TTTS
MCID: TWN001
MIFTS: 51

Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS)

Categories: Blood diseases, Fetal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

Name: Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome 42 12 77 54 15 17
Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome 54 60
Fetal Blood Loss from Fetal Hemorrhage into Co-Twin 12
Fetus-to-Fetus Placental Transfusion Syndrome 74
Feto-Fetal Transfusion Syndrome 60
Twin Twin Transfusion Syndrome 42
Fetofetal Transfusion Syndrome 54
Fetal Hemorrhage into Co-Twin 12
Twin-to-Twin Blood Transfer 12
Fetal Transfusion Syndrome 54
Twin to Twin Transfusion 12
Fetofetal Transfusion 45
Ttts 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13576
MeSH 45 D005330
NCIt 51 C113824
SNOMED-CT 69 13404009
ICD10 34 O43.02 O43.029
ICD10 via Orphanet 35 O43.0
Orphanet 60 ORPHA95431
UMLS 74 C2909036

Summaries for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare condition that occurs during a twin pregnancy when blood moves from one twin (the �??donor twin�?�) to the other (the �??recipient twin�?�) while in the womb. TTTS is a complication that specifically occurs in identical (monozygotic) twin pregnancies that share the same "egg" sac (monochorionic) that may or may not share the same amniotic sac (monoamniotic). TTTS usually develops between 15 and 26 weeks of pregnancy. The donor twin may be born smaller, with paleness, anemia, and dehydration. The recipient twin may be born larger, with redness, too much blood, and increased blood pressure, resulting in an increased risk for heart failure. Treatment may require repeated amniocentesis during pregnancy. Fetal laser surgery may be done to interrupt the flow of blood from one twin to the other. After birth, treatment depends on the infant's specific symptoms. The donor twin may need a blood transfusion to treat anemia. The recipient twin may need to have the volume of body fluid reduced. This may involve an exchange transfusion. Medications may be given to treat heart failure in the recipient twin.

MalaCards based summary : Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, also known as twin to twin transfusion syndrome, is related to renal tubular dysgenesis and oligohydramnios. An important gene associated with Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome is PGF (Placental Growth Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TGF-Beta Pathway and Akt Signaling. The drugs Progesterone and Estrogen Receptor Antagonists have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include placenta, heart and cervix, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 77 Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), also known as feto-fetal transfusion syndrome (FFTS), twin... more...

Related Diseases for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Diseases related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 88)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 renal tubular dysgenesis 32.7 AGTR1 REN
2 oligohydramnios 30.0 AGTR1 REN
3 anuria 29.9 AGTR1 REN
4 placental abruption 29.9 ENG FLT1 PGF
5 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 29.9 ANGPT2 FLT1
6 limb ischemia 29.9 ANGPT2 PGF
7 placental insufficiency 29.7 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF
8 pulmonary hypertension 29.7 ANGPT1 ENG REN
9 vascular disease 29.4 ANGPT1 ENG REN
10 myocardial infarction 29.3 AGTR1 ANGPT1 PGF REN
11 heart disease 10.3
12 polycythemia 10.3
13 polyhydramnios 10.3
14 mild pre-eclampsia 10.2 FLT1 PGF
15 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 10.2 FLT1 PGF
16 cancer-associated retinopathy 10.2 FLT1 PGF
17 glomeruloid hemangioma 10.2 ENG FLT1
18 preterm premature rupture of the membranes 10.2
19 congenital cytomegalovirus 10.2
20 cytomegalovirus infection 10.2
21 hydranencephaly 10.2
22 polymicrogyria 10.2
23 thalassemia 10.2
24 retinal vascular disease 10.1 FLT1 PGF
25 vascular cancer 10.1 ENG FLT1
26 renal artery disease 10.1 AGTR1 REN
27 congenital hepatic fibrosis 10.1 AGTR1 REN
28 acute mountain sickness 10.1 AGTR1 FLT1
29 fibromuscular dysplasia 10.1 AGTR1 REN
30 renal hypertension 10.1 AGTR1 REN
31 renovascular hypertension 10.1 AGTR1 REN
32 breast carcinoma in situ 10.1 FLT1 VEGFC
33 familial hypertension 10.1 AGTR1 REN
34 hellp syndrome 10.0 ENG FLT1 PGF
35 vesicoureteral reflux 1 10.0 AGTR1 REN
36 thrombosis 10.0
37 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 10.0
38 down syndrome 10.0
39 enterocolitis 10.0
40 anxiety 10.0
41 lymphatic malformation 7 10.0
42 arteriovenous fistula 10.0
43 cerebral palsy 10.0
44 chronic kidney failure 10.0
45 arteriovenous malformation 10.0
46 periventricular leukomalacia 10.0
47 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.0
48 ischemia 10.0
49 kidney disease 10.0
50 peritonitis 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:



Diseases related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.86 AGTR1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.76 AGTR1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.5 AGTR1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF REN
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.17 AGTR1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 REN

Drugs & Therapeutics for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Drugs for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 20)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 57-83-0 5994
2 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
3 11-hydroxyprogesterone Phase 3
4 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 3
5 Hormones Phase 3
6 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
7 Progestins Phase 3
8 Caproate Phase 3
9 17 alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate Phase 3
10 Estrogens Phase 3
11 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
12
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
13
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
14
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
15 Anesthetics Not Applicable
16 Anti-Bacterial Agents
17 Epinephryl borate
18 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
19 Central Nervous System Depressants
20 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 19)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Trial of Progesterone in Twins and Triplets to Prevent Preterm Birth (STTARS) Completed NCT00099164 Phase 3 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P)
2 Fetoscopic Selective Laser Photocoagulation in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Unknown status NCT00345852 Not Applicable
3 The Trial of Pessary After Laser for TTTS Unknown status NCT01334489 Not Applicable
4 The Value of Prenatal Ultrasound in Complicated Twin Pregnancy and Its Correlation With Chromosomal Anomalies Unknown status NCT02732717
5 Renal Artery Dopplers in Twin Twin Transfusion Syndrome Completed NCT03449823
6 Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Communicating Vessels in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Completed NCT01622049
7 Neonatal Outcome for Laser Coagulation in Twin-to-twin-transfusion Syndrome Completed NCT03151915
8 Pessary to Prevent Prematurity in Twins in Case of Short Cervix Completed NCT02328989 Not Applicable
9 Anesthetic Management in Fetoscopic Surgery and Incidence of Complications Completed NCT02434926
10 Sequential vs. Standard Laser Treatment of Twin-twin Transfusion Syndrome Recruiting NCT02122328 Not Applicable
11 Ductus Venosus Doppler at 16 Weeks in Monochorial Pregnancy Recruiting NCT03579069
12 Emergency Cerclage in Twin Pregnancies at Imminent Risk of Preterm Birth: an Open-Label Randomised Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03818867 Not Applicable
13 Austrian Registry on the Outcome of Monochorionic Pregnancies Recruiting NCT03171909
14 Fetal Electrophysiologic Abnormalities in High-Risk Pregnancies Associated With Fetal Demise Recruiting NCT03775954
15 Unequal Placental Sharing in Monochorionic Diamniotic Twins: an Observational Study Recruiting NCT03024918
16 The Utility of MRI Scoring to Predict Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Survivors of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT02249624
17 Monochorial-diamniotic Pregnancies Complicated With a Twin-to-twin Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT02611856
18 Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing a Conservative Management and Laser Surgery Active, not recruiting NCT01220011 Not Applicable
19 Laser Photocoagulation in Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome Enrolling by invitation NCT02506049 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: fetofetal transfusion

Genetic Tests for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

42
Placenta, Heart, Cervix, Brain, Kidney, Bone, Eye

Publications for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Articles related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 326)
# Title Authors Year
1
Modified fetoscopic laser surgery in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome with proximate cord insertions: a report of two cases and literature review. ( 30651014 )
2019
2
Fetal Survival Immediate after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation in Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 30662386 )
2019
3
Update on twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30850326 )
2019
4
Postnatal Myocardial Function in Monochorionic Diamniotic Twins with Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome following Selective Laser Photocoagulation of the Communicating Placental Vessels. ( 30910308 )
2019
5
Differential Changes in Myocardial Performance Index and Its Time Intervals in Donors and Recipients of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome before and after Laser Therapy. ( 29353282 )
2018
6
Fetal Doppler changes one week after endoscopic equatorial laser for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a longitudinal study. ( 29436718 )
2018
7
Impact of laser therapy for Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome on subsequent pregnancy. ( 29417606 )
2018
8
Unusual course of hyperreactio luteinalis in twin pregnancy complicated by twin to twin transfusion syndrome. ( 29363826 )
2018
9
Chronic kidney disease following twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome-long-term outcomes. ( 30560449 )
2018
10
Mortality, morbidity and 2-years neurodevelopmental prognosis of twin to twin transfusion syndrome after fetoscopic laser therapy: a prospective, 58 patients cohort study. ( 29698746 )
2018
11
Twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome: from amniodrainage to laser. ( 30004636 )
2018
12
Intra-Amniotic Pressure of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 30007973 )
2018
13
Fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome treatment: initial experience in tertiary reference center in Brazil. ( 30018900 )
2018
14
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome neurodevelopmental follow-up study (neurodevelopmental outcomes for children whose twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome was treated with placental laser photocoagulation). ( 30068295 )
2018
15
Long-term outcomes for monochorionic twins after laser therapy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30169324 )
2018
16
Measurement of cardiac function by cardiac time intervals, applicability in normal pregnancy and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30343379 )
2018
17
Beta blocker therapy in recipients of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 30355780 )
2018
18
Acquired right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome; a prospective longitudinal study. ( 30365169 )
2018
19
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome in dichorionic twin pregnancy: rare but not impossible. ( 30549373 )
2018
20
Isolated Ascites in a Monochorionic Twin after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation Is Not Necessarily Secondary to Recurrence or Anaemia: Bowel Complications in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation. ( 30554214 )
2018
21
Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: A Case Report. ( 30567811 )
2018
22
Does the Site of The Cord Insertion increase the risk of Adverse Outcome, Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Discordant Growth in monochorionic twin pregnancies? ( 29024208 )
2017
23
Late-onset transient adrenal insufficiency in preterm twins with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: A case report. ( 29381949 )
2017
24
Arabin cervical pessary for prevention of preterm birth in cases of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome treated by fetoscopic LASER coagulation: the PECEP LASER randomised controlled trial. ( 28764674 )
2017
25
Virtual three-dimensional placentoscopy: a new approach to assess residual anastomoses following laser photocoagulation in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 28114847 )
2017
26
Doppler assessment of patients with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and survival following fetoscopic laser surgery. ( 28281301 )
2017
27
Modified diagnostic criteria for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome prior to 18 weeks' gestation: time to change? ( 28236371 )
2017
28
Spontaneous resolution of mirror syndrome following fetal interventions for fetal anemia as a consequence of twin to twin transfusion syndrome. ( 27914652 )
2017
29
Aortic and pulmonary artery calcification: An unusual manifestation of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 28163434 )
2017
30
Musical Interests and Talent: Twin Jazz Musicians and Twin Studies/Twin Research: Loss of a Preterm Multiple; Conjoined Twin Conception; Depression in Fathers of Twins; Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome/Twin News: High-Achieving Twins; Twin Children of a Tennis Star; Conjoined Twin Separation; Twin Delivery to a Giant Panda. ( 29103407 )
2017
31
Different patterns of left ventricular "rigid body rotation" in 8-year-old twins with anamnestic twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (from the MAGYAR-Twin Study). ( 28275566 )
2017
32
Fetoscopic laser coagulation in 1020 pregnancies with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome demonstrates improvement of double survival rates. ( 28477345 )
2017
33
Atypical twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: prevalence inA aA populationA undergoing fetoscopic laser ablation of communicatingA placental vessels. ( 26827875 )
2016
34
Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Definition, Staging, and Ultrasound Assessment. ( 27203605 )
2016
35
Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Survivors of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27137794 )
2016
36
Laser Treatment of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27203606 )
2016
37
Balancing Patient Access to Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome With Maintaining Procedural Competence: Are Collaborative Services Part of the Solution? ( 27087260 )
2016
38
Monochorionic diamniotic inA vitro fertilization twins have a decreased incidence of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 26690011 )
2016
39
The Placenta in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence. ( 27098457 )
2016
40
A prospective pilot study of fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome between 26 and 27 weeks of gestation. ( 27590373 )
2016
41
Cardiac Manifestations of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27087122 )
2016
42
Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: From Observational Evidence to Randomized Controlled Trials. ( 27075108 )
2016
43
The History of Treatment of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27203604 )
2016
44
Intra-arterial calcifications in the recipient twin in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. ( 27834168 )
2016
45
Early prediction of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 27270878 )
2016
46
The 2016 Satellite Meeting of the International Society of Twin Studies: An Overview/Tribute to Irving I. Gottesman/Research: MZ Twinning After Single Embryo Transfer; Twin Study of Mononucleosis; Cerebral Injury After Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Surgery/Human Interest: Sixteen Twin Pairs Born in a Single Hospital; Death of an Identical Twin Playwright; Twin Themes in Advertising; Conjoined Twins Separated in Saudi Arabia; Murder of One Twin By Her Co-Twin Disproved. ( 27524469 )
2016
47
Future Directions in the Management of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27125296 )
2016
48
Identifying families' shared disease experiences through a qualitative analysis of online twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome stories. ( 27422614 )
2016
49
Increased Risk Of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis After Laser Surgery For Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. ( 27137630 )
2016
50
Impact of Monochorionicity and Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome on Prenatal Attachment, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms. ( 26751570 )
2016

Variations for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Expression for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

Pathways for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Pathways related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.19 AGTR1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
2
Show member pathways
13.09 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
3
Show member pathways
12.99 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
4
Show member pathways
12.71 AGTR1 FLT1 PGF REN VEGFC
5
Show member pathways
12.64 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
6
Show member pathways
12.4 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
7 12.39 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
8
Show member pathways
12.34 AGTR1 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
9
Show member pathways
12.3 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
10
Show member pathways
12.29 AGTR1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
11
Show member pathways
12.12 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
12
Show member pathways
11.98 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
13 11.88 ANGPT2 FLT1 VEGFC
14 11.67 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1
15
Show member pathways
11.6 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
16 11.44 AGTR1 REN
17
Show member pathways
11.37 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
18 11.14 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
19 10.97 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 REN VEGFC
20 10.94 ANGPT1 FLT1
21 10.73 AGTR1 ANGPT2 ENG
22 10.67 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC

GO Terms for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Cellular components related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.43 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF REN VEGFC
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF REN

Biological processes related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.92 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
2 cell differentiation GO:0030154 9.91 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
3 response to drug GO:0042493 9.8 ENG PGF REN VEGFC
4 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.73 ENG PGF VEGFC
5 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.72 ANGPT2 PGF VEGFC
6 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0048010 9.63 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
7 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation GO:0001938 9.61 PGF VEGFC
8 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.6 ANGPT1 FLT1
9 positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration GO:0043536 9.59 ANGPT1 VEGFC
10 positive regulation of cell division GO:0051781 9.58 PGF VEGFC
11 animal organ regeneration GO:0031100 9.58 ANGPT2 PGF
12 blood vessel morphogenesis GO:0048514 9.57 ANGPT2 FLT1
13 positive regulation of angiogenesis GO:0045766 9.55 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF VEGFC
14 induction of positive chemotaxis GO:0050930 9.54 PGF VEGFC
15 positive chemotaxis GO:0050918 9.5 ANGPT1 PGF VEGFC
16 positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis GO:0060754 9.48 PGF VEGFC
17 glomerulus vasculature development GO:0072012 9.43 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
18 vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway GO:0038084 9.43 FLT1 PGF VEGFC
19 renin-angiotensin regulation of aldosterone production GO:0002018 9.4 AGTR1 REN
20 Tie signaling pathway GO:0048014 9.37 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
21 sprouting angiogenesis GO:0002040 9.26 ANGPT1 ENG PGF VEGFC
22 angiogenesis GO:0001525 9.1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ENG FLT1 PGF VEGFC

Molecular functions related to Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.43 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 REN
2 receptor tyrosine kinase binding GO:0030971 9.16 ANGPT1 ANGPT2
3 chemoattractant activity GO:0042056 8.96 PGF VEGFC
4 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 binding GO:0043185 8.32 VEGFC

Sources for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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