T2D
MCID: TYP009
MIFTS: 91

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases
Data Licensing
For inquiries, contact:

Aliases & Classifications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

Name: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 57 11 42 28 5 14 36 33
Insulin Resistance 57 11 28 53 5 16 71 75
Type 2 Diabetes 11 42 63 75 33
Niddm 57 11 42 73 53
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent 57 42 73 71
Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 57 42 73
Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 57 28 5
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii 57 42 38
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 57 42 43
Maturity-Onset Diabetes 57 42 73
T2d 57 42 73
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related, Susceptibility to 57 5
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Association with 57 5
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late Onset 57 28
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent 57 12
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 11 31
Insulin Resistance, Susceptibility to 57 5
Maturity-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 42 33
Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 42 73
Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus 11 33
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 73 33
Type Ii Diabetes 14 33
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Without Complications 33
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 57
Niddm - [non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus] 33
Diabetes Mellitus Due to Insulin Secretory Defect 33
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Susceptibility to 57
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Susceptibility to 5
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes of the Young 33
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2 57
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related 57
Diabetes Due to Insulin Secretory Defect 33
Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 33
Diabetes, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 5
T2dm - [type 2 Diabetes Mellitus] 33
Insulin Requiring Type 2 Diabetes 33
Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset 42
Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes 33
Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii 73
Nonketotic Hyperglycaemia 33
Maturity Onset Diabetes 33
Adult-Onset Diabetes 42
Adult Onset Diabetes 33
Nonketotic Diabetes 33
Diabetes Mellitus 71
Diabetes, Type 2 57
Diabetes Type 2 41
Diabetic Type 2 33
Senile Diabetes 33
Stable Diabetes 33
Dm Type Ii 33
Aodm 42
Dm2 33

Characteristics:


Inheritance:

Autosomal dominant 57

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:9352
OMIM® 57 125853
MeSH 43 D003924
NCIt 49 C26747
SNOMED-CT 68 44054006
ICD10 31 E11
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 48606007
UMLS 71 C0011849 C0011860 C0021655

Summaries for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

MedlinePlus: 41 What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose is your main source of energy. It comes from the foods you eat. A hormone called insulin helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use insulin well. The glucose then stays in your blood and not enough goes into your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. But you can take steps to manage your diabetes and try to prevent these health problems. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes may be caused by a combination of factors: Being overweight or having obesity Not being physically active Genetics and family history Type 2 diabetes usually starts with insulin resistance. This is a condition in which your cells don't respond normally to insulin. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help the glucose enter your cells. At first, your body makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. But over time, your body can't make enough insulin, and your blood glucose levels rise. Who is at risk for type 2 diabetes? You are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you: Are over age 45. Children, teenagers, and younger adults can get type 2 diabetes, but it is more common in middle-aged and older people. Have prediabetes, which means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes Had diabetes in pregnancy or gave birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more. Have a family history of diabetes Are overweight or have obesity Are Black or African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander Are not physically active Have other conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or depression Have low HDL (good) cholesterol and high triglycerides Have acanthosis nigricans - dark, thick, and velvety skin around your neck or armpits What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes? Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all. If you do have them, the symptoms develop slowly over several years. They might be so mild that you do not notice them. The symptoms can include: Increased thirst and urination Increased hunger Feeling tired Blurred vision Numbness or tingling in the feet or hands Sores that do not heal Unexplained weight loss How is type 2 diabetes diagnosed? Your health care provider will use blood tests to diagnose type 2 diabetes. The blood tests include: A1C test, which measures your average blood sugar level over the past 3 months Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, which measures your current blood sugar level. You need to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least 8 hours before the test. Random plasma glucose (RPG) test, which measures your current blood sugar level. This test is used when you have diabetes symptoms and the provider does not want to wait for you to fast before having the test. What are the treatments for type 2 diabetes? Treatment for type 2 diabetes involves managing your blood sugar levels. Many people are able to do this by living a healthy lifestyle. Some people may also need to take medicine.: A healthy lifestyle includes following a healthy eating plan and getting regular physical activity. You need to learn how to balance what you eat and drink with physical activity and diabetes medicine, if you take any. Medicines for diabetes include oral medicines, insulin, and other injectable medicines. Over time, some people will need to take more than one type of medicine to control their diabetes. You will need to check your blood sugar regularly. Your health care provider will tell you how often you need to do it. It's also important to keep your blood pressure and cholesterol levels close to the targets your provider sets for you. Make sure to get your screening tests regularly. Can type 2 diabetes be prevented? You can take steps to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing weight if you are overweight, eating fewer calories, and being more physically active. If you have a condition which raises your risk for type 2 diabetes, managing that condition may lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

MalaCards based summary: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, also known as insulin resistance, is related to diabetes mellitus and maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction, and has symptoms including angina pectoris, tremor and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is IRS1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Nervous system development and Angiopoietin-like protein 8 regulatory pathway. The drugs Glipizide and Glycopyrronium have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Pancreas and Adipose, and related phenotypes are type ii diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance

MedlinePlus Genetics: 42 Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood.Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health problems including heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and damage to the kidneys, eyes, and other parts of the body.

PubMed Health : 63 Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic disease that causes sugar to build up in the blood stream. The severity of diabetes can vary quite a bit: Some people only have to make minor changes to their lifestyle after they are diagnosed. Just losing a little weight and getting a bit more exercise may be enough for them to manage their diabetes. Other people who have type 2 diabetes need long-term treatment that involves taking tablets or insulin. It is then especially important for them to have a good understanding of their disease and know what they can do to stay healthy. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or teenage years. This disease is a result of damage to the pancreas that leaves it producing either very little insulin or none at all. Things are different in type 2 diabetes, where insulin is made by the pancreas but the body’s cells gradually lose the ability to absorb and use the insulin. In the past, type 2 diabetes was often referred to as “adult-onset” diabetes because it is commonly diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. About 90% of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

OMIM®: 57 Type 2 diabetes mellitus is distinct from maturity-onset diabetes of the young (see 606391) in that it is polygenic, characterized by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions with onset in adulthood, usually at age 40 to 60 but occasionally in adolescence if a person is obese. The pedigrees are rarely multigenerational. The penetrance is variable, possibly 10 to 40% (Fajans et al., 2001). Persons with type 2 diabetes usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of the so-called metabolic syndrome (see 605552), which is characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. (125853) (Updated 24-Oct-2022)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: 73 A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by a lack of sensitivity to the body's own insulin. Affected individuals usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of a metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. The disease results in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

Disease Ontology: 11 A diabetes mellitus that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

Wikipedia 75 Insulin resistance: Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the... more...

Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus that is... more...

Related Diseases for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus family:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 3
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 4 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 5
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 7 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 8
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 11 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 13
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 12 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 15 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 6
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 10 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 17
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 3 Diabetes Mellitus, Congenital Autoimmune
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 18 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 4
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 19 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 20
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 21 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 22
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 23 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 24
Type 2 Diabetes 5 Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Rare Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2218)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 diabetes mellitus 35.6 WFS1 SLC2A2 RETN PPP1R3A PPARG PAX4
2 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction 34.3 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK ABCC8
3 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10 34.3 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B GCK
4 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 34.2 WFS1 SLC2A2 PPARG PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
5 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 7 34.2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK ABCC8
6 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 9 34.2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK ABCC8
7 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 11 34.2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK ABCC8
8 prediabetes syndrome 34.2 SLC2A2 RETN PPP1R3A PPARG LIPC KCNJ11
9 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 14 34.0 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
10 hyperglycemia 33.9 SLC2A2 RETN PPARG PAX4 KCNJ11 IRS1
11 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 33.8 SLC2A2 RETN PPARG LIPC KCNJ11 IRS1
12 hypoglycemia 33.7 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 INSR HNF4A GCK AKT2
13 donohue syndrome 33.6 IRS1 INSR GCK AKT2
14 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 33.5 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
15 gestational diabetes 33.5 RETN PPARG NEUROD1 KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR
16 lipid metabolism disorder 33.4 RETN PPARG LIPC IRS1 INSR HNF4A
17 glucose intolerance 33.4 RETN PPARG NEUROD1 KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR
18 hyperinsulinism 33.4 RETN PPARG KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR HNF4A
19 type 1 diabetes mellitus 33.2 WFS1 PAX4 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1A GCK
20 lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 3 33.2 PPP1R3A PPARG AKT2
21 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 33.1 RETN PPARG IRS1 INSR HNF4A
22 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 33.0 RETN PPARG GCK
23 fatty liver disease 32.9 RETN PPARG IRS1 INSR
24 liver disease 32.9 RETN PPARG IRS1 INSR HNF4A
25 familial hyperlipidemia 32.7 PPARG LIPC GCK
26 hyperinsulinism due to hnf1a deficiency 32.7 HNF4A HNF1A
27 polycystic ovary syndrome 32.5 RETN PPARG IRS1 INSR
28 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 32.4 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
29 insulinoma 32.4 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 HNF1A GCK
30 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 32.4 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
31 renal cysts and diabetes syndrome 32.1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
32 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 32.1 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 INSR HNF4A GCK
33 neonatal diabetes 32.0 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
34 insulin-like growth factor i 31.9 IRS1 INSR AKT2
35 pancreatic agenesis 31.9 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
36 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 31.9 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
37 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6 31.8 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
38 permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus 31.7 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
39 wolfram syndrome 1 31.7 WFS1 KCNJ11 HNF1B ABCC8
40 hyperandrogenism 31.7 RETN PPARG INSR
41 renal glucosuria 31.6 SLC2A2 HNF1B HNF1A
42 monogenic diabetes 31.5 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
43 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2 31.4 KCNJ11 HNF4A ABCC8
44 congenital generalized lipodystrophy 31.4 PPP1R3A PPARG IRS1 INSR AKT2
45 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 31.4 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK ABCC8
46 transient neonatal diabetes mellitus 31.2 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
47 wolfram syndrome 31.1 WFS1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
48 hypertrichosis 31.1 KCNJ11 INSR ABCC8
49 fanconi syndrome 31.1 SLC2A2 HNF4A HNF1A ENPP1
50 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 3 31.0 GCK ABCC8

Comorbidity relations with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Peripheral Vascular Disease Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:



Diseases related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Human phenotypes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

30
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 type ii diabetes mellitus 30 HP:0005978
2 insulin resistance 30 HP:0000855
3 increased waist to hip ratio 30 HP:0031819

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 24-Oct-2022)
Lab:
insulin resistance
decreased glucose disposal

Endo:
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Misc:
late onset

Clinical features from OMIM®:

125853 (Updated 24-Oct-2022)

UMLS symptoms related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:


angina pectoris; tremor; equilibration disorder; symptoms

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25 (show all 14)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00173-A 10.77 MAPK8IP1
2 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 10.77 AKT2 GCK INSR PPARG IRS1
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 10.77 GCK INSR PPARG IRS1
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 10.77 AKT2 GCK INSR PPARG
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 10.77 AKT2 GCK INSR PPARG MAPK8IP1
6 Decreased viability GR00301-A 10.77 AKT2 MAPK8IP1
7 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 10.77 IRS1
8 Decreased viability GR00342-S-3 10.77 AKT2 IRS1 MAPK8IP1
9 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 10.77 PPARG IRS1 MAPK8IP1
10 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 10.77 MAPK8IP1
11 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.18 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A
12 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.18 ABCC8 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
13 Reduced mammosphere formation GR00396-S 9.5 ABCC8 HNF4A KCNJ11 LIPC MAPK8IP1 PPARG
14 Increased free cholesterol GR00340-A-2 9.16 HNF1A HNF4A

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.37 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.28 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A
3 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.25 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
4 muscle MP:0005369 10.2 AKT2 ENPP1 HNF1A HNF1B INSR IRS1
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.19 ABCC8 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
6 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.1 AKT2 ENPP1 GPD2 HNF1A INSR IRS1
7 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 10.08 ENPP1 GCK HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A INSR
8 cellular MP:0005384 10 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A
9 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.73 ENPP1 GPD2 HNF1A HNF4A INSR KCNJ11
10 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.53 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B

Drugs & Therapeutics for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

PubMed Health treatment related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 63

A number of factors influence which treatment approach for type 2 diabetes is most suitable: They include age, general physical condition, other health problems, life circumstances and personal goals. Sometimes just changing your lifestyle can have a positive effect: Losing weight and getting more exercise can make insulin more effective and lower blood sugar levels. Quitting smoking helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease . Making these kinds of changes is sometimes enough to manage the condition and associated risks. If very overweight (obese) people find it hard to lose weight, surgical approaches such as stomach stapling may be an option. Some people depend on medication to regulate their blood sugar levels. The medication options include taking tablets, injecting insulin or medication called incretin mimetics (hormone -like substances that are designed to increase the body's insulin production). It's also possible to combine tablets and injections . The most common medications used to treat type 2 diabetes (antidiabetic drugs) are metformin and sulfonylureas. Newer antidiabetic drugs are also available – but there are still many unanswered questions about their effects. Depending on what other symptoms and illnesses a person has, different kinds of medication can be used to lower particular risks. For example, many people who have type 2 diabetes also have high blood pressure . The main medications that can lower the risk of cardiovascular disease lower blood pressure (antihypertensives ), prevent blood clotting (ASA, the drug in medications like Aspirin ), or reduce cholesterol levels (statins).

Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1106)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Glipizide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29094-61-9 3478
2
Glycopyrronium Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 596-51-0, 740028-90-4 3494
3
Nicorandil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 65141-46-0 47528
4
Dydrogesterone Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 152-62-5 9051
5
Metyrapone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54-36-4 4174
6
Parecoxib Approved Phase 4 198470-84-7 119828
7
Eprosartan Approved Phase 4 133040-01-4 5281037
8
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 4 8009-03-8
9
Dimethyl fumarate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 624-49-7, 624-48-6 5271565 637568
10
Spirapril Approved Phase 4 83647-97-6 5311447
11
Cilazapril Approved Phase 4 88768-40-5, 92077-78-6 56330
12
Zofenopril Approved Phase 4 81872-10-8 12849515 92400
13
Trandolapril Approved Phase 4 87679-37-6 5484727
14
Alprostadil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 745-65-3 5280723
15
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
16
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
17
Sildenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139755-83-2, 171599-83-0 5212 135398744
18
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2 23431961
19
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 55-63-0 4510
20
Insulin glulisine Approved Phase 4 207748-29-6
21
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
22
Tolbutamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 64-77-7 5505
23
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
24
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
25
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
26
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5362449 5360696
27
Nebivolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 152520-56-4, 99200-09-6, 118457-14-0 71301
28
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
29
Gliquidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 33342-05-1 91610
30
Terazosin Approved Phase 4 63590-64-7 5401
31
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
32
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Experimental, Vet_approved Phase 4 86347-14-0, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
33
Pitavastatin Approved Phase 4 147511-69-1 5282452
34
Indapamide Approved Phase 4 26807-65-8 3702
35
Quinapril Approved, Investigational Phase 4 82586-55-8, 85441-61-8 54892
36
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2
37
Captopril Approved Phase 4 62571-86-2 44093
38
Irbesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138402-11-6 3749
39
Bilberry Approved, Experimental Phase 4
40
Trimetazidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5011-34-7 21109
41
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
42
Cetirizine Approved Phase 4 83881-51-0 2678
43
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
44
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741 5523
45
Nitroprusside Approved, Investigational Phase 4 15078-28-1 11963622
46
Cholecystokinin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9011-97-6 16129670
47
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
48
Ethinylestradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
49
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
50
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 186826-86-8, 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 15079)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Investigation of a Switch From Insulin Therapy to a Metformin & Saxagliptin Combination in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01206647 Phase 4 Metformin and Saxagliptin
2 A Randomized Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Effect of Linagliptin on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT02097342 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Placebo;Voglibose
3 Effect of Linagliptin in Comparison With Glimepiride as Add on to Metformin on Postprandial Beta Cell Function, Postprandial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01547104 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Glimepiride
4 Effect of Acarbose and Vildagliptin on Visceral Fat Distribution in Overweight and Obesity Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Control Study Unknown status NCT02999841 Phase 4 Acarbose;Vildagliptin
5 Effectiveness and Tolerability of Early Initiation of Combined Lipid -Lowering Therapy Included Simvastatin and Fenofibrate vs Simvastatin Alone in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Acute Coronary Syndrome Unknown status NCT02015988 Phase 4 Fenofibrate;Simvastatin
6 A Randomized, Unicenter, Parallel Study of the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Central Blood Pressure Reduction Compared to Glimepiride in Adult Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Inadequate Glycemic Control. Unknown status NCT02919059 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10 mg;Glimepiride 4 mg
7 Effects of Thyroid Hormone Treatment on Mitochondrial Function, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, Insulin Sensitivity and Brown Adipose Tissue in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01379170 Phase 4 Euthyrox (levothyroxine)
8 Effect of the Weekly Administration of Exenatide LAR or Dulaglutide on the Variability of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of 24 Hours in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without Pharmacological Treatment. Unknown status NCT03444142 Phase 4 Exenatide LAR;Dulaglutide
9 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Inflammation and Innate Immunity in The Pathogenesis of Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis Unknown status NCT01250340 Phase 4 Aspirin;Placebo
10 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of an Antidiabetic Agent Repaglinide for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT00336310 Phase 4 Repaglinide
11 Therapeutic Effect of Dapagliflozin Combined With CSII on Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Continuous Glucose Monitoring System Unknown status NCT04120623 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10 MG;Insulin Aspart
12 Chronic Cold Acclimation Stimulates the Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT02775253 Phase 4
13 Metabolism-independent Vascular Effects of the Dipetidylpeptidase-4-inhibitor Sitagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01096277 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Placebo
14 A Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Valsartan and Aliskiren in Combination Versus Tekturna Alone on Hemostatic Biomarkers in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Mild to Moderate Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01095822 Phase 4 Aliskiren + Valsartan
15 A Randomized, Controlled Study on Calcium Channel Blocker Versus Angiotensin II Antagonists in the Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Under the Inadequately Controlled Blood Pressure With Angiotension II Antagonists Unknown status NCT00144144 Phase 4 Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Calcium channel blocker
16 Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Islet Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT04014192 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin;Empagliflozin;Canagliflozin
17 Effects of a Chronical Treatment With Benfotiamine in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Pre- and Postprandial Endothelial Function, as Well as on the Function of the Autonomic Nervous System Unknown status NCT00446810 Phase 4 Benfotiamine;Placebo
18 Aspirin and the Antiproteinuric Effect of Enalapril in Microalbuminuric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00427271 Phase 4 aspirin
19 The Reduction of Microalbuminuria in Japanese Hypertensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Valsartan or Amlodipine: Study Design for the Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) Unknown status NCT00202618 Phase 4 Valsartan;Amlodipine
20 A Single-Site, Investigator-Initiated Study to Evaluate Time in Range in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Mealtime Inhaled Insulin (Afrezza®) Plus Basal Insulin Compared to Multiple Daily Injections Unknown status NCT04125082 Phase 4 Afrezza Inhalant Product
21 Improving Glycaemic Control in Malaysian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Pump Therapy Unknown status NCT03112538 Phase 4 Multiple daily injections of insulin
22 Metabolomic Variations in the Saxagliptin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT01768208 Phase 4 Saxagliptin
23 DAPASALT: An Open Label, Phase IV, Mechanistic, Study to Evaluate the Natriuretic Effect of 2-Week Dapagliflozin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Impaired Renal Function Unknown status NCT04620590 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10 MG [Farxiga]
24 The Efficacy of Glycemic Control With Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Atheroma Progression: Rationale and Design of the Observation of Coronary Atheroma Progression Under Continuous Glucose Monitoring Guidance in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT04559191 Phase 4
25 Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor on Systemic and Renal Endothelial Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without History of Coronary Artery Disease (SOCCER Trial) Unknown status NCT02501616 Phase 4 Metformin;Dapagliflozin
26 The Effects of Saxagliptin 5mg, Once Daily for 52 Weeks on 24 Hour Urine Albumin Creatinine Rate(ACR) , in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Inadequate Glycaemic Control on Metformin or/and Acarbose Unknown status NCT02462369 Phase 4 Saxagliptin;glimepiride
27 A Phase IV, Multicenter, Randomized, Active Comparator Controlled Study of the Addition of Pioglitazone Compared With Glimepiride in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Inadequate Glycemic Control on Metformin and Alogliptin Unknown status NCT02426294 Phase 4 Pioglitazone;Glimepiride
28 The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Hypertriglyceridemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT03120299 Phase 4 Omega-3 fatty acid;Placebos
29 Efficacy and Safety of Lobeglitazone Versus Sitagliptin in Inadequately Controlled by Metformin Alone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: 24-week, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Phase 4 Study Unknown status NCT02480465 Phase 4 Lobelitazone 0.5mg;Sitagliptin 100mg
30 Effects of the DPP-4 or SGLT2 Inhibitors on the Metabolic Cardiovascular Systems in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Unknown status NCT02528019 Phase 4 DPP-4 inhibiotors;SGLT2 inhibitors;Glimepiride
31 Comparison of TIcagrelor and Clopidogrel in Patients With Coronary Artery diseaSe and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (TICS-DM): a Randomized Pharmacodynamic Study Unknown status NCT02457130 Phase 4 Ticagrelor;Clopidogrel
32 Randomized, Long-Term Study About the Effects of Analogue Versus Human Insulin Based Regimens (Insulin Detemir and Aspart Versus NPH- and Regular Human Insulin) on Metabolic Control and Myocardial Function in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Unknown status NCT00747409 Phase 4 insulin aspart and detemir (NovoRapid, Levemir);human regular insulin and NPH insulin (Actrapid, Protaphne)
33 A Single Center, Open Label, Randomized Study to Compare the Effect of Vytorin (Simvastatin/Ezetimibe) 10/20mg Versus Atorvastatin 20mg on ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio in Subjects With Diabetes Unknown status NCT01185236 Phase 4 simvastatin/ezetimibe;atorvastatin 20mg
34 The Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Functional Changes of Uncontrolled Diabetes by the Intervention of Dapagliflozin Treatment Trial (ELUCIDATE) Unknown status NCT03871621 Phase 4 Diabetes Medicines;Dapagliflozin
35 Effect of aSpirin Versus CilOstazol for Inhibition of Antiplatelet aggRegaTion in Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT02933788 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Acetylsalicylic acid
36 Chinese PLA General Hospital Hainan Branch Unknown status NCT03602638 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Acarbose
37 SGLT-2 Inhibition and Cardiovascular Disease. Metabolomics Study of Potential Factors Involved in Cardio- and Nephroprotection Unknown status NCT03919656 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10 mg;Placebo Oral Tablet
38 Pentoxifylline Effect on Renal Function, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Fibrosis Markers, and Quality of Life in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy Unknown status NCT03664414 Phase 4 pentoxifylline
39 A 24-Week, National, Single-Centre, Open-Labelled, Randomised, Parallel-Group Trial Comparing Energy Expenditure With Insulin Detemir Versus NPH Insulin Using a Basal-Bolus Regimen With Insulin Aspart as the Mealtime Insulin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT00788840 Phase 4 Insulatard;Detemir
40 Comparison of Glimepiride, Alogliptin and Alogliptin+Pioglitazone Combination in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT04470310 Phase 4 Glimepiride;Alogliptin 25Mg Tab;Alogliptin-Pioglitazone 25 Mg-15 Mg Oral Tablet
41 Establishing Cardiovascular Biomarkers to Define Preferred Lantus® Use. Unknown status NCT01500850 Phase 4 nph insulin;human insulin;Insulin Glargine;Insulin glulisine
42 A Randomized, Non-inferiority, Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GAcarbose+Saxagliptin Compared With Metformin+Saxagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Unknown status NCT02605772 Phase 4 Acarbose;Metformin;Saxagliptin
43 Human Insulin Analogs: Evaluation of Inflammatory mRNA Expression of Macrophages and Endothelial Function of Short-acting Insulin - HERMES Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01417897 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin aspart;Regular human insulin
44 Organization Program of DiabEtes INsulIN ManaGement: An Open, Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, 16-week, Controlled Clinical Study Unknown status NCT01338376 Phase 4 Scilin®M30
45 The Efficacy and Safety of Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Added to the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, Sitagliptin in People With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Liver Diseases Unknown status NCT01337440 Phase 4 UDCA;Sitagliptin
46 Effects on Oxidative Stress, Coagulation, Platelet Activation and Inflammatory Indexes of Atorvastatin and/or Aspirin Treatment in Patients at High Risk of Vascular Events Unknown status NCT01322711 Phase 4 Atorvastatin;Placebo
47 Intensive Medical Treatment for Nephropathy Caused by Type 2 Diabetes With Hypertension Unknown status NCT00407680 Phase 4 Intensive therapy Valsartan,Fluvastatin
48 Multi-Center, Randomized, Open Label Study of the Efficacy of Cilostazol Versus Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Events With Korean Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT00886574 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Aspirin
49 A Randomized, Open, Controlled, Parallel Group Study of Adding Linagliptin to Control Glycemic Variability and HbA1c in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients With Type 2 Diabetes(PDPD) With Premixed Insulin Therapy Unknown status NCT03320031 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Humalog Mix 75/25
50 Study Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Endothelial Cell Function and Genetic Effects on the Response to Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Diabetic Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Unknown status NCT01038050 Phase 4 Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Acarbose
Acetohexamide
albiglutide
alogliptin
alogliptin benzoate
canagliflozin
Chlorpropamide
CHROMIUM PICOLINATE
dulaglutide
empagliflozin
exenatide
glimepiride
Glipizide
Glyburide
Insulin
insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Glargine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
INSULIN,DETEMIR,HUMAN
INSULIN,REGULAR,HUMAN BUFFERED
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Metformin
Metformin hydrochloride
miglitol
nateglinide
pioglitazone
Pioglitazone hydrochloride
Pramlintide
Regular Insulin, Human
repaglinide
rosiglitazone
Rosiglitazone maleate
sitagliptin
sitagliptin phosphate
Tolazamide
Tolbutamide
Tolbutamide sodium
troglitazone
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus, type 2

Genetic Tests for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Genetic tests related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 28 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HMGA1 HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A IGF2BP2 IL6 IRS1 IRS2 KCNJ11 LIPC MAPK8IP1 MTNR1B NEUROD1 PAX4 PDX1 PPARG PPP1R3A PTPN1 RETN SLC2A2 SLC30A8 TCF7L2 WFS1
2 Insulin Resistance 28
3 Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 28
4 Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late Onset 28

Anatomical Context for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Organs/tissues related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

MalaCards : Pancreas, Bone Marrow, Heart, Kidney, Skeletal Muscle, Ovary, Endothelial
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Mature Beta Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
2 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Articles related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

(show top 50) (show all 61798)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. 53 62 57 5
15924147 2005
2
Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. 53 62 57 5
12118251 2002
3
A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 62 57 5
17293876 2007
4
Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes. 53 57 5
15070960 2004
5
Interaction between the G1057D variant of IRS-2 and overweight in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. 53 57 5
11030756 2000
6
Rare MTNR1B variants impairing melatonin receptor 1B function contribute to type 2 diabetes. 57 5
22286214 2012
7
Common variants in WFS1 confer risk of type 2 diabetes. 57 5
17603484 2007
8
Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. 57 5
17463246 2007
9
A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. 57 5
17463248 2007
10
Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 57 5
17463249 2007
11
Activating mutations in the ABCC8 gene in neonatal diabetes mellitus. 57 5
16885549 2006
12
Significant association of the interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms C-174G and A-598G with type 2 diabetes. 57 5
15472205 2004
13
HNF-1alpha G319S, a transactivation-deficient mutant, is associated with altered dynamics of diabetes onset in an Oji-Cree community. 57 5
11904371 2002
14
A missense mutation of Pax4 gene (R121W) is associated with type 2 diabetes in Japanese. 57 5
11723072 2001
15
Association of TCF7L2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in 4,087 Japanese subjects. 53 62 5
18097733 2008
16
Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. 53 62 57
16034410 2005
17
A family with severe insulin resistance and diabetes due to a mutation in AKT2. 53 62 5
15166380 2004
18
The Arg972 variant in insulin receptor substrate-1 is associated with an atherogenic profile in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. 53 62 5
12843189 2003
19
A variation in 3' UTR of hPTP1B increases specific gene expression and associates with insulin resistance. 53 62 5
11833006 2002
20
The I27L amino acid polymorphism of hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with insulin resistance. 53 62 5
10852449 2000
21
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors increase BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 53 62 57
10720052 2000
22
Mutations in NEUROD1 are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 62 5
10545951 1999
23
Defective mutations in the insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) gene in late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 62 5
10545531 1999
24
A polymorphism (K121Q) of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene coding region is strongly associated with insulin resistance. 53 62 5
10480624 1999
25
Prevalence of variants in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in The Netherlands: the Rotterdam study and the Hoorn study. 53 62 5
10084586 1999
26
Insulin resistance: interactions between obesity and a common variant of insulin receptor substrate-1. 53 62 5
7623569 1995
27
A mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor associated with insulin resistance in an obese woman. 53 62 5
1890161 1991
28
Association of common genetic variants of KCNJ11 gene with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 62 5
33853507 2021
29
Functional variants of the HMGA1 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 62 5
21364139 2011
30
The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility of type 2 diabetes, reduced fasting plasma glucose levels, increased triglycerides levels and lower HOMA-IR in Japanese population. 62 57
20574426 2010
31
Identification of KCNJ15 as a susceptibility gene in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 62 57
20085713 2010
32
Postreceptor insulin resistance contributes to human dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. 62 5
19164855 2009
33
Clinical risk factors, DNA variants, and the development of type 2 diabetes. 62 57
19020324 2008
34
Genotype score in addition to common risk factors for prediction of type 2 diabetes. 62 57
19020323 2008
35
Variants in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus. 62 57
18711367 2008
36
Serum retinol-binding protein 4 concentration and its ratio to serum retinol are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children. 53 57
17726085 2007
37
Crucial role of a long-chain fatty acid elongase, Elovl6, in obesity-induced insulin resistance. 62 57
17906635 2007
38
Two variants on chromosome 17 confer prostate cancer risk, and the one in TCF2 protects against type 2 diabetes. 53 57
17603485 2007
39
Mitochondrial haplogroup N9a confers resistance against type 2 diabetes in Asians. 62 57
17273962 2007
40
Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance in lean, obese, and diabetic subjects. 62 57
16775236 2006
41
Variant of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene confers risk of type 2 diabetes. 62 5
16415884 2006
42
No evidence for association of the ENPP1 (PC-1) K121Q variant with risk of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. 53 5
16607460 2006
43
Mitochondrial polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes-related traits in Finns. 62 57
16142453 2005
44
Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. 53 5
16025115 2005
45
Genetic variations in the gene encoding TFAP2B are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 62 57
15940393 2005
46
The association of the K121Q polymorphism of the plasma cell glycoprotein-1 gene with type 2 diabetes and hypertension depends on size at birth. 53 5
15126519 2004
47
The PC-1 Q121 allele is exceptionally prevalent in the Dominican Republic and is associated with type 2 diabetes. 62 5
15001634 2004
48
Genetic polymorphism PC-1 K121Q and ethnic susceptibility to insulin resistance. 62 5
14671192 2003
49
Typical type 2 diabetes mellitus and HFE gene mutations: a population-based case - control study. 62 57
12783844 2003
50
A genome-wide scan in type 2 diabetes mellitus provides independent replication of a susceptibility locus on 18p11 and suggests the existence of novel Loci on 2q12 and 19q13. 62 57
12727978 2003

Variations for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

5 (show top 50) (show all 333)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 PPARG NM_138711.6(PPARG):c.-8-29880A>T SNV Association
440734 rs1553638909 GRCh37: 3:12391323-12391323
GRCh38: 3:12349824-12349824
2 PPARG NM_138711.6(PPARG):c.-8-29900A>G SNV Association
440735 rs1553638903 GRCh37: 3:12391303-12391303
GRCh38: 3:12349804-12349804
3 PPARG NM_138711.6(PPARG):c.-8-28918A>C SNV Association
440733 rs948820149 GRCh37: 3:12392285-12392285
GRCh38: 3:12350786-12350786
4 SLC2A2 NM_000340.2(SLC2A2):c.1331G>A (p.Trp444Ter) SNV Affects
444009 rs1553784995 GRCh37: 3:170716025-170716025
GRCh38: 3:170998236-170998236
5 SLC30A8 NM_173851.3(SLC30A8):c.101_107del (p.Lys34fs) DEL Protective
141422 rs587777582 GRCh37: 8:118159221-118159227
GRCh38: 8:117146982-117146988
6 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.570C>A (p.Ala190=) SNV Association Not Found
1676326 rs5218 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
7 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.685G>A (p.Glu229Lys) SNV Likely Risk Allele
158683 rs587783673 GRCh37: 11:17408954-17408954
GRCh38: 11:17387407-17387407
8 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.*441T>C SNV Likely Risk Allele
303722 rs2285676 GRCh37: 11:17408025-17408025
GRCh38: 11:17386478-17386478
9 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.970G>A (p.Gly324Arg) SNV Likely Risk Allele
551025 rs1193170151 GRCh37: 11:17408669-17408669
GRCh38: 11:17387122-17387122
10 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.406C>A (p.Arg136Ser) SNV Likely Risk Allele
804976 rs766891274 GRCh37: 11:17409233-17409233
GRCh38: 11:17387686-17387686
11 LOC110121472, TCF7L2 NM_001367943.1(TCF7L2):c.450+33966C>G SNV Likely Risk Allele
1692994 GRCh37: 10:114758349-114758349
GRCh38: 10:112998590-112998590
12 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.2117-3C>T SNV Association
157688 rs1799854 GRCh37: 11:17448704-17448704
GRCh38: 11:17427157-17427157
13 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.1009G>A (p.Val337Ile) SNV Association
158670 rs5215 GRCh37: 11:17408630-17408630
GRCh38: 11:17387083-17387083
14 KLF11 NM_003597.5(KLF11):c.185A>G (p.Gln62Arg) SNV Likely Risk Allele
129431 rs35927125 GRCh37: 2:10186419-10186419
GRCh38: 2:10046292-10046292
15 SLC30A8 NM_173851.3(SLC30A8):c.412C>T (p.Arg138Ter) SNV Protective
141421 rs200185429 GRCh37: 8:118165323-118165323
GRCh38: 8:117153084-117153084
16 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.556C>T (p.Arg186Ter) SNV Pathogenic
16133 rs104894006 GRCh37: 7:44189591-44189591
GRCh38: 7:44149992-44149992
17 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.221G>A (p.Arg74Gln) SNV Pathogenic
495834 rs72559734 GRCh37: 11:17496502-17496502
GRCh38: 11:17474955-17474955
18 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.461-9A>G SNV Pathogenic
4527 rs10010131 GRCh37: 4:6292915-6292915
GRCh38: 4:6291188-6291188
19 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.409_424dup (p.Val142fs) DUP Pathogenic
4519 rs1362648752 GRCh37: 4:6290805-6290806
GRCh38: 4:6289078-6289079
20 PPP1R3A NM_002711.4(PPP1R3A):c.1985_1986del (p.Gln662fs) DEL Pathogenic
436408 rs527638422 GRCh37: 7:113519161-113519162
GRCh38: 7:113879106-113879107
21 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2648_2651del (p.Phe883fs) DEL Pathogenic
209207 rs797045076 GRCh37: 4:6304168-6304171
GRCh38: 4:6302441-6302444
22 HNF4A NM_175914.5(HNF4A):c.340C>T (p.Arg114Trp) SNV Pathogenic
9212 rs137853336 GRCh37: 20:43042354-43042354
GRCh38: 20:44413714-44413714
23 ENPP1 NM_006208.3(ENPP1):c.1366C>T (p.Arg456Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1685769 GRCh37: 6:132190590-132190590
GRCh38: 6:131869450-131869450
24 PPARG NM_138711.6(PPARG):c.1181-2A>T SNV Pathogenic
1686090 GRCh37: 3:12475395-12475395
GRCh38: 3:12433896-12433896
25 PPARG NM_138711.6(PPARG):c.1184G>A (p.Arg395His) SNV Pathogenic
1686091 GRCh37: 3:12475400-12475400
GRCh38: 3:12433901-12433901
26 SLC2A2 NM_000340.2(SLC2A2):c.682C>T (p.Arg228Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1686207 GRCh37: 3:170723825-170723825
GRCh38: 3:171006036-171006036
27 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.776A>G (p.His259Arg) SNV Pathogenic
8677 rs104894248 GRCh37: 11:17408863-17408863
GRCh38: 11:17387316-17387316
28 LIPC NM_000236.3(LIPC):c.1214C>T (p.Thr405Met) SNV Pathogenic
14451 rs113298164 GRCh37: 15:58855748-58855748
GRCh38: 15:58563549-58563549
29 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.124C>T (p.Arg42Ter) SNV Pathogenic
Pathogenic
189251 rs71530923 GRCh37: 4:6279306-6279306
GRCh38: 4:6277579-6277579
30 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.2506C>T (p.Arg836Ter) SNV Pathogenic
188915 rs72559722 GRCh37: 11:17434263-17434263
GRCh38: 11:17412716-17412716
31 PRMT7 NM_019023.5(PRMT7):c.1713C>A (p.Cys571Ter) SNV Pathogenic
523434 rs1251713297 GRCh37: 16:68389688-68389688
GRCh38: 16:68355785-68355785
32 HNF4A NM_175914.5(HNF4A):c.187C>T (p.Arg63Trp) SNV Pathogenic
156152 rs587777732 GRCh37: 20:43034835-43034835
GRCh38: 20:44406195-44406195
33 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.4135C>T (p.Arg1379Cys) SNV Pathogenic
9105 rs137852673 GRCh37: 11:17417462-17417462
GRCh38: 11:17395915-17395915
34 PAX4 NM_001366110.1(PAX4):c.385C>T (p.Arg129Trp) SNV Pathogenic
13790 rs114202595 GRCh37: 7:127254587-127254587
GRCh38: 7:127614533-127614533
35 PRMT7 NM_019023.5(PRMT7):c.322G>T (p.Glu108Ter) SNV Pathogenic
523435 rs1014959895 GRCh37: 16:68363008-68363008
GRCh38: 16:68329105-68329105
36 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.1135C>G (p.Pro379Ala) SNV Pathogenic
Likely Pathogenic
431970 rs754729248 GRCh37: 12:121434371-121434371
GRCh38: 12:120996568-120996568
37 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.1340C>T (p.Pro447Leu) SNV Pathogenic
14928 rs137853236 GRCh37: 12:121435307-121435307
GRCh38: 12:120997504-120997504
38 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.766G>A (p.Glu256Lys) SNV Pathogenic
265175 rs769268803 GRCh37: 7:44187346-44187346
GRCh38: 7:44147747-44147747
39 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.667G>A (p.Gly223Ser) SNV Pathogenic
435306 rs1360415315 GRCh37: 7:44189371-44189371
GRCh38: 7:44149772-44149772
40 SLC2A2 NM_000340.2(SLC2A2):c.963+1G>A SNV Pathogenic
444008 rs371977235 GRCh37: 3:170723073-170723073
GRCh38: 3:171005284-171005284
41 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.713-1075C>G SNV Pathogenic
Benign
4528 rs6446482 GRCh37: 4:6295693-6295693
GRCh38: 4:6293966-6293966
42 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.76C>T (p.Arg26Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1179030 GRCh37: 4:6279258-6279258
GRCh38: 4:6277531-6277531
43 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.1956C>G (p.Tyr652Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1179097 GRCh37: 4:6303478-6303478
GRCh38: 4:6301751-6301751
44 HNF1B NM_000458.4(HNF1B):c.884G>A (p.Arg295His) SNV Pathogenic
288154 GRCh37: 17:36091747-36091747
GRCh38: 17:37731756-37731756
45 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.1893del (p.Gln632fs) DEL Pathogenic
1179142 GRCh37: 11:17450142-17450142
GRCh38: 11:17428595-17428595
46 ENPP1 NM_006208.3(ENPP1):c.2344C>T (p.Arg782Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1179191 GRCh37: 6:132206103-132206103
GRCh38: 6:131884963-131884963
47 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2293del (p.Cys765fs) DEL Pathogenic
1179192 GRCh37: 4:6303815-6303815
GRCh38: 4:6302088-6302088
48 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2194C>T (p.Arg732Cys) SNV Pathogenic
215396 rs71526458 GRCh37: 4:6303716-6303716
GRCh38: 4:6301989-6301989
49 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.3544C>T (p.Arg1182Trp) SNV Pathogenic
210076 rs797045209 GRCh37: 11:17426072-17426072
GRCh38: 11:17404525-17404525
50 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.330C>A (p.Tyr110Ter) SNV Pathogenic
523067 rs1553876668 GRCh37: 4:6290728-6290728
GRCh38: 4:6289001-6289001

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

73 (show all 13)
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 AKT2 p.Arg274His VAR_067310 rs121434593
2 HNF1B p.Ser465Arg VAR_017665 rs121918673
3 HNF4A p.Val402Ile VAR_004670 rs137853337
4 INSR p.Arg1191Gln VAR_004098 rs121913150
5 INSR p.Thr858Ala VAR_015917 rs182552223
6 INSR p.Arg1158Gln VAR_015927
7 IRS1 p.Ser1043Tyr VAR_005302
8 IRS1 p.Cys1095Tyr VAR_005303
9 MAPK8IP1 p.Ser59Asn VAR_012243 rs119489103
10 NEUROD1 p.Arg111Leu VAR_012487 rs104893649
11 PAX4 p.Arg129Trp VAR_054881 rs114202595
12 PPP1R3A p.Ala931Glu VAR_019699 rs35449651
13 SLC2A4 p.Val383Ile VAR_007170 rs121434581

Copy number variations for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus from CNVD:

6 (show top 50) (show all 83)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 17402 1 142600000 165500000 Copy number PKLR Type 2 diabetes
2 35190 1 60900000 84700000 Gain LEPR Type 2 diabetes
3 47263 10 90934639 90935788 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
4 56319 11 5828407 5911385 Copy number OR52E4 Type 2 diabetes
5 56320 11 5828407 5911385 Copy number OR52E8 Type 2 diabetes
6 64630 12 130289496 130380887 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
7 71430 12 69818942 132349534 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
8 72310 12 7861988 8017012 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
9 85318 14 43524894 43690442 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
10 92910 15 45994758 45999227 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
11 112713 17 40930407 78774742 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
12 120987 18 3559620 3561217 Copy number DLGAP1 Type 2 diabetes
13 122978 18 64835114 64906488 Copy number CCDC102B Type 2 diabetes
14 126686 19 20368239 20528316 Copy number ZNF737 Type 2 diabetes
15 126687 19 20368239 20528316 Copy number ZNF826P Type 2 diabetes
16 136585 2 131674223 131804836 Copy number ARHGEF4 Insulin resistance
17 139340 2 179004449 242951149 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
18 157468 21 16693940 16716168 Copy number MIR99AHG Type 2 diabetes
19 161806 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number GGTLC2 Type 2 diabetes
20 161807 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
21 161808 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
22 161809 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number MAPK1 Type 2 diabetes
23 161810 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number POM121L1P Type 2 diabetes
24 161811 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number PPIL2 Type 2 diabetes
25 161812 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number PPM1F Type 2 diabetes
26 161813 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number PRAME Type 2 diabetes
27 161814 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number TOP3B Type 2 diabetes
28 161815 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number VPREB1 Type 2 diabetes
29 161816 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number YPEL1 Type 2 diabetes
30 161817 22 20352005 21702142 Copy number ZNF280A Type 2 diabetes
31 166135 3 1 91000000 Deletion Insulin resistance
32 177936 3 65166887 65187636 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
33 180381 4 1044654 1045386 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
34 180437 4 1055269 1097350 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
35 180855 4 1116050 1129814 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
36 180945 4 1135541 1135957 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
37 181059 4 1149293 1149712 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
38 181066 4 1150723 1156597 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
39 181232 4 1184431 1185198 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
40 181276 4 1195228 1232908 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
41 181575 4 1234177 1236616 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
42 181792 4 1273672 1323925 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
43 182057 4 1331104 1371732 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
44 182229 4 1375340 1379782 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
45 182251 4 1380072 1392453 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
46 182794 4 1484196 1519086 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
47 183059 4 153203765 153212191 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
48 183618 4 1611605 1655516 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
49 183672 4 162050188 162154792 Copy number Type 2 diabetes
50 183924 4 1664325 1683828 Copy number Type 2 diabetes

Expression for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients vs. healthy controls: 35
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 REG3A regenerating family member 3 alpha Pancreas + 5.01 0.004
2 REG1CP regenerating family member 1 gamma, pseudogene Pancreas + 3.89 0.011
3 MMP7 matrix metallopeptidase 7 Pancreas + 3.61 0.006
4 REG3G regenerating family member 3 gamma Pancreas + 3.33 0.034
5 PCOLCE2 procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 2 Pancreas + 3.20 0.000
6 TSHR thyroid stimulating hormone receptor Pancreas + 3.15 0.003
7 SERPINA3 serpin family A member 3 Pancreas + 3.12 0.000
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Pathways for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Pathways related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.57 SLC2A2 PPARG NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
2
Show member pathways
12.37 PPP1R3A IRS1 INSR ENPP1 AKT2
3
Show member pathways
12.33 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A AKT2
4
Show member pathways
12.31 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
5 12.3 AKT2 ENPP1 HNF1A HNF4A INSR IRS1
6 12.29 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A AKT2
7
Show member pathways
12.17 PPARG IRS1 INSR AKT2
8
Show member pathways
11.96 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 INSR HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
9 11.95 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 HNF1B
10 11.93 RETN PPARG IRS1 HNF1A
11 11.76 PPARG HNF4A AKT2
12
Show member pathways
11.64 AKT2 INSR PPARG
13
Show member pathways
11.45 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
14 11.42 KCNJ11 IRS1 AKT2 ABCC8
15
Show member pathways
11.37 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1A GCK ABCC8
16 11.36 IRS1 INSR AKT2
17 11.01 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR
18 11 PPARG IRS1 INSR
19 10.91 AKT2 INSR PPP1R3A
20 10.84 IRS1 AKT2
21
Show member pathways
10.84 IRS1 INSR AKT2
22 10.77 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR HNF4A
23 10.46 HNF4A HNF1A

GO Terms for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Cellular components related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inward rectifying potassium channel GO:0008282 9.26 KCNJ11 ABCC8
2 insulin receptor complex GO:0005899 8.92 IRS1 INSR

Biological processes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to xenobiotic stimulus GO:0009410 10.07 ABCC8 HNF1B KCNJ11 NEUROD1 PAX4 PPARG
2 insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0008286 10.04 IRS1 INSR AKT2
3 glucose metabolic process GO:0006006 10.02 KCNJ11 GCK AKT2
4 insulin secretion GO:0030073 10 NEUROD1 HNF1B HNF1A
5 carbohydrate metabolic process GO:0005975 10 SLC2A2 PPP1R3A INSR GCK AKT2
6 positive regulation of glucose import GO:0046326 9.99 AKT2 INSR IRS1
7 negative regulation of insulin secretion GO:0046676 9.97 KCNJ11 IRS1 ABCC8
8 response to glucose GO:0009749 9.95 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
9 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.92 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK
10 positive regulation of glucose metabolic process GO:0010907 9.86 IRS1 AKT2
11 pancreas development GO:0031016 9.86 WFS1 PAX4 HNF1B HNF1A
12 negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell apoptotic process GO:2000675 9.84 WFS1 NEUROD1
13 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.76 AKT2 GCK INSR IRS1
14 cellular response to insulin stimulus GO:0032869 9.73 PPARG IRS1 INSR GCK ENPP1 AKT2
15 positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus GO:0035774 9.65 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 ABCC8
16 regulation of pronephros size GO:0035565 9.61 HNF1B HNF1A
17 glucose homeostasis GO:0042593 9.53 WFS1 PPARG NEUROD1 IRS1 INSR HNF4A

Molecular functions related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0043565 9.7 PPARG NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
2 ATP-activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity GO:0015272 9.26 KCNJ11 ABCC8
3 double-stranded DNA binding GO:0003690 9.02 PPARG PAX4 NEUROD1 HNF1A

Sources for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 24-Oct-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....