MCID: VRC001
MIFTS: 54

Varicocele

Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Varicocele

MalaCards integrated aliases for Varicocele:

Name: Varicocele 12 29 55 6 44 15 73
Scrotal Varices 12
Varicoceles 63

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12337
ICD10 33 I86.1
ICD9CM 35 456.4
MeSH 44 D014646
SNOMED-CT 68 46871008 51070004
UMLS 73 C0042341

Summaries for Varicocele

PubMed Health : 63 About varicoceles: Varicoceles are varicose veins in the scrotum. They form in the veins that run along the spermatic cord. Blood from the testicles flows back into the body through those veins. Like varicose veins in the legs, varicoceles form when blood builds up in the veins and they become permanently enlarged.

MalaCards based summary : Varicocele, also known as scrotal varices, is related to oligospermia and hypogonadotropism, and has symptoms including pain in scrotum An important gene associated with Varicocele is GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Allograft rejection. The drugs Ginseng and Methylene blue have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and heart, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and nervous system

Wikipedia : 76 A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of... more...

Related Diseases for Varicocele

Diseases related to Varicocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 123)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oligospermia 30.6 GSTM1 GSTT1 PRL
2 hypogonadotropism 30.6 GNRH1 PRL
3 varicose veins 30.5 CASP9 HIF1A SHBG
4 gynecomastia 30.1 CGA PRL SHBG
5 impotence 30.0 NOS2 NOS3 PRL SHBG
6 ischemia 29.5 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
7 spermatocele 11.1
8 infertility 10.7
9 azoospermia 10.5
10 male infertility 10.5
11 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.4
12 hypoxia 10.3
13 pituitary infarct 10.3 GNRH1 PRL
14 chiasmal syndrome 10.2 GNRH1 PRL
15 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
16 hypothalamic disease 10.2 GNRH1 PRL
17 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
18 hypogonadism 10.2
19 hydrocele 10.2
20 pituitary apoplexy 10.2 GNRH1 PRL
21 isolated cleft lip 10.2 GSTM1 GSTT1
22 empty sella syndrome 10.2 GNRH1 PRL
23 nodular prostate 10.2 GNRH1 HIF1A
24 pelvic varices 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
25 premenstrual tension 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
26 estrogen excess 10.2 PRL SHBG
27 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 10.2
28 hyperprolactinemia 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
29 hyperandrogenism 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
30 amenorrhea 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
31 hyperthyroidism 10.1 CGA PRL SHBG
32 male reproductive system disease 10.1 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
33 polycystic ovary syndrome 10.1 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
34 oral leukoplakia 10.1 GSTM1 GSTT1
35 thrombosis 10.1
36 freemartinism 10.1 AMH GNRH1
37 testicular cancer 10.1 AZF1 CGA SHBG
38 platelet membrane fluidity 10.1 NOS2 NOS3
39 cerebral hypoxia 10.1 CASP3 CASP9
40 toxic encephalopathy 10.1 CASP3 GSTM1 GSTT1
41 arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.1 GSTM1 GSTT1 NOS3
42 ischemic optic neuropathy 10.1 GSTM1 GSTT1 NOS3
43 oral cancer 10.1 CASP3 GSTM1 GSTT1
44 sexual disorder 10.1 NOS3 PRL SHBG
45 male reproductive organ cancer 10.1 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
46 anovulation 10.1 CGA GNRH1 PRL SHBG
47 chronic mountain sickness 10.1 CASP9 NOS3
48 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 10.1 AMH CGA GNRH1
49 acquired metabolic disease 10.1 NOS3 PRL SHBG
50 spondyloarthropathy 1 10.1

Comorbidity relations with Varicocele via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Prostatic Hypertrophy

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Varicocele:



Diseases related to Varicocele

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Varicocele

UMLS symptoms related to Varicocele:


pain in scrotum

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Varicocele:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.11 AMH CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG GNRH1
2 nervous system MP:0003631 9.81 CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A
3 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.8 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3 PRL
4 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.73 AMH FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 PRL
5 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.43 CASP3 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
6 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.32 AMH CASP3 CGA FASLG GNRH1 HSPA2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Varicocele

PubMedHealth treatment related to Varicocele: 63

Varicoceles do not normally need to be treated. But some experts do suggest treatment for men who have fertility problems and a varicocele, in the hope that it will improve fertility.The treatment involves “shutting down” the affected vein so that the blood flows through healthy, neighboring veins instead. This can be done by blocking the vein using minimally-invasive procedures (embolization) or by performing varicose vein surgery. In embolization, the affected vein is blocked using a catheter to inject either a solution that causes scarring (sclerotherapy), a tissue adhesive, or a detachable balloon or coil. In surgery, the swollen vein and the surrounding smaller veins are either cut or tied.

Drugs for Varicocele (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 24)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ginseng Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50647-08-0
2
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational Phase 2 61-73-4
3
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational 1406-66-2 14986
4
Papaverine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 61-25-6, 58-74-2 4680
5
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1191-50-0, 139-88-8 5248 14492
6
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985
7 Tocotrienol Investigational 6829-55-6
8 Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
9 Hormones ,Not Applicable
10 Estrogens
11 Androgens
12 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
13 Tocopherols
14 Tocotrienols
15 Vitamins
16 Analgesics Not Applicable
17 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Not Applicable
18 Central Nervous System Depressants Not Applicable
19 Anesthetics Not Applicable
20 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable
21 Immunologic Factors
22 Vaccines
23 Follicle Stimulating Hormone
24 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 34)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of FSHR Polymorphism p.N680S in the Therapy With FSH in Patients Who Underwent Varicocele Surgery Unknown status NCT02719093 Phase 4 recombinant FSH
2 Comparison of Outcomes of Two Approaches in Microsurgical Varicocelectomy in Chinese Infertile Males: A Prospective Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT01463787 Phase 4
3 Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Male Infertility Completed NCT02202382 Phase 4 Korean Red Ginseng, Varicocelectomy;Placebo
4 Microsurgical Varicocelectomy Versus No Surgery in Men With a Palpable Varicocele and an Abnormal Semen Analysis Terminated NCT00767338 Phase 3
5 Dye Assisted Lymphatic Sparing Subinguinal Varicocelectomy Completed NCT01259258 Phase 2
6 Outcome of ICSI Using Cryopreserved Testicular Sperm From Infertile Men With Varicocele-associated Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02306499 Not Applicable
7 The Anaesthesiological Approach to Varicocele Correction in Outpatients Setting: an Observational Analisy Unknown status NCT02401087
8 Evaluation of PerformanCe of the Peripheral EOS in the Treatment of Varicocele or Pelvic Congestion SynDromE Unknown status NCT02033863
9 Doppler Ultrasound Assisted Varicocelectomy Improve Sperm Qualities Unknown status NCT02695199 Not Applicable
10 Odense Androgen Study: Study of Androgens, Body Composition, and Muscle Function in Danish Men Unknown status NCT00150163
11 Oxidative Stress and Lipidomics in Male Infertility Unknown status NCT02062229
12 Effect of TAP Block for Postoperative Pain Control After Varicocele Operations. Completed NCT02983383 Not Applicable
13 Role of the Toxic Metal Cadmium in the Mechanism Producing Infertility With a Varicocele Completed NCT00044369
14 Beneficial Effects of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters for Causes Other Than Infertility Completed NCT02006316
15 The Effect of Spermatic Vein Embolization on Prostatic Hypertrophy Completed NCT00639899 Not Applicable
16 Sclerotherapy of Internal Spermatic Veins in Patients With Varicocele and Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00637208 Not Applicable
17 Assessing the Rates of Major Complications in Combined Mini-incision Microscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02092311 Not Applicable
18 Single Incision Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02335385 Not Applicable
19 Analysis on AEFI Surveillance Data for Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Completed NCT02983656
20 Varicocelectomy To Treat Pain, Predictors Of Success Completed NCT01395186 Not Applicable
21 The Role of Artery-Preserving Varicocelectomy in Subfertile Men With Severe Oligozoospermia. Completed NCT03344588 Not Applicable
22 Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a Left-sided Varicocele Recruiting NCT03540056
23 The Role of Microsurgery in Surgical Treatment of Varicocele. Recruiting NCT02722187 Not Applicable
24 The Search for Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Varicocele Recruiting NCT03079609 Not Applicable
25 Comparison of TAP Bock vs QL Block in Varicocele Surgery Recruiting NCT03793764 Not Applicable
26 EASYX-1 : A Multicenter Study on Safety and Efficacy of Easyx Liquid Embolization Agent Used in Five Separate Indications Recruiting NCT03477149 Not Applicable
27 Quality of Life Among Testicular Cancer Survivors Recruiting NCT02304575
28 Anterior Transversalis Fascia Approach Versus Preperitoneal Space Approach for Inguinal Hernia Repair in Residents Recruiting NCT02984917 Not Applicable
29 The Effect and Prognosis of Different Operations on Varicocele - a Single-center Clinical Study Active, not recruiting NCT01757548 Not Applicable
30 IVF Outcomes After Varicocele Repair Not yet recruiting NCT03090438 Not Applicable
31 Varicocele Treatement by Endovasculer Embolization Not yet recruiting NCT03341897 Not Applicable
32 the Effect of Different Modialites of Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters in Patient With Normal Semen Analysis Not yet recruiting NCT03281915
33 Canadian Varicocelectomy Initiative (CVI): Effects on Male Fertility and Testicular Function of Varicocelectomy Terminated NCT00961558 Not Applicable
34 Varicocelectomy: Can Sex-hormones Predict Improvements in Semen Quality? Terminated NCT01296230 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Varicocele

Cochrane evidence based reviews: varicocele

Genetic Tests for Varicocele

Genetic tests related to Varicocele:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Varicocele 29

Anatomical Context for Varicocele

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Varicocele:

41
Testis, Testes, Heart, Prostate, Kidney, Spinal Cord, Pituitary

Publications for Varicocele

Articles related to Varicocele:

(show top 50) (show all 1059)
# Title Authors Year
1
Varicocele embolization: Anatomical variations of the left internal spermatic vein and endovascular treatment with different types of coils. ( 29910172 )
2018
2
The protective effects of GYY4137 on ipsilateral testicular injury in experimentally varicocele-induced rats. ( 29387197 )
2018
3
Venous leg symptoms in patients with varicocele: A multicenter assessment study (VEIN-TURKEY study). ( 29793400 )
2018
4
Ischemic colitis following left antegrade sclerotherapy for idiopathic varicocele. ( 29473213 )
2018
5
Chronic epididymitis and Grade III varicocele and their associations with semen characteristics in men consulting for couple infertility. ( 29516876 )
2018
6
The prevalence and severity of varicocele in adult population over the age of forty years old: a cross-sectional study. ( 29683379 )
2018
7
The Effect of Subclinical Varicocele on Pregnancy Rates and Semen Parameters: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 29774482 )
2018
8
Thiol-disulphide homoeostasis as an oxidative stress marker in men with varicocele. ( 29411889 )
2018
9
Assessment of seminal granulysin in infertile men with varicocele. ( 29896906 )
2018
10
Varicocele due to renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal tumor: a case report. ( 29304872 )
2018
11
Effects of microsurgical varicocelectomy on semen analysis and sperm function tests in patients with different grades of varicocele: Role of sperm functional tests in evaluation of treatments outcome. ( 29938821 )
2018
12
Effect of metabolic and antioxidant supplementation on sperm parameters in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, with and without varicocele: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. ( 29315686 )
2018
13
Protective effect of MOTILIPERM in varicocele-induced oxidative injury in rat testis by activating phosphorylated inositol requiring kinase 1I+ (p-IRE1I+) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) pathways. ( 29316840 )
2018
14
Varicocele management for infertility and pain: A systematic review. ( 29713547 )
2018
15
Influence of all-trans retinoic acid on sperm metabolism and oxidative stress: Its involvement in the physiopathology of varicocele-associated male infertility. ( 29943815 )
2018
16
Comparison of scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy and laparoscopic Palomo surgery in treatment of adolescent varicocele: A 15-year review. ( 29941347 )
2018
17
Bilateral is superior to unilateral varicocelectomy in infertile males with left clinical and right subclinical varicocele: a prospective randomized controlled study. ( 29210007 )
2018
18
Role of varicocele treatment in assisted reproductive technologies. ( 29713550 )
2018
19
Response to Pelvic venous reflux in male: Varicocele? ( 29316851 )
2018
20
Berberine inhibits experimental varicocele-induced cell cycle arrest via regulating cyclin D1, cdk4 and p21 proteins expression in rat testicles. ( 29441600 )
2018
21
LncRNA gadd7, increased in varicocele patients, suppresses cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. ( 29435165 )
2018
22
Effects of Varicocelectomy on Serum Testosterone Levels among Infertile Men with Varicocele. ( 29707936 )
2018
23
Men With Severe Oligospermia Appear to Benefit From Varicocele Repair: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Assisted Reproductive Technology. ( 29051002 )
2018
24
Varicocele and Testicular Pain: A Review. ( 29774668 )
2018
25
Comparison of The Efficacy and Safety of Palomo, Ivanissevich and Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy in Iranian Infertile Men with Palpable Varicocele. ( 29334212 )
2018
26
Can Melissa officinalis improve chromatin structure and sperm parameters in a rat model of varicocele? ( 29876952 )
2018
27
Effect of Varicocelectomy on Serum FSH and LH Levels for Patients with Varicocele: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ( 29973753 )
2018
28
Varicocele Due to Post Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula. ( 29432872 )
2018
29
Varicocele Management Strategies and Resulting Paternity Rates in a Cohort of Young Adults. ( 29729366 )
2018
30
With a new clip technique surgically inducing varicocele in Sprague-Dawley rats. ( 29879956 )
2018
31
Effect of varicocelectomy and/or mast cells stabilizer on sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile patients with varicocele. ( 29195028 )
2018
32
A Novel Method for Investigating the Role of Reflux Pattern in Color Doppler Ultrasound for Grading of Varicocele. ( 29695731 )
2018
33
A global view of the pathophysiology of varicocele. ( 29978951 )
2018
34
Seminal plasma miR-192a: a biomarker predicting successful resolution of nonobstructive azoospermia following varicocele repair. ( 29578116 )
2018
35
Case - Azoospermia with bilateral varicocele and normal folliclestimulating hormone. ( 29989886 )
2018
36
Hypogonadism is independently associated with varicocele repair in a contemporary cohort of men in the USA. ( 30381578 )
2018
37
Hypoxia pathway has more impact than inflammation pathway on etiology of infertile men with varicocele. ( 30474123 )
2018
38
Effect of adjuvant drug therapy after varicocelectomy on fertility outcome in males with varicocele-associated infertility: Systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29993131 )
2018
39
Proteomic Signatures of Sperm Mitochondria in Varicocele: Clinical Use as Biomarkers of Varicocele Associated Infertility. ( 29530785 )
2018
40
Intratesticular varicocele: a rare cause of male factor infertility. ( 29545445 )
2018
41
Re: Men with Severe Oligospermia Appear to Benefit from Varicocele Repair: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Assisted Reproductive Technology. ( 30412957 )
2018
42
Treating varicocele in 2018: current knowledge and treatment options. ( 30284221 )
2018
43
The relationship between inflammation and mean platelet volume in varicocele pathophysiology. ( 30286867 )
2018
44
Pros and cons of robotic microsurgery as an appropriate approach to male reproductive surgery for vasectomy reversal and varicocele repair. ( 30316417 )
2018
45
Treatment of Varicocele in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis from the European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines Panel. ( 30316583 )
2018
46
Varicocele Repair Versus Testosterone Therapy for Older Hypogonadal Men with Clinical Varicocele and Low Testosterone. ( 30316825 )
2018
47
Effects of varicocele on testicles: Value of strain elastography: A prospective controlled study. ( 30318780 )
2018
48
Clinical grading and color Doppler ultrasonography-based grading of varicocele: how compatible are the two grading systems? ( 30324297 )
2018
49
Berberine ameliorates experimental varicocele-induced damages at testis and sperm levels; evidences for oxidative stress and inflammation. ( 30334274 )
2018
50
Microsurgery Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Varicocele: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. ( 30339469 )
2018

Variations for Varicocele

Expression for Varicocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Varicocele.

Pathways for Varicocele

Pathways related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.84 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG NOS3 PRL
2
Show member pathways
12.7 CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG HSPA2
3
Show member pathways
12.54 CASP3 CASP9 CGA GNRH1
4 12.52 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GSTM1 GSTT1 HIF1A
5
Show member pathways
12.17 CASP3 CGA NOS2 NOS3 PRL
6
Show member pathways
11.98 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2 NOS2
7 11.94 GSTM1 GSTT1 NOS3
8
Show member pathways
11.94 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG HIF1A
9
Show member pathways
11.9 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
10 11.85 CASP9 HIF1A PLCZ1
11 11.82 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
12 11.8 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
13 11.76 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
14 11.69 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3
15 11.68 CASP3 CASP9 NOS2
16
Show member pathways
11.61 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
17
Show member pathways
11.59 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3
18 11.42 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GSTM1 GSTT1
19
Show member pathways
11.4 HSPA2 NOS2 NOS3
20 11.35 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2
21 11.17 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
22 11.12 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
23 11.02 HIF1A NOS3
24 11.02 NOS2 NOS3
25 11.01 GSTM1 GSTT1
26 10.99 CASP3 CASP9
27 10.87 GNRH1 SHBG
28 10.73 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
29 10.69 CGA GNRH1
30 10.68 NOS2 NOS3
31 10.38 NOS2 NOS3

GO Terms for Varicocele

Biological processes related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.81 CASP3 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
2 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.77 AMH CGA FASLG GNRH1 PRL
3 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.72 CASP3 CASP9 PRL
4 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919 9.67 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
5 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.58 GSTM1 GSTT1
6 platelet formation GO:0030220 9.57 CASP3 CASP9
7 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 9.56 NOS2 NOS3
8 gonad development GO:0008406 9.54 AMH CGA
9 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.52 NOS2 NOS3
10 positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0043525 9.5 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
11 ovulation cycle GO:0042698 9.48 GNRH1 PRL
12 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.46 NOS2 NOS3
13 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.43 NOS2 NOS3
14 response to cobalt ion GO:0032025 9.4 CASP3 CASP9
15 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.35 AMH CASP3 CASP9 GNRH1 PRL
16 glial cell apoptotic process GO:0034349 9.26 CASP3 CASP9
17 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.17 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GNRH1 NOS2 NOS3
18 leukocyte apoptotic process GO:0071887 9.16 CASP3 CASP9

Molecular functions related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0097153 9.46 CASP3 CASP9
2 death receptor binding GO:0005123 9.43 CASP3 FASLG
3 FMN binding GO:0010181 9.4 NOS2 NOS3
4 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.37 NOS2 NOS3
5 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097199 9.32 CASP3 CASP9
6 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.26 NOS2 NOS3
7 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 9.16 NOS2 NOS3
8 nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0004517 8.96 NOS2 NOS3
9 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.92 AMH CGA GNRH1 PRL

Sources for Varicocele

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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