Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

Name: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 57 12 43 36 15
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 74 20 43 29 6
Iddm 57 12 20 43 73
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent 57 43 73 39
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 12 20 43 32
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes 57 20 43
Type 1 Diabetes 20 43 62
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 43 44
Type I Diabetes Mellitus 12 17
T1d 57 43
Jod 57 43
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent; Iddm 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent-1 57
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus-1 13
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Dependent 20
Diabetes Mellitus Insulin-Dependent 54
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 43
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes; Jod 57
Diabetes, Insulin Dependent 74
Autoimmune Diabetes 43
Diabetes Autoimmune 54
Juvenile Diabetes 43
Diabetes Type 1 42
Type I Diabetes 15



57 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
autosomal recessive susceptibility


type 1 diabetes mellitus:
Inheritance heterogeneous


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9744
OMIM® 57 222100
KEGG 36 H00408
MeSH 44 D003922
NCIt 50 C2986
SNOMED-CT 67 46635009
ICD10 32 E10
MedGen 41 C0011854
UMLS 71 C0011854

Summaries for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas called beta cells stop producing insulin. Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Lack of insulin results in the inability to use glucose for energy or to control the amount of sugar in the blood.Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, from early childhood to late adulthood. The first signs and symptoms of the disorder are caused by high blood sugar and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. These symptoms may recur during the course of the disorder if blood sugar is not well controlled by insulin replacement therapy. Improper control can also cause blood sugar levels to become too low (hypoglycemia). This may occur when the body's needs change, such as during exercise or if eating is delayed. Hypoglycemia can cause headache, dizziness, hunger, shaking, sweating, weakness, and agitation.Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Without insulin, cells cannot take in glucose. A lack of glucose in cells prompts the liver to try to compensate by releasing more glucose into the blood, and blood sugar can become extremely high. The cells, unable to use the glucose in the blood for energy, respond by using fats instead. Breaking down fats to obtain energy produces waste products called ketones, which can build up to toxic levels in people with type 1 diabetes, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis. Affected individuals may begin breathing rapidly; develop a fruity odor in the breath; and experience nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, stomach pain, and dryness of the mouth (xerostomia). In severe cases, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death.Over many years, the chronic high blood sugar associated with diabetes may cause damage to blood vessels and nerves, leading to complications affecting many organs and tissues. The retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, can be damaged (diabetic retinopathy), leading to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) may also occur and can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pain, tingling, and loss of normal sensation (diabetic neuropathy) often occur, especially in the feet. Impaired circulation and absence of the normal sensations that prompt reaction to injury can result in permanent damage to the feet; in severe cases, the damage can lead to amputation. People with type 1 diabetes are also at increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, and problems with urinary and sexual function.

MalaCards based summary : Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, also known as diabetes mellitus type 1, is related to type 1 diabetes mellitus 12 and type 1 diabetes mellitus 2, and has symptoms including polydipsia and polyuria. An important gene associated with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is HNF1A (HNF1 Homeobox A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Type I diabetes mellitus and T cell receptor signaling pathway. The drugs Liraglutide and Empagliflozin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pancreas, kidney and bone, and related phenotypes are diabetes mellitus and polydipsia

Disease Ontology : 12 A diabetes mellitus that is characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells resulting in absent or extremely low insulin production.

GARD : 20 Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is a condition in which cells in the pancreas (beta cells) stop producing insulin, causing abnormally high blood sugar levels. Lack of insulin results in the inability of the body to use glucose for energy and control the amount of sugar in the blood. DM1 can occur at any age, but usually develops by early adulthood, most often in adolescence. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. The exact cause of DM1 is unknown, but having certain "variants" of specific genes may increase a person's risk to develop the condition. A predisposition to develop DM1 runs in families, but no known inheritance pattern exists. Treatment includes blood sugar control and insulin replacement therapy. Improper control can cause recurrence of high blood sugar, or abnormally low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) during exercise or when eating is delayed. If not treated, the condition can be life-threatening. Over many years, chronic high blood sugar may be associated with a variety of complications that affect many parts of the body.

OMIM® : 57 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), also designated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a disorder of glucose homeostasis characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of T1D have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classic phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. (222100) (Updated 05-Mar-2021)

MedlinePlus : 42 Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but can appear at any age. Symptoms may include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having dry, itchy skin Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet Having blurry eyesight A blood test can show if you have diabetes. If you do, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life. A blood test called the A1C can check to see how well you are managing your diabetes. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

KEGG : 36 The majority of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) cases are believed to arise from an inflammatory, autoimmune attack against the beta cells in the pancreas, which consequently leads to the failure of insulin-mediated blood glucose regulation in the body. T1DM signs and symptoms can come on quickly and may include increased thirst and frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss and so on. It is recognized that both genetic and environmental determinants are important in defining disease risk. The HLA class II genes are most strongly associated with T1DM. Another plausible candidate genes are INS, CTLA4 and PTPN22. The disease may be a result of variations in several susceptibility genes, with the majority only contributing weak effects.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

PubMed Health : 62 About type 1 diabetes: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects many parts of the body. Depending on the type of diabetes, the body either cannot produce insulin itself (type 1) or is unable to use the insulin it produces properly (type 2). Insulin is a hormone – a chemical messenger that is transported in the blood and regulates important body functions. Without insulin your body cannot get the energy it needs from the food you have eaten. This vital hormone is usually produced in the pancreas and released into the bloodstream. Here it enables the sugar (glucose) in our food and drink to be transported into our cells and converted into energy for our bodies. Without insulin our bodies cannot use the sugar in our blood, so the sugar builds up there. Very high blood sugar concentrations cause a number of symptoms. People with type 1 diabetes have to inject insulin on a daily basis because their pancreas can only produce insulin in very small quantities, or can’t produce any insulin at all. Insulin therapy helps prevent strong fluctuations in blood sugar levels and the unpleasant effects of high and low blood sugar. It is also intended to prevent complications that may arise as a result of high blood sugar levels.

Wikipedia : 74 Type 1 diabetes (T1D), previously known as juvenile diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which very little... more...

Related Diseases for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus family:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 3
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 4 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 5
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 7 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 8
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 11 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 13
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 12 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 15 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 6
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 10 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 17
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 3 Diabetes Mellitus, Congenital Autoimmune
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 18 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 4
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 19 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 20
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 21 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 22
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 23 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 24
Type 2 Diabetes 5 Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Rare Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1423)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 type 1 diabetes mellitus 12 33.6 PTPRN PTPN22 INS CTLA4
2 type 1 diabetes mellitus 2 33.6 PTPRN PTPN22 INS HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1 GAD2
3 type 1 diabetes mellitus 5 33.5 PTPN22 INS CTLA4
4 type 1 diabetes mellitus 20 33.5 TPO INS HNF1A
5 celiac disease 1 33.0 TPO PTPRN PTPN22 INS IL6 HLA-DRB1
6 diabetes mellitus 32.9 TPO PVT1 PTPRN PTPN22 MEG3 INS
7 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 32.8 PTPRN INS GAD2 GAD1 CTLA4 ALB
8 hyperglycemia 32.6 INS IL6 HNF1A ALB
9 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 32.5 TPO PTPRN PTPN22 INS GAD2 GAD1
10 autoimmune disease 32.4 TPO PTPRN PTPN22 INS IL6 HSPD1
11 microvascular complications of diabetes 3 32.4 PVT1 INS ALB
12 thyroiditis 32.3 TPO PTPN22 INS IL6 HLA-DRB1 FOXP3
13 insulinoma 32.0 PTPRN INS HNF1A GAD1
14 graves' disease 32.0 TPO PTPN22 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1 GAD2
15 thyroid gland disease 31.9 TPO INS IL6 CTLA4 ALB
16 type 2 diabetes mellitus 31.9 PVT1 PTPRN INS IL6 HNF1A HLA-DRB1
17 hashimoto thyroiditis 31.9 TPO PTPN22 IL6 GAD2 FOXP3 CTLA4
18 latent autoimmune diabetes in adults 31.8 PTPN22 INS HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 CTLA4
19 hyperthyroidism 31.8 TPO INS IL6 CTLA4 ALB
20 atherosclerosis susceptibility 31.8 INS IL6 HSPD1 ALB
21 end stage renal disease 31.7 PVT1 INS IL6 ALB
22 gestational diabetes 31.7 PTPRN INS IL6 HNF1A
23 macular retinal edema 31.7 INS IL6 ALB
24 rubella 31.7 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
25 stiff-person syndrome 31.6 INS GAD2 GAD1
26 lupus erythematosus 31.6 PTPN22 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1 CTLA4
27 exanthem 31.6 IL6 CTLA4 ALB
28 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 31.6 TPO PTPN22 CTLA4
29 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 31.6 PTPRN INS HNF1A GAD2 GAD1
30 autoimmune gastritis 31.6 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
31 background diabetic retinopathy 31.5 INS IL6 ALB
32 bone resorption disease 31.5 INS IL6 ALB
33 mumps 31.5 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
34 pernicious anemia 31.5 TPO PTPRN PTPN22 GAD2
35 retinal vascular disease 31.5 INS IL6 ALB
36 glucose intolerance 31.5 INS IL6 HNF1A ALB
37 multiple sclerosis 31.4 PTPN22 IL6 HSPD1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
38 primary adrenal insufficiency 31.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
39 acute cystitis 31.4 INS IL6 ALB
40 narcolepsy 31.4 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
41 autoimmune hepatitis 31.4 TPO HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 FOXP3 CTLA4 ALB
42 graves disease 1 31.4 TPO INS ALB
43 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 31.4 INS HNF1A ALB
44 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 31.3 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1 CTLA4 ALB
45 guillain-barre syndrome 31.3 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1 ALB
46 hepatitis b 31.3 IL6 HLA-DRB1 CTLA4 ALB
47 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 31.3 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
48 lymphopenia 31.2 PTPN22 INS IL6 FOXP3 CTLA4
49 graft-versus-host disease 31.2 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
50 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome 31.2 TPO INS GAD2 GAD1 FOXP3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

Diseases related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Human phenotypes related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

31 (show all 8)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 diabetes mellitus 31 HP:0000819
2 polydipsia 31 HP:0001959
3 autoimmunity 31 HP:0002960
4 hyperglycemia 31 HP:0003074
5 ketoacidosis 31 HP:0001993
6 polyphagia 31 HP:0002591
7 polyuria 31 HP:0000103
8 decreased level of 1,5 anhydroglucitol in serum 31 HP:0410050

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
diabetes mellitus

relative insulin deficiency

G U:
hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis

G I:

abnormally increased gluconeogenesis
insufficient glucose disposal

pancreatic autoimmunity

Clinical features from OMIM®:

222100 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

polydipsia, polyuria

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.1 ALB CTLA4 FOXP3 GAD1 GAD2 HLA-DQA1
2 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.06 ALB CTLA4 FOXP3 GAD1 GAD2 HLA-DQB1
3 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.76 ALB CTLA4 FOXP3 HLA-DQB1 HNF1A IL6
4 muscle MP:0005369 9.56 ALB GAD2 HLA-DQB1 HNF1A HSPD1 IL6
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.23 CTLA4 FOXP3 GAD1 GAD2 HLA-DQB1 HSPD1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

PubMed Health treatment related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 62

In type 1 diabetes , the focus of treatment is to monitor blood sugar levels every day and regularly use insulin . Insulin therapy makes up for the lack of insulin in the body and lowers the concentration of sugar in the blood. It is important to avoid using too much or too little insulin, to prevent blood sugar levels from getting too low or too high. Treatment also aims to prevent long-term complications associated with diabetes as much as possible. There are different types of insulin and different treatment approaches. Blood sugar levels are not only affected by the amount of insulin you inject but also by what you eat and drink, as well as how much energy you use during physical activity. The time of day, inflammatory diseases, other medications or hormonal changes can influence your blood sugar levels too. So most people learn to finely adjust their insulin therapy according to their own body and personal habits. In order for treatment to be successful, people need to be well informed about their diabetes , manage their own therapy and have reliable medical care. But over the long term, your general health will depend on other things besides just blood sugar levels. Aspects like blood pressure can have a big effect in diabetes. Because of this, people with diabetes often take other medications as well, for example to prevent cardiovascular disease .

Drugs for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 487)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4 204656-20-2 44147092
Empagliflozin Approved Phase 4 864070-44-0
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
Insulin glulisine Approved Phase 4 207748-29-6
Glucagon Approved Phase 4 16941-32-5
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
Lisinopril Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83915-83-7, 76547-98-3 5362119
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-61-7 60961
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4 10102-43-9 145068
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 55-63-0 4510
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68521-88-0, 4474-91-3, 11128-99-7 172198
Febuxostat Approved Phase 4 144060-53-7 134018
Vildagliptin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 274901-16-5 6918537
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 122320-73-4 77999
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
Regadenoson Approved, Investigational Phase 4 313348-27-5 219024
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51384-51-1, 37350-58-6 4171
Glimepiride Approved Phase 4 93479-97-1 3476
Nisoldipine Approved Phase 4 63675-72-9 4499
Saxagliptin Approved Phase 4 361442-04-8 11243969
Glipizide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29094-61-9 3478
Diazoxide Approved Phase 4 364-98-7 3019
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 465-65-6 5284596
Insulin detemir Approved Phase 4 169148-63-4 5311023
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
Bacitracin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 1405-87-4 439542 10909430
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
Calcium polycarbophil Approved Phase 4 126040-58-2
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
Calcifediol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 19356-17-3 6433735 5283731
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-81-7 5785 54670067
Uric acid Investigational Phase 4 69-93-2 1175
41 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
42 Antiemetics Phase 4
43 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
44 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
45 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Phase 4
46 Hormones Phase 4
47 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
protease inhibitors Phase 4
49 Tin Fluorides Phase 4
50 Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2705)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Insulin Requirement for Pure- Protein Meal in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Treated With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion - a Cross-over, Randomized Trial. Unknown status NCT02685449 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin aspart;Insulin lispro
2 Is Insulin NovoRapid Better Than Actrapid for Treating Type 1 Diabetic Patients When Simultaneously, Daily Adjusting the Insulin Dose? Unknown status NCT00145353 Phase 4 Insulin NovoRapid versus Actrapid
3 Do Sulphonylureas Preserve Cortical Function During Hypoglycaemia? Unknown status NCT00472875 Phase 4 Glibenclamide
4 Immune Intervention With Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody to Preserve Beta Cell Function in Early Onset Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01280682 Phase 4 rituximab
5 Impact of Insulin Detemir Versus Insulin Glargine on Glycaemic Control and Metabolism During Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01440439 Phase 4 Insulin glargine;Insulin detemir
6 Effects of New Longacting Insulin Analogs on Metabolic Control, Endogenous Insulin Production, GH/IGF-I Axis and Quality of Life - Comparison of NPH, Glargine Och Detemir Insulin From the Debut of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Adolescents Unknown status NCT01271517 Phase 4 NPH insulin;Glargine;Detemir
7 Treatment of Hypoglycemia With Glucagon Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT02232971 Phase 4 Glucagon
8 Effect of Metformin as add-on Therapy on Glycemic Control and Other Diabetes-Related Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetic Patients:a Open-label,Self-control Study Unknown status NCT03590262 Phase 4 Metformin
9 Flexible Insulin Therapy Untethered Insulin Regimen Using Insulin Degludec and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Avidly Exercising Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: FIT Untethered Unknown status NCT03838783 Phase 4 Insulin Degludec
10 Impact on the Oxidative Stress of the Different Analogues of Insulin in People With Type 1 Diabetes. Clinical Trial of Low Level of Intervention. (Ineox Study) Unknown status NCT03328845 Phase 4 Toujeo SoloStar;Tresiba;Humalog Kwikpen;NovoRapid;Apidra
11 Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pre-School Children With Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01016457 Phase 4
12 Absorption and Utilization of a Mixed Meal in Type 1 Diabetes: Creation of a Biological and In Silico Biobank for the Optimization of Artificial Pancreas Systems. A Pilot Study. Unknown status NCT01800734 Phase 4
13 Optimal Insulin Correction Factor in Post- High Intensity Exercise Hyperglycemia in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: The FIT Study Unknown status NCT03057470 Phase 4 50% bolus insulin correction;100% bolus insulin correction;150% bolus insulin correction
14 Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium Lactis BB 12 on Beta-cell Function in Children With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03032354 Phase 4 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12
15 Effect of Sirolimus or Mycophenolate With Tacrolimus on Survival of Pancreas and Kidney Grafts in Type 1 Diabetic Recipients After Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation Unknown status NCT03582878 Phase 4 Sirolimus Oral Product;Mycophenolate Mofetil
16 The Effect of Saxagliptin on Glucose Fluctuation and Immune Regulation in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT02307695 Phase 4 Saxagliptin;Insulin
17 Short-term Effects of Dapagliflozin on Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Homeostasis in Male Type 1 Diabetes Patients. Unknown status NCT02211742 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin
18 An Investigation Into the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Ketogenesis in Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT02962492 Phase 4 Exenatide/Exenatide extended release;Dapagliflozin;Placebo
19 The Effects of Empagliflozin on Functional and Structural Arterial Wall Characteristics Unknown status NCT03639545 Phase 4 Empagliflozin 25mg;Metformin;Empagliflozin/Metformin;Placebos
20 GLP-1 Analogue Treatment in Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT01592279 Phase 4 liraglutide;Insulin injections
21 A Randomized Doubleblind Placebo Controlled Crossover Study With Hexalacton in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria Unknown status NCT00843388 Phase 4 Spironolacton (hexalacton(R));placebo tablet
22 Attenuation of Spinal Induced Hypotension With Granisetron in Type I Diabetic Parturients Unknown status NCT03091881 Phase 4 Granisetron 0.1 MG/ML;Placebos
23 Open-Label Randomized Two-Way Crossover Pilot Study to Estimate the Effects of Inhaled vs. IV Infusion of Human Insulin With Regards to Glucose Disposal in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00315952 Phase 4 Exubera
24 The Effect of Metformin in Overweight Patients With Dysregulated Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00145379 Phase 4 Tablet Metformin 500 mg;Placebo
25 Comparing the Metabolic Control of Once to Twice-daily Insulin Detemir Injections in Children and Adolescence With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Completed NCT00542399 Phase 4 Levemir (insulin detemir);Levemir twice a day
26 Effects of Vitamin C and E on Endothelial Function in Adolescent Diabetes Completed NCT02019186 Phase 4
27 Comparison Between GLP 1 Analogues and DPP 4 Inhibitors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01235819 Phase 4 Insulin;Sitagliptin;Exenatide
28 Efficacy of 6 Months Treatment With Diazoxide at Bedtime in Preventing Beta-cell Demise in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00131755 Phase 4 diazoxide
29 Cross-over, Double-blind, Unicentric, 52 Week Trial of Liraglutide in Type 1 Diabetes. Completed NCT01787916 Phase 4 Liraglutide;Placebos
30 Exenatide (Byetta) Vs Pramlintide (Symlin): Role in Post-prandial Hyperglycemia Completed NCT01269047 Phase 4 Pramlintide;Exenatide;Insulin
31 Clinical Efficacy of Coordinated Boluses in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Treated With Insulin Pumps: a Multicentric, Randomised, Cross Over Study Completed NCT02229097 Phase 4 Normal bolus;Coordinated bolus
32 DirecNet Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of the GlucoWatch Biographer in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00069628 Phase 4
33 DirecNet Pilot Study to Evaluate the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00069615 Phase 4
34 DirecNet Inpatient Study to Test the Accuracy of Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00069537 Phase 4
35 Clinical Outcomes for Diabetic Foot Ulcers Treated With Clostridial Collagenase (SANTYL®) Ointment or With a Comparator Product Containing Silver Completed NCT02581488 Phase 4
36 Effect of Immediate Hemoglobin A1c on Glycemic Control in Children With Type I Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00898534 Phase 4
37 Multicentre Double-blind Placebo-controlled Parallel-group Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Subetta in the Combined Treatment of Patients With Type I Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01868594 Phase 4 Subetta;Placebo
38 A 28-week, Prospective, Single-arm, Phase 4 Study to Evaluate Treatment Optimization With Once-daily Insulin Glargine 300 U/mL in Combination With Prandial Rapid-acting Insulin Analogue in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Previously Uncontrolled on Twice-daily Basal Insulin as Part of Basal-bolus Therapy Completed NCT03406000 Phase 4 INSULIN GLARGINE (U300)
39 A Phase IIIb/IV, Multinational, Multicentre, Randomised, Open Study to Establish the Optimal Method for Initiating and Maintaining Lantus® (Insulin Glargine) Therapy Based on a Comparison of Two Treatment Algorithms to Determine Optimal Metabolic Outcomes, Safety, and Satisfaction in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus/ "HALT" Sub-study: Multicentre, Open Clinical Trial to Assess the Effect of Insulin Glargine on Symptomatic Hypoglycaemia, Fear of Hypoglycaemia and Quality of Life in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00390728 Phase 4 Insulin Glargine
40 Phase IV, Open Label, Non-comparative, Multi-center, Study of the Effects of Both Insulin Glargine & Insulin Glulisine in Type I Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Completed NCT00539448 Phase 4 insulin glargine;insulin glulisine
41 Effect of Insulin Glulisine Compared to Insulin Aspart and Insulin Lispro When Administered by Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) on Specific Pump Parameters in Patient With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00607087 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin lispro;Insulin aspart
42 Multicentre, Open, Non-randomised Controlled Phase IV Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety for Insulin Glulisine Injected Subcutaneously in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using Also Insulin Glargine Completed NCT00964574 Phase 4 INSULIN GLULISINE (HMR1964);INSULIN GLARGINE
43 A Randomised, Controlled, Cross-over Study With Inpatient and Outpatient Phases Completed NCT01352767 Phase 4
44 Role of Insulin Aspart and Detemir to Assess Glucose Excursion in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00564395 Phase 4 Insulin Detemir mixed with RAI injection;Insulin Detemir and RAI injection
45 Can Hypoglycaemia Awareness Be Restored in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes and Severe Hypoglycaemia Employing Optimised Subcutaneous Insulin Regime or Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump Completed NCT00360984 Phase 4 insulin glargine
46 CONtinuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion STudy ENrolling Type 1 (CONSISTENT 1): Evaluation of Metabolic Outcomes and Safety of Hylenex Recombinant (Hyaluronidase Human Injection) Used as a Preadministration Infusion Site Treatment in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) Using Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) Completed NCT01848990 Phase 4 Commercial Hylenex® recombinant (hyaluronidase human injection);Precommercial Hylenex recombinant (hyaluronidase human injection);Insulin lispro;Insulin aspart;Insulin glulisine
47 The PIZZA-Salami Trial: Monocentric Randomised Cross-over Study of Carb Counting vs. Carb Plus Fat/Protein Counting Based Insulin Bolus Used for Sensor-augmented Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) in Pediatric Patients Completed NCT01400659 Phase 4
48 An Open Label Single-arm Trial of the Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of a 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Prevenar13®) Given to Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Not Previously Received a Primary Schedule of Immunisation With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in Infancy. Completed NCT01939522 Phase 4
49 The Effect of Sensor-Augmented Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Compared to Multiple Daily Insulin Injections in Prevention of Increasing Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01454700 Phase 4
50 Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Anti-hypoglycemic Action of Glucagon Completed NCT02516150 Phase 4 Ethanol;Glucagon

Search NIH Clinical Center for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 51 :

insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Glargine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Regular Insulin, Human
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus, type 1

Genetic Tests for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Genetic tests related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 29 HNF1A IL6 ITPR3 PTPN22

Anatomical Context for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

Pancreas, Kidney, Bone, Endothelial, Thyroid, Pancreatic Islet, T Cells

Publications for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Articles related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

(show top 50) (show all 17867)
# Title Authors PMID Year
A functional variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is associated with type I diabetes. 61 57 54 6
15004560 2004
Association of a functional 17beta-estradiol sensitive IL6-174G/C promoter polymorphism with early-onset type 1 diabetes in females. 57 6 61
12719374 2003
Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes. 57 6
19430480 2009
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data identifies additional type 1 diabetes risk loci. 57 6
18978792 2008
Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls. 57 6
17554300 2007
Systematic search for single nucleotide polymorphisms in a lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTPN22): association between a promoter polymorphism and type 1 diabetes in Asian populations. 57 6
16470599 2006
Two distinct MICA gene markers discriminate major autoimmune diabetes types. 61 54 57
11502807 2001
Prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in siblings of children with diabetes. A population-based study. The Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. 61 54 57
9435304 1998
WFS1 mutations are frequent monogenic causes of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus in Lebanon. 54 57
18806274 2008
Immunological reversal of autoimmune diabetes without hematopoietic replacement of beta cells. 57 61
16556846 2006
Reversal of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice without spleen cell-derived beta cell regeneration. 61 57
16556844 2006
An association between type 1 diabetes and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. 61 57
16374819 2006
Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope. 57 54
15889096 2005
Prime role for an insulin epitope in the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. 57 54
15889095 2005
Fine mapping of a region on chromosome 21q21.11-q22.3 showing linkage to type 1 diabetes. 61 57
15635070 2005
A genomewide scan for type 1-diabetes susceptibility in Scandinavian families: identification of new loci with evidence of interactions. 61 57
11598829 2001
Linkage disequilibrium of a type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus with a regulatory IL12B allele. 57 61
11175794 2001
A novel subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus. 57 61
10866554 2000
A novel subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus characterized by a rapid onset and an absence of diabetes-related antibodies. Osaka IDDM Study Group. 57 61
10655528 2000
Human leukocyte antigen-A24 and -DQA1*0301 in Japanese insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: independent contributions to susceptibility to the disease and additive contributions to acceleration of beta-cell destruction. 61 57
10523020 1999
The presence or absence of a retroviral long terminal repeat influences the genetic risk for type 1 diabetes conferred by human leukocyte antigen DQ haplotypes. Belgian Diabetes Registry. 57 61
10199786 1999
A search for type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes in families from the United Kingdom. 61 57
9662409 1998
A second-generation screen of the human genome for susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 57
9662408 1998
Two-locus maximum lod score analysis of a multifactorial trait: joint consideration of IDDM2 and IDDM4 with IDDM1 in type 1 diabetes. 57 61
7573054 1995
Genetic mapping of a susceptibility locus for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on chromosome 11q. 61 57
8072544 1994
On the pathogenesis of IDDM. 61 57
7821744 1994
TAP1 alleles in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a newly defined centromeric boundary of disease susceptibility. 57 61
8248212 1993
Statistical evaluation of multiple-locus linkage data in experimental species and its relevance to human studies: application to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). 57 61
8352278 1993
Susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maps to a 4.1 kb segment of DNA spanning the insulin gene and associated VNTR. 61 57
8358440 1993
Age-dependent HLA genetic heterogeneity of type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 57 61
1469084 1992
Insulin-IGF2 region on chromosome 11p encodes a gene implicated in HLA-DR4-dependent diabetes susceptibility. 61 57
1944595 1991
Identification and mapping to chromosome 1 of a susceptibility locus for periinsulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. 57 61
1896073 1991
Genetic analysis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus in mice. 61 57
1675432 1991
High-resolution linkage mapping for susceptibility genes in human polygenic disease: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and chromosome 11q. 57 61
1990836 1991
Worldwide differences in the incidence of type I diabetes are associated with amino acid variation at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain. 61 57
2217170 1990
T-cell receptor genes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): no evidence for linkage from affected sib pairs. 61 57
1971998 1990
Analysis of HLA-DQ genotypes and susceptibility in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 57
2348836 1990
A combination of HLA-DQ beta Asp57-negative and HLA DQ alpha Arg52 confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 57 61
2318983 1990
A diabetes-susceptible HLA haplotype is best defined by a combination of HLA-DR and -DQ alleles. 61 57
2784133 1989
Linkage studies of HLA and insulin gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms in families with IDDM. 61 57
2567262 1989
Genetic heterogeneity, modes of inheritance, and risk estimates for a joint study of Caucasians with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 57 61
3057885 1988
Aspartic acid at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain protects against type I diabetes: a family study. 57 61
3186714 1988
Insulin-gene sharing in sib pairs with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: no evidence for linkage. 57 61
2892397 1988
A combined segregation and linkage analysis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 57 61
3578273 1987
Transcomplementation of HLA genes in IDDM. HLA-DQ alpha- and beta-chains produce hybrid molecules in DR3/4 heterozygotes. 61 57
3491769 1987
Preferential transmission of diabetic alleles within the HLA gene complex. 61 57
3490623 1986
HLA-dependent GM effects in insulin-dependent diabetes: evidence from pairs of affected siblings. 61 57
3788976 1986
HLA-DR4 in insulin-dependent diabetic parents and their diabetic offspring: a clue to dominant inheritance. 61 57
3489237 1986
Polymorphic restriction endonuclease sites linked to the HLA-DR alpha gene: localization and use as genetic markers of insulin-dependent diabetes. 57 61
2999792 1985
A solution to the genetic and environmental puzzles of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 57
6142151 1984

Variations for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

6 (show all 15)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.872dup (p.Gly292fs) Duplication Pathogenic 14927 rs587776825 12:121432117-121432118 12:120994314-120994315
2 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.814C>T (p.Arg272Cys) SNV Pathogenic 447503 rs1555212014 12:121432067-121432067 12:120994264-120994264
3 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.1340C>T (p.Pro447Leu) SNV Pathogenic 14928 rs137853236 12:121435307-121435307 12:120997504-120997504
4 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.1135C>G (p.Pro379Ala) SNV Pathogenic 431970 rs754729248 12:121434371-121434371 12:120996568-120996568
5 AP4B1-AS1 NM_015967.7(PTPN22):c.1858C>T (p.Arg620Trp) SNV risk factor 8909 rs2476601 1:114377568-114377568 1:113834946-113834946
6 IL6 IL6, -174G-C SNV risk factor 14718
7 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.608G>A (p.Arg203His) SNV Likely pathogenic 129235 rs587780357 12:121431404-121431404 12:120993601-120993601
8 FOXP3 NM_014009.4(FOXP3):c.398C>T (p.Pro133Leu) SNV Likely pathogenic 268095 rs782511378 X:49113940-49113940 X:49257483-49257483
9 PTPN22 NM_015967.6(PTPN22):c.-1123C>G SNV risk factor 8910 rs2488457 1:114415368-114415368 1:113872746-113872746
10 FOXP3 NM_014009.4(FOXP3):c.102C>A (p.Asp34Glu) SNV Uncertain significance 992538 X:49114861-49114861 X:49258404-49258404
11 OAS1 NM_016816.4(OAS1):c.1039-1= SNV Uncertain significance 13984 rs10774671 12:113357193-113357193 12:112919388-112919388
12 OAS1 NM_016816.4(OAS1):c.484G>A (p.Gly162Ser) SNV Uncertain significance 13985 rs1131454 12:113348870-113348870 12:112911065-112911065
13 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.1501+6C>T SNV Uncertain significance 435420 rs374306837 12:121435474-121435474 12:120997671-120997671
14 CEL NM_001807.5(CEL):c.1966G>C (p.Ala656Pro) SNV Uncertain significance 128688 rs587780309 9:135946855-135946855 9:133071468-133071468
15 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.92G>A (p.Gly31Asp) SNV Uncertain significance 14948 rs137853247 12:121416663-121416663 12:120978860-120978860

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 PTPN22 p.Arg620Trp VAR_022605 rs2476601

Copy number variations for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus from CNVD:

7 (show all 23)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 71429 12 69818942 132349534 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
2 73895 12 98319424 98322865 Deletion ANKS1B Type 1 diabetes
3 79407 13 71375556 71378557 Deletion Type 1 diabetes
4 89486 15 18491920 19803369 Amplification or deletion NBEAP1 Type 1 diabetes
5 89487 15 18491920 19803369 Amplification or deletion GOLGA6L6 Type 1 diabetes
6 89488 15 18491920 19803369 Amplification or deletion GOLGA8CP Type 1 diabetes
7 89489 15 18491920 19803369 Amplification or deletion POTEB Type 1 diabetes
8 107144 17 1225928 31649843 Copy number CCL3L1 Type 1 diabetes
9 107422 17 15483886 15487515 Deletion TRIM16 Type 1 diabetes
10 107551 17 15900000 22100000 Microdeletion Type 1 diabetes
11 110284 17 31800000 38100000 Copy number CCL3L1 Type 1 diabetes
12 112712 17 40930407 78774742 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
13 139339 2 179004449 242951149 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
14 149142 2 87600933 87609093 Deletion CYTOR Type 1 diabetes
15 195357 5 150157836 180857866 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
16 195377 5 150183562 180857866 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
17 210791 6 31416574 170899992 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
18 211341 6 32582950 170899992 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
19 211387 6 32609209 170899992 Copy number Type 1 diabetes
20 211460 6 32700999 32710085 Deletion Type 1 diabetes
21 220035 7 133435735 133449694 Deletion Type 1 diabetes
22 227274 7 66266764 66282667 Deletion TYW1 Type 1 diabetes
23 240527 8 51194577 51195974 Deletion SNTG1 Type 1 diabetes

Expression for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Pathways for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Pathways related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Type I diabetes mellitus hsa04940
2 T cell receptor signaling pathway hsa04660
3 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction hsa04060
4 JAK-STAT signaling pathway hsa04630
5 Neurotrophin signaling pathway hsa04722

Pathways related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
13 11.54 IL6 FOXP3 CTLA4
15 11.38 TPO INS IL6
16 11.33 INS HNF1A ALB
Show member pathways
10.7 GAD2 GAD1
19 10.62 GAD2 GAD1

GO Terms for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Cellular components related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Golgi apparatus GO:0005794 9.98 PTPRN HSPD1 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1 GAD2 CTLA4
2 endocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030666 9.58 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
3 ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane GO:0012507 9.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
4 inhibitory synapse GO:0060077 9.46 GAD2 GAD1
5 clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030669 9.43 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
6 clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane GO:0061202 9.37 GAD2 GAD1
7 integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0071556 9.33 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
8 MHC class II protein complex GO:0042613 9.13 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
9 transport vesicle membrane GO:0030658 8.92 PTPRN HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1

Biological processes related to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 9.89 IL6 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1