Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

Name: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 57 12 43 36 29 6 15 37
Insulin Resistance 57 12 29 54 6 17 70
Niddm 57 12 43 72 54
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent 57 43 72 70
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent 57 13 39
Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 57 43 72
Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 57 29 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 57 43 44
Maturity-Onset Diabetes 57 43 72
Type 2 Diabetes 12 43 62
T2d 57 43 72
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related, Susceptibility to 57 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Association with 57 6
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 12 32
Insulin Resistance, Susceptibility to 57 6
Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 43 72
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii 57 43
Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus 12 17
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late Onset 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent; Niddm 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Susceptibility to 57
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2 57
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related 57
Diabetes, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 6
Maturity-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 43
Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset 43
Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii 72
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 72
Adult-Onset Diabetes 43
Diabetes Mellitus 70
Diabetes, Type 2 57
Type Ii Diabetes 15
Diabetes Type 2 42
Aodm 43



57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
autosomal dominant


type 2 diabetes mellitus:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance
Onset and clinical course late onset


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9352
OMIM® 57 125853
KEGG 36 H00409
MeSH 44 D003924
NCIt 50 C26747
SNOMED-CT 67 44054006
ICD10 32 E11
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 263681008 48606007
UMLS 70 C0011849 C0011860 C0021655

Summaries for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood.Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health problems including heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and damage to the kidneys, eyes, and other parts of the body.

MalaCards based summary : Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, also known as insulin resistance, is related to diabetes mellitus and maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction, and has symptoms including tremor, angina pectoris and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is IRS1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Type II diabetes mellitus and Cell cycle. The drugs Metronidazole and Petrolatum have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Pancreas and Adipose, and related phenotypes are type ii diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance

Disease Ontology : 12 A diabetes mellitus that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

OMIM® : 57 Type 2 diabetes mellitus is distinct from maturity-onset diabetes of the young (see 606391) in that it is polygenic, characterized by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions with onset in adulthood, usually at age 40 to 60 but occasionally in adolescence if a person is obese. The pedigrees are rarely multigenerational. The penetrance is variable, possibly 10 to 40% (Fajans et al., 2001). Persons with type 2 diabetes usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of the so-called metabolic syndrome (see 605552), which is characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. (125853) (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MedlinePlus : 42 Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you may be able to delay or prevent developing it by making some lifestyle changes. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having blurry eyesight Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need to take diabetes medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

KEGG : 36 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance of peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue) and insufficient compensatory insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Both insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are thought to result from the complex interplay of many different pathways under the combined control of environmental and genetic factors. It is accepted that T2DM results from population aging and adverse environmental factors of the modern world which favor the development of obesity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by a lack of sensitivity to the body's own insulin. Affected individuals usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of a metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. The disease results in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

PubMed Health : 62 About type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic disease that causes sugar to build up in the blood stream. The severity of diabetes can vary quite a bit: Some people only have to make minor changes to their lifestyle after they are diagnosed. Just losing a little weight and getting a bit more exercise may be enough for them to manage their diabetes. Other people who have type 2 diabetes need long-term treatment that involves taking tablets or insulin. It is then especially important for them to have a good understanding of their disease and know what they can do to stay healthy. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or teenage years. This disease is a result of damage to the pancreas that leaves it producing either very little insulin or none at all. Things are different in type 2 diabetes, where insulin is made by the pancreas but the body’s cells gradually lose the ability to absorb and use the insulin. In the past, type 2 diabetes was often referred to as “adult-onset” diabetes because it is commonly diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. About 90% of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Wikipedia : 73 Type 2 diabetes (T2D), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is... more...

Related Diseases for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus family:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 3
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 4 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 5
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 7 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 8
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 11 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 13
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 12 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 15 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 6
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 10 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 17
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 3 Diabetes Mellitus, Congenital Autoimmune
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 18 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 4
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 19 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 20
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 21 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 22
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 23 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 24
Type 2 Diabetes 5 Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Rare Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1689)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 diabetes mellitus 35.7 WFS1 SLC2A2 RETN PPP1R3A PDX1 PAX4
2 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction 34.7 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
3 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 9 34.6 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
4 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 7 34.6 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
5 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10 34.5 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
6 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 11 34.4 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
7 hyperglycemia 34.4 SLC2A2 RETN PDX1 PAX4 KCNJ11 IRS2
8 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 34.3 WFS1 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
9 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 14 34.0 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 GCK
10 hypoglycemia 33.7 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 INSR GCK AKT2 ABCC8
11 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 33.7 SLC2A2 RETN KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR
12 donohue syndrome 33.6 IRS2 IRS1 INSR GCK
13 type 1 diabetes mellitus 33.4 WFS1 RETN PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 INSR
14 hyperinsulinism 33.4 RETN KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR HNF4A
15 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 33.4 RETN IRS2 IRS1 INSR IL6
16 gestational diabetes 33.4 RETN KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR IL6
17 lipid metabolism disorder 33.4 RETN IRS1 INSR IL6 HNF4A
18 glucose intolerance 33.2 RETN NEUROD1 KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR IL6
19 fatty liver disease 33.1 RETN IRS2 IRS1 INSR IL6
20 liver disease 33.0 RETN IRS2 IRS1 INSR IL6 AKT2
21 insulinoma 32.6 WFS1 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 HNF1A
22 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 32.6 SLC2A2 RETN PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
23 polycystic ovary syndrome 32.4 RETN IRS2 IRS1 INSR
24 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 32.4 WFS1 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
25 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 32.4 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
26 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 32.4 PAX4 KCNJ11 ABCC8
27 prediabetes syndrome 32.3 SLC2A2 RETN IRS1 INSR HNF4A GCK
28 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 32.3 RETN IRS2 IRS1 IL6
29 insulin-like growth factor i 32.2 IRS2 IRS1 INSR AKT2
30 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 32.1 PDX1 KCNJ11 INSR HNF4A HNF1A GCK
31 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis 32.1 IRS1 IL6 HNF4A
32 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 32.1 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
33 neonatal diabetes 32.0 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF1B
34 pancreatic agenesis 32.0 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
35 permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus 32.0 WFS1 SLC2A2 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
36 acute insulin response 31.8 KCNJ11 ABCC8
37 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6 31.8 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
38 renal cysts and diabetes syndrome 31.8 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
39 glucose metabolism disease 31.8 SLC2A2 RETN KCNJ11 IRS1 IL6 GCK
40 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 31.7 RETN INSR GCK
41 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 31.6 PDX1 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A GCK
42 monogenic diabetes 31.6 PDX1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
43 renal glucosuria 31.5 SLC2A2 HNF1B HNF1A
44 transient neonatal diabetes mellitus 31.4 SLC2A2 PDX1 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
45 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal, 1 31.2 PDX1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
46 wolfram syndrome 30.9 WFS1 KCNJ11 GCK
47 hypertrichosis 30.7 KCNJ11 INSR ABCC8
48 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2 30.6 KCNJ11 HNF4A ABCC8
49 hepatic adenomas, familial 30.2 HNF4A HNF1A
50 diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistant, with acanthosis nigricans 11.9

Comorbidity relations with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Peripheral Vascular Disease Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

Diseases related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Human phenotypes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 type ii diabetes mellitus 31 HP:0005978
2 insulin resistance 31 HP:0000855
3 increased waist to hip ratio 31 HP:0031819

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
insulin resistance
decreased glucose disposal

noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

late onset

Clinical features from OMIM®:

125853 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

tremor; angina pectoris; equilibration disorder; symptoms

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 14)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-1 9.87 IRS2
2 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 9.87 IRS2
3 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 9.87 GPD2 SLC2A2
4 Decreased viability GR00173-A 9.87 MAPK8IP1
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.87 AKT2 GCK INSR IRS1
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.87 GCK INSR IRS1
7 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 9.87 AKT2 GCK INSR
8 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.87 AKT2 GCK INSR MAPK8IP1
9 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.87 HNF1B
10 Decreased viability GR00301-A 9.87 AKT2 MAPK8IP1
11 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 9.87 IRS1
12 Decreased viability GR00342-S-3 9.87 AKT2 IRS1 MAPK8IP1
13 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.87 HNF1B HNF4A IRS1 MAPK8IP1 PAX4 SLC2A2
14 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.87 MAPK8IP1 RETN SLC2A2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.36 ABCC8 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.35 ABCC8 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.32 ABCC8 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
4 cellular MP:0005384 10.28 AKT2 GCK HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A IL6
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.16 AKT2 GPD2 HNF1A IL6 INSR IRS1
6 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.1 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.09 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A
8 muscle MP:0005369 9.7 AKT2 HNF1A HNF1B IL6 INSR IRS1
9 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.28 GCK HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A IL6 INSR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

PubMed Health treatment related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 62

A number of factors influence which treatment approach for type 2 diabetes is most suitable: They include age, general physical condition, other health problems, life circumstances and personal goals. Sometimes just changing your lifestyle can have a positive effect: Losing weight and getting more exercise can make insulin more effective and lower blood sugar levels. Quitting smoking helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease . Making these kinds of changes is sometimes enough to manage the condition and associated risks. If very overweight (obese) people find it hard to lose weight, surgical approaches such as stomach stapling may be an option. Some people depend on medication to regulate their blood sugar levels. The medication options include taking tablets, injecting insulin or medication called incretin mimetics (hormone -like substances that are designed to increase the body's insulin production). It's also possible to combine tablets and injections . The most common medications used to treat type 2 diabetes (antidiabetic drugs) are metformin and sulfonylureas. Newer antidiabetic drugs are also available – but there are still many unanswered questions about their effects. Depending on what other symptoms and illnesses a person has, different kinds of medication can be used to lower particular risks. For example, many people who have type 2 diabetes also have high blood pressure . The main medications that can lower the risk of cardiovascular disease lower blood pressure (antihypertensives ), prevent blood clotting (ASA, the drug in medications like Aspirin ), or reduce cholesterol levels (statins).

Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1020)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4 443-48-1 4173
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 4 8009-03-8
Paclitaxel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 33069-62-4 36314
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 8042-47-5
Ursodeoxycholic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 128-13-2 31401
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
Eprosartan Approved Phase 4 133040-01-4 5281037
Adalimumab Approved, Experimental Phase 4 331731-18-1 16219006
Dimethyl fumarate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 624-49-7 5271565 637568
Cilazapril Approved Phase 4 92077-78-6, 88768-40-5 56329 56330
Fosinopril Approved Phase 4 98048-97-6 55891
Spirapril Approved Phase 4 83647-97-6 5311447
Zofenopril Approved Phase 4 81872-10-8
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355
Nifedipine Approved Phase 4 21829-25-4 4485
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Zaleplon Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 151319-34-5 5719
Dydrogesterone Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 152-62-5 9051
parecoxib Approved Phase 4 198470-84-7
Metyrapone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54-36-4 4174
Glyburide Approved Phase 4 10238-21-8 3488
Bilberry Approved, Experimental Phase 4
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2 149436
Hydroxocobalamin Approved Phase 4 13422-51-0 11953898 15589840
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
carbamide peroxide Approved Phase 4 124-43-6
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
Insulin glulisine Approved Phase 4 207748-29-6
Ramipril Approved Phase 4 87333-19-5 5362129
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
Olmesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 144689-24-7, 144689-63-4 130881 158781
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2
Methylcobalamin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 13422-55-4
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
Furosemide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54-31-9 3440
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4 74191-85-8 3157
Irbesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138402-11-6 3749
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
Trimetazidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5011-34-7
Epoprostenol Approved Phase 4 35121-78-9, 61849-14-7 5282411 5280427
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Vorapaxar Approved Phase 4 618385-01-6
Infliximab Approved Phase 4 170277-31-3
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
Enalaprilat Approved Phase 4 76420-72-9 6917719
Enalapril Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 75847-73-3 5362032 40466924
Magnesium oxide Approved Phase 4 1309-48-4 14792

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 ACE/ACE2 Ratio in Diabetic Patients Treated With Antihypertensive Drugs Unknown status NCT00192803 Phase 4 candesartan
2 Effects of Thyroid Hormone Treatment on Mitochondrial Function, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, Insulin Sensitivity and Brown Adipose Tissue in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01379170 Phase 4 Euthyrox (levothyroxine)
3 Metformin and Sitagliptin Therapy for Adult Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Admitted to the General Medical Unit Unknown status NCT02250794 Phase 4 metformin and sitagliptin;insulin glargine and insulin lispro;metformin and sitagliptin;insulin glargine and insulin lispro
4 The Effects of OMACOR on the LDL Sub-fraction in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Combined Hyperlipidemia Unknown status NCT00758927 Phase 4 Omega-3 acid 4 grams per day;Placebo control
5 Study of Comparison the Treatment Effect Between Gastric Bypass and Exenatide in Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01435980 Phase 4 Exenatide
6 Short Term Diet Intervention in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. a Randomised, Multicentric, Controlled, Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01409330 Phase 4
7 Aliskiren Versus Ramipril on Antiproteinuric Effect in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Microalbuminuria Unknown status NCT01038895 Phase 4 Ramipril;Experimental
8 A Single Arm, Single Dose Study to Evaluate the Effect of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex®) on Hard Exudates of Diabetic Macular Edema Unknown status NCT02399657 Phase 4 Intravitreal dexamethasone 0.7mg implant
9 0.3% Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Dry Eye of Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT02595606 Phase 4 0.3% Sodium Hyaluronate
10 Multicenter Trial on Clinical Utility of Acarbose in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease Accompanied by Abnormal Glucose Regulation Unknown status NCT00858676 Phase 4 acarbose
11 Preventive Strategies of REnal Insufficiency in Patients With Diabetes Undergoing InterVENTion or Arteriography(PREVENT Trial) Unknown status NCT00950079 Phase 4 Sodium bicarbonate;saline
12 Effect of Intravenous and Oral Therapy With Sulodexide on Albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT01316068 Phase 4 intravenous use of sulodexide followed by oral use;use of sulodexide orally only
13 The Research About the Influence of Medical Interventions in the Period of Insulin Resistance on Prevalence of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Unknown status NCT02502344 Phase 4 Metformin
14 An Efficacy and Safety Study Comparing Pegylated-Interferon and Ribavirin Plus Metformin to Pegylated-Interferon and Ribavirin in the Treatment of naïve Patients With Genotype 1 Chronic HCV Infection and Insulin Resistance Unknown status NCT00370617 Phase 4 metformin
15 The Effect of Central Insulin on Insulin Sensitivity and Energy Metabolism Unknown status NCT01479075 Phase 4 intransal insulin;Placebo
16 Vitamin D Concentrations and Their Effect on Glucose Metabolism in Pediatrics Unknown status NCT01386736 Phase 4 Vitamin D drops;Placebo drops
17 The Problem of Insulin Resistance in Patients After Carotid Revascularization Unknown status NCT03419767 Phase 4 Melatonin
18 A Randomized Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Effect of Linagliptin on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT02097342 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Placebo;Voglibose
19 The Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Expression of Sirt-1, Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) & Adiponectin Receptor 2 (AdipoR2) Genes of PBMC and Circulatory Levels of Resistin,Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP-1) and Adiponectin of type2 Diabetes Patient Unknown status NCT02261545 Phase 4
20 A Prospective, Randomized, Two Period, With an Intermediate Wash Out Period, Cross-over Study to Compare the Effects of Either Combined Therapy With Ramipril and Clopidogrel or Ramipril Monotherapy on Oxidative Stress, Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy Unknown status NCT01743014 Phase 4 Ramipril;Clopidogrel
21 Effect of Adding Vildagliptin on Beta Cell Function and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients With Moderate Metabolic Control During Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT01565096 Phase 4 Metformin;Metformin;Vildagliptin;Glimepiride
22 Prospective Randomized Trials of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT00540462 Phase 4
23 Effect of aSpirin Versus CilOstazol for Inhibition of Antiplatelet aggRegaTion in Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT02933788 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Acetylsalicylic acid
24 Investigation of a Switch From Insulin Therapy to a Metformin & Saxagliptin Combination in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01206647 Phase 4 Metformin and Saxagliptin
25 Effect of Acarbose and Vildagliptin on Visceral Fat Distribution in Overweight and Obesity Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Control Study Unknown status NCT02999841 Phase 4 Acarbose;Vildagliptin
26 Effects of a Chronical Treatment With Benfotiamine in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Pre- and Postprandial Endothelial Function, as Well as on the Function of the Autonomic Nervous System Unknown status NCT00446810 Phase 4 Benfotiamine;Placebo
27 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of an Antidiabetic Agent Repaglinide for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT00336310 Phase 4 Repaglinide
28 Efficacy and Safety of Lobeglitazone Versus Sitagliptin in Inadequately Controlled by Metformin Alone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: 24-week, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Phase 4 Study Unknown status NCT02480465 Phase 4 Lobelitazone 0.5mg;Sitagliptin 100mg
29 A Randomized, Unicenter, Parallel Study of the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Central Blood Pressure Reduction Compared to Glimepiride in Adult Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Inadequate Glycemic Control. Unknown status NCT02919059 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10 mg;Glimepiride 4 mg
30 Effect of Linagliptin in Comparison With Glimepiride as Add on to Metformin on Postprandial Beta Cell Function, Postprandial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01547104 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Glimepiride
31 Intensive Medical Treatment for Nephropathy Caused by Type 2 Diabetes With Hypertension Unknown status NCT00407680 Phase 4 Intensive therapy Valsartan,Fluvastatin
32 The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Hypertriglyceridemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT03120299 Phase 4 Omega-3 fatty acid;Placebos
33 A Single Center, Open Label, Randomized Study to Compare the Effect of Vytorin (Simvastatin/Ezetimibe) 10/20mg Versus Atorvastatin 20mg on ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio in Subjects With Diabetes Unknown status NCT01185236 Phase 4 simvastatin/ezetimibe;atorvastatin 20mg
34 Improving Glycaemic Control in Malaysian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Pump Therapy Unknown status NCT03112538 Phase 4 Multiple daily injections of insulin
35 Metabolism-independent Vascular Effects of the Dipetidylpeptidase-4-inhibitor Sitagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01096277 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Placebo
36 Study Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Endothelial Cell Function and Genetic Effects on the Response to Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Diabetic Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Unknown status NCT01038050 Phase 4 Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE)
37 The Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Functional Changes of Uncontrolled Diabetes by the Intervention of Dapagliflozin Treatment Trial (ELUCIDATE) Unknown status NCT03871621 Phase 4 Diabetes Medicines;Dapagliflozin
38 A Randomized, Double-blind, Active Control, Parallel Group, Exploratory Phase IV Study to Compare the Effects of Tenelia® or Januvia® on Glucose Variability in add-on to Metformin in Patients With Inadequately Controlled Type2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metformin Only Treatment Unknown status NCT02512523 Phase 4 Teneligliptin;Sitagliptin
39 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Inflammation and Innate Immunity in The Pathogenesis of Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis Unknown status NCT01250340 Phase 4 Aspirin;Placebo
40 Establishing Cardiovascular Biomarkers to Define Preferred Lantus® Use. Unknown status NCT01500850 Phase 4 nph insulin;human insulin;Insulin Glargine;Insulin glulisine
41 Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of the Hypoglycemic Efficacy, Weight Control, and Safety in Newly-diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Triple Combination Therapy Using Metformin, Saxagliptin Plus Dapagliflozin Versus Premixed Insulin Unknown status NCT03700801 Phase 4 Triple combination therapy group;Premixed insulin therapy group
42 Effect of Dapagliflozin on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients With Type-2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT03377335 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10mg;Metformin
43 A Randomized, Open, Controlled, Parallel Group Study of Adding Linagliptin to Control Glycemic Variability and HbA1c in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients With Type 2 Diabetes(PDPD) With Premixed Insulin Therapy Unknown status NCT03320031 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Humalog Mix 75/25
44 Basal-bolus Insulin Therapy With Insulin Degludec and Insulin Aspart Versus Standard Therapy for the Inpatient Management of Type 2 Diabetes: the IDA2 Study Unknown status NCT03244241 Phase 4 Insulin Degludec 100 UNT/ML [Tresiba]
45 Effect of Supplementary Vitamin D in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Pulmonary Tuberculosis (EVIDENT Study): a Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02169570 Phase 4
46 Organization Program of DiabEtes INsulIN ManaGement: An Open, Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, 16-week, Controlled Clinical Study Unknown status NCT01338376 Phase 4 Scilin®M30
47 The Efficacy and Safety of Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Added to the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, Sitagliptin in People With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Liver Diseases Unknown status NCT01337440 Phase 4 UDCA;Sitagliptin
48 A Randomized, Non-inferiority, Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GAcarbose+Saxagliptin Compared With Metformin+Saxagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Unknown status NCT02605772 Phase 4 Acarbose;Metformin;Saxagliptin
49 A Phase IV, Multicenter, Randomized, Active Comparator Controlled Study of the Addition of Pioglitazone Compared With Glimepiride in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Inadequate Glycemic Control on Metformin and Alogliptin Unknown status NCT02426294 Phase 4 Pioglitazone;Glimepiride
50 Randomized, Long-Term Study About the Effects of Analogue Versus Human Insulin Based Regimens (Insulin Detemir and Aspart Versus NPH- and Regular Human Insulin) on Metabolic Control and Myocardial Function in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Unknown status NCT00747409 Phase 4 insulin aspart and detemir (NovoRapid, Levemir);human regular insulin and NPH insulin (Actrapid, Protaphne)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

alogliptin benzoate
insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Glargine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Metformin hydrochloride
Pioglitazone hydrochloride
Regular Insulin, Human
Rosiglitazone maleate
sitagliptin phosphate
Tolbutamide sodium
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus, type 2

Genetic Tests for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Genetic tests related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
2 Insulin Resistance 29
3 Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 29

Anatomical Context for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

Liver, Endothelial, Heart, Bone, Kidney, Skeletal Muscle, Pancreas
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Mature Beta Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
2 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Articles related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

(show top 50) (show all 61831)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. 54 6 57 61
15924147 2005
Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. 6 57 61 54
12118251 2002
Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes. 57 6 54
15070960 2004
Interaction between the G1057D variant of IRS-2 and overweight in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. 54 57 6
11030756 2000
Rare MTNR1B variants impairing melatonin receptor 1B function contribute to type 2 diabetes. 6 57
22286214 2012
Common variants in WFS1 confer risk of type 2 diabetes. 57 6
17603484 2007
Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. 6 57
17463246 2007
Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 6 57
17463249 2007
A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. 6 57
17463248 2007
A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 57 6
17293876 2007
Activating mutations in the ABCC8 gene in neonatal diabetes mellitus. 6 57
16885549 2006
Significant association of the interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms C-174G and A-598G with type 2 diabetes. 6 57
15472205 2004
HNF-1alpha G319S, a transactivation-deficient mutant, is associated with altered dynamics of diabetes onset in an Oji-Cree community. 6 57
11904371 2002
A missense mutation of Pax4 gene (R121W) is associated with type 2 diabetes in Japanese. 6 57
11723072 2001
Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. 57 54 61
16034410 2005
A family with severe insulin resistance and diabetes due to a mutation in AKT2. 6 54 61
15166380 2004
The Arg972 variant in insulin receptor substrate-1 is associated with an atherogenic profile in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. 61 6 54
12843189 2003
A variation in 3' UTR of hPTP1B increases specific gene expression and associates with insulin resistance. 6 61 54
11833006 2002
Studies of association between the gene for calpain-10 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. 61 54 6
11481585 2001
Genetic variation in the gene encoding calpain-10 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 6 61 54
11017071 2000
The I27L amino acid polymorphism of hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with insulin resistance. 61 54 6
10852449 2000
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors increase BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 54 61 57
10720052 2000
Mutations in NEUROD1 are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 6 54 61
10545951 1999
Defective mutations in the insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) gene in late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. 54 61 6
10545531 1999
A polymorphism (K121Q) of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene coding region is strongly associated with insulin resistance. 61 54 6
10480624 1999
Prevalence of variants in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in The Netherlands: the Rotterdam study and the Hoorn study. 61 54 6
10084586 1999
Insulin resistance: interactions between obesity and a common variant of insulin receptor substrate-1. 6 54 61
7623569 1995
A mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor associated with insulin resistance in an obese woman. 6 54 61
1890161 1991
Functional variants of the HMGA1 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 6 61
21364139 2011
Identification of KCNJ15 as a susceptibility gene in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 61 57
20085713 2010
Postreceptor insulin resistance contributes to human dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. 61 6
19164855 2009
Variants in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus. 57 61
18711367 2008
Association of TCF7L2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in 4,087 Japanese subjects. 6 54
18097733 2008
Serum retinol-binding protein 4 concentration and its ratio to serum retinol are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children. 54 57
17726085 2007
Crucial role of a long-chain fatty acid elongase, Elovl6, in obesity-induced insulin resistance. 57 61
17906635 2007
Two variants on chromosome 17 confer prostate cancer risk, and the one in TCF2 protects against type 2 diabetes. 54 57
17603485 2007
Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance in lean, obese, and diabetic subjects. 57 61
16775236 2006
No evidence for association of the ENPP1 (PC-1) K121Q variant with risk of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. 6 54
16607460 2006
Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. 6 54
16025115 2005
Genetic variations in the gene encoding TFAP2B are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 57 61
15940393 2005
The association of the K121Q polymorphism of the plasma cell glycoprotein-1 gene with type 2 diabetes and hypertension depends on size at birth. 6 54
15126519 2004
The G-250A promoter polymorphism of the hepatic lipase gene predicts the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. 61 6
15126514 2004
The PC-1 Q121 allele is exceptionally prevalent in the Dominican Republic and is associated with type 2 diabetes. 6 61
15001634 2004
Genetic polymorphism PC-1 K121Q and ethnic susceptibility to insulin resistance. 6 61
14671192 2003
Typical type 2 diabetes mellitus and HFE gene mutations: a population-based case - control study. 57 61
12783844 2003
A genome-wide scan in type 2 diabetes mellitus provides independent replication of a susceptibility locus on 18p11 and suggests the existence of novel Loci on 2q12 and 19q13. 61 57
12727978 2003
Mitochondrial dysfunction in the elderly: possible role in insulin resistance. 61 57
12750520 2003
A novel T608R missense mutation in insulin receptor substrate-1 identified in a subject with type 2 diabetes impairs metabolic insulin signaling. 6 54
12679424 2003
The Q121 PC-1 variant and obesity have additive and independent effects in causing insulin resistance. 61 6
11739459 2001
Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Ikkbeta. 61 57
11533494 2001