twin to twin transfusion syndrome, is related to placental insufficiency and limb ischemia. An important gene associated with Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome is PGF (Placental Growth Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are ERK Signaling and TGF-Beta Pathway. The drugs Progesterone and 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, placenta and cervix, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 76 Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), also known as feto-fetal transfusion syndrome (FFTS) and twin... more...

Related Diseases for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Diseases related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 73)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 placental insufficiency 29.9 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF
2 limb ischemia 29.9 ANGPT2 PGF
3 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 29.9 ANGPT2 FLT1
4 placental abruption 29.8 ENG FLT1 PGF
5 pulmonary hypertension 29.8 ANGPT1 ENG REN
6 myocardial infarction 29.6 ANGPT1 ENG PGF REN
7 vascular disease 29.6 ANGPT1 ENG REN
8 renal tubular dysgenesis 11.7
9 heart disease 10.2
10 polycythemia 10.2
11 polyhydramnios 10.2
12 preterm premature rupture of the membranes 10.2
13 congenital cytomegalovirus 10.2
14 cytomegalovirus infection 10.2
15 hydranencephaly 10.1
16 polymicrogyria 10.1
17 mild pre-eclampsia 10.1 FLT1 PGF
18 glomeruloid hemangioma 10.1 ENG FLT1
19 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 10.1 FLT1 PGF
20 cancer-associated retinopathy 10.1 FLT1 PGF
21 vascular cancer 10.0 ENG FLT1
22 thrombosis 10.0
23 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 10.0
24 down syndrome 10.0
25 enterocolitis 10.0
26 anxiety 10.0
27 hydrops fetalis, nonimmune, and/or atrial septal defect 10.0
28 arteriovenous fistula 10.0
29 cerebral palsy 10.0
30 arteriovenous malformation 10.0
31 oligohydramnios 10.0
32 periventricular leukomalacia 10.0
33 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.0
34 ischemia 10.0
35 peritonitis 10.0
36 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 10.0
37 pulmonary embolism 10.0
38 amniotic band syndrome 10.0
39 fetal edema 10.0
40 hydrops fetalis 10.0
41 leukomalacia 10.0
42 transposition of the great arteries 10.0
43 depression 10.0
44 angiodysplasia 10.0 ANGPT2 ENG
45 triiodothyronine receptor auxiliary protein 10.0
46 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 10.0
47 thalassemia 10.0
48 syndromic intellectual disability 10.0
49 pituitary adenoma 10.0
50 adenoma 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:



Diseases related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.8 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF REN
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.7 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF REN
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.43 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF REN VEGFC
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.17 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 REN TUBB3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Drugs for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 28)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 57-83-0 5994
2 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate Phase 3
3 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
4 11-hydroxyprogesterone Phase 3
5 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 3
6 Hormones Phase 3
7 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
8 Progestins Phase 3
9 Caproate Phase 3
10 Estrogens Phase 3
11 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
12
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
13
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
14
Glucosamine Approved, Investigational ,Not Applicable 3416-24-8 439213
15
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
16 Lipid Regulating Agents ,Not Applicable
17 Anticoagulants ,Not Applicable
18 Glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate ,Not Applicable
19 Epinephryl borate
20 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
21 Antimetabolites ,Not Applicable
22 Hypolipidemic Agents ,Not Applicable
23 Anesthetics ,Not Applicable
24 Anti-Bacterial Agents
25 Fibrinolytic Agents ,Not Applicable
26 Hypoglycemic Agents ,Not Applicable
27 Central Nervous System Depressants
28 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Trial of Progesterone in Twins and Triplets to Prevent Preterm Birth (STTARS) Completed NCT00099164 Phase 3 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P)
2 Fetoscopic Selective Laser Photocoagulation in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Unknown status NCT00345852 Not Applicable
3 The Value of Prenatal Ultrasound in Complicated Twin Pregnancy and Its Correlation With Chromosomal Anomalies Unknown status NCT02732717
4 Renal Artery Dopplers in Twin Twin Transfusion Syndrome Completed NCT03449823
5 Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Communicating Vessels in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Completed NCT01622049
6 Neonatal Outcome for Laser Coagulation in Twin-to-twin-transfusion Syndrome Completed NCT03151915
7 Pessary to Prevent Prematurity in Twins in Case of Short Cervix Completed NCT02328989 Not Applicable
8 Anesthetic Management in Fetoscopic Surgery and Incidence of Complications Completed NCT02434926
9 Sequential vs. Standard Laser Treatment of Twin-twin Transfusion Syndrome Recruiting NCT02122328 Not Applicable
10 Ductus Venosus Doppler at 16 Weeks in Monochorial Pregnancy Recruiting NCT03579069
11 The Trial of Pessary After Laser for TTTS Recruiting NCT01334489 Not Applicable
12 Austrian Registry on the Outcome of Monochorionic Pregnancies Recruiting NCT03171909
13 Fetal Electrophysiologic Abnormalities in High-Risk Pregnancies Associated With Fetal Demise Recruiting NCT03775954
14 Unequal Placental Sharing in Monochorionic Diamniotic Twins: an Observational Study Recruiting NCT03024918
15 The Utility of MRI Scoring to Predict Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Survivors of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT02249624
16 Monochorial-diamniotic Pregnancies Complicated With a Twin-to-twin Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT02611856
17 Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing a Conservative Management and Laser Surgery Active, not recruiting NCT01220011 Not Applicable
18 Laser Photocoagulation in Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome Enrolling by invitation NCT02506049 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: fetofetal transfusion

Genetic Tests for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

41
Heart, Placenta, Cervix, Brain, Bone, Eye, Pituitary

Publications for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Articles related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 320)
# Title Authors Year
1
Differential Changes in Myocardial Performance Index and Its Time Intervals in Donors and Recipients of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome before and after Laser Therapy. ( 29353282 )
2018
2
Fetal Doppler changes one week after endoscopic equatorial laser for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a longitudinal study. ( 29436718 )
2018
3
Impact of laser therapy for Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome on subsequent pregnancy. ( 29417606 )
2018
4
Unusual course of hyperreactio luteinalis in twin pregnancy complicated by twin to twin transfusion syndrome. ( 29363826 )
2018
5
Mortality, morbidity and 2-years neurodevelopmental prognosis of twin to twin transfusion syndrome after fetoscopic laser therapy: a prospective, 58 patients cohort study. ( 29698746 )
2018
6
Twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome: from amniodrainage to laser. ( 30004636 )
2018
7
Intra-Amniotic Pressure of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 30007973 )
2018
8
Fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome treatment: initial experience in tertiary reference center in Brazil. ( 30018900 )
2018
9
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome neurodevelopmental follow-up study (neurodevelopmental outcomes for children whose twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome was treated with placental laser photocoagulation). ( 30068295 )
2018
10
Long-term outcomes for monochorionic twins after laser therapy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30169324 )
2018
11
Measurement of cardiac function by cardiac time intervals, applicability in normal pregnancy and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30343379 )
2018
12
Beta blocker therapy in recipients of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30355780 )
2018
13
Acquired right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome; a prospective longitudinal study. ( 30365169 )
2018
14
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome in dichorionic twin pregnancy: rare but not impossible. ( 30549373 )
2018
15
Isolated Ascites in a Monochorionic Twin after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation Is Not Necessarily Secondary to Recurrence or Anaemia: Bowel Complications in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation. ( 30554214 )
2018
16
Does the Site of The Cord Insertion increase the risk of Adverse Outcome, Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Discordant Growth in monochorionic twin pregnancies? ( 29024208 )
2017
17
Late-onset transient adrenal insufficiency in preterm twins with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: A case report. ( 29381949 )
2017
18
Arabin cervical pessary for prevention of preterm birth in cases of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome treated by fetoscopic LASER coagulation: the PECEP LASER randomised controlled trial. ( 28764674 )
2017
19
Virtual three-dimensional placentoscopy: a new approach to assess residual anastomoses following laser photocoagulation in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 28114847 )
2017
20
Doppler assessment of patients with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and survival following fetoscopic laser surgery. ( 28281301 )
2017
21
Modified diagnostic criteria for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome prior to 18 weeks' gestation: time to change? ( 28236371 )
2017
22
Spontaneous resolution of mirror syndrome following fetal interventions for fetal anemia as a consequence of twin to twin transfusion syndrome. ( 27914652 )
2017
23
Aortic and pulmonary artery calcification: An unusual manifestation of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 28163434 )
2017
24
Musical Interests and Talent: Twin Jazz Musicians and Twin Studies/Twin Research: Loss of a Preterm Multiple; Conjoined Twin Conception; Depression in Fathers of Twins; Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome/Twin News: High-Achieving Twins; Twin Children of a Tennis Star; Conjoined Twin Separation; Twin Delivery to a Giant Panda. ( 29103407 )
2017
25
Different patterns of left ventricular "rigid body rotation" in 8-year-old twins with anamnestic twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (from the MAGYAR-Twin Study). ( 28275566 )
2017
26
Fetoscopic laser coagulation in 1020 pregnancies with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome demonstrates improvement of double survival rates. ( 28477345 )
2017
27
Atypical twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: prevalence inA aA populationA undergoing fetoscopic laser ablation of communicatingA placental vessels. ( 26827875 )
2016
28
Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Definition, Staging, and Ultrasound Assessment. ( 27203605 )
2016
29
Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Survivors of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27137794 )
2016
30
Laser Treatment of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27203606 )
2016
31
Balancing Patient Access to Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome With Maintaining Procedural Competence: Are Collaborative Services Part of the Solution? ( 27087260 )
2016
32
Monochorionic diamniotic inA vitro fertilization twins have a decreased incidence of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 26690011 )
2016
33
The Placenta in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence. ( 27098457 )
2016
34
A prospective pilot study of fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome between 26 and 27 weeks of gestation. ( 27590373 )
2016
35
Cardiac Manifestations of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27087122 )
2016
36
Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: From Observational Evidence to Randomized Controlled Trials. ( 27075108 )
2016
37
The History of Treatment of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27203604 )
2016
38
Intra-arterial calcifications in the recipient twin in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 27834168 )
2016
39
Early prediction of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 27270878 )
2016
40
The 2016 Satellite Meeting of the International Society of Twin Studies: An Overview/Tribute to Irving I. Gottesman/Research: MZ Twinning After Single Embryo Transfer; Twin Study of Mononucleosis; Cerebral Injury After Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Surgery/Human Interest: Sixteen Twin Pairs Born in a Single Hospital; Death of an Identical Twin Playwright; Twin Themes in Advertising; Conjoined Twins Separated in Saudi Arabia; Murder of One Twin By Her Co-Twin Disproved. ( 27524469 )
2016
41
Future Directions in the Management of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27125296 )
2016
42
Identifying families' shared disease experiences through a qualitative analysis of online twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome stories. ( 27422614 )
2016
43
Increased Risk Of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis After Laser Surgery For Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27137630 )
2016
44
Impact of Monochorionicity and Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome on Prenatal Attachment, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms. ( 26751570 )
2016
45
Fetal left modified myocardial performance index measured by the Auto Mod-MPI system: development of reference values and application to recipients of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 26921842 )
2016
46
Fetoscopic laser photocoagulation in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: experience from a single institution. ( 27056209 )
2016
47
Evolution of Stage 1 Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 27137946 )
2016
48
Perinatal outcome after fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome in triplet pregnancies: systematic review. ( 26265264 )
2015
49
Short-Time Impact of Laser Ablation of Placental Anastomoses on Myocardial Function in Monochorionic Twins with Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 26331331 )
2015
50
Postnatal survival after endoscopic equatorial laser for the treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 26517964 )
2015

Variations for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Expression for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

Pathways for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Pathways related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.5 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF TUBB3 VEGFC
2
Show member pathways
13.21 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
3
Show member pathways
13.06 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
4
Show member pathways
12.91 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF TUBB3 VEGFC
5
Show member pathways
12.73 FLT1 PGF REN VEGFC
6
Show member pathways
12.67 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
7
Show member pathways
12.39 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
8 12.39 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
9
Show member pathways
12.31 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
10
Show member pathways
12.3 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
11
Show member pathways
12.13 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
12
Show member pathways
11.98 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
13 11.84 ANGPT2 FLT1 VEGFC
14 11.65 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1
15
Show member pathways
11.6 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
16
Show member pathways
11.57 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
17 11.14 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
18 10.97 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 REN VEGFC
19 10.93 ANGPT2 ENG
20 10.9 ANGPT1 FLT1
21 10.71 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
22
Show member pathways
10.34 FLT1 PGF VEGFC

GO Terms for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Cellular components related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.43 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF REN VEGFC
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF REN

Biological processes related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.91 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
2 cell differentiation GO:0030154 9.89 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
3 response to drug GO:0042493 9.78 ENG PGF REN VEGFC
4 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.72 ENG PGF VEGFC
5 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.71 ANGPT2 PGF VEGFC
6 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0048010 9.61 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
7 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation GO:0001938 9.6 PGF VEGFC
8 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.59 ANGPT1 FLT1
9 positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration GO:0043536 9.58 ANGPT1 VEGFC
10 positive regulation of cell division GO:0051781 9.58 PGF VEGFC
11 animal organ regeneration GO:0031100 9.57 ANGPT2 PGF
12 blood vessel morphogenesis GO:0048514 9.56 ANGPT2 FLT1
13 positive regulation of angiogenesis GO:0045766 9.55 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF VEGFC
14 induction of positive chemotaxis GO:0050930 9.52 PGF VEGFC
15 positive chemotaxis GO:0050918 9.5 ANGPT1 PGF VEGFC
16 positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis GO:0060754 9.46 PGF VEGFC
17 vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway GO:0038084 9.43 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
18 glomerulus vasculature development GO:0072012 9.4 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
19 Tie signaling pathway GO:0048014 9.37 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
20 sprouting angiogenesis GO:0002040 9.26 ANGPT1 ENG PGF VEGFC
21 angiogenesis GO:0001525 9.1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF VEGFC

Molecular functions related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.43 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 REN
2 receptor tyrosine kinase binding GO:0030971 9.16 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
3 chemoattractant activity GO:0042056 8.96 PGF VEGFC
4 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 binding GO:0043185 8.62 PGF VEGFC

Sources for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
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74 UMLS via Orphanet
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