MCID: VRC001
MIFTS: 53

Varicocele

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Varicocele

MalaCards integrated aliases for Varicocele:

Name: Varicocele 12 30 56 6 45 15 74
Scrotal Varices 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12337
ICD9CM 36 456.4
MeSH 45 D014646
SNOMED-CT 69 46871008 51070004
ICD10 34 I86.1
UMLS 74 C0042341

Summaries for Varicocele

MalaCards based summary : Varicocele, also known as scrotal varices, is related to varicose veins and hypogonadotropism, and has symptoms including pain in scrotum An important gene associated with Varicocele is GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Allograft rejection. The drugs Ginseng and Methylene blue have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and endothelial, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and immune system

Wikipedia : 77 A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of... more...

Related Diseases for Varicocele

Diseases related to Varicocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 128)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 varicose veins 32.4 CASP9 HIF1A SHBG
2 hypogonadotropism 30.8 GNRH1 PRL
3 gynecomastia 30.3 CGA PRL SHBG
4 impotence 30.0 NOS2 NOS3 PRL SHBG
5 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 29.6 AMH AZF1 CGA GNRH1 SHBG
6 ischemia 29.5 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
7 spermatocele 11.4
8 infertility 10.9
9 male infertility 10.6
10 azoospermia 10.5
11 pituitary infarct 10.4 GNRH1 PRL
12 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.4
13 chiasmal syndrome 10.4 GNRH1 PRL
14 hypothalamic disease 10.4 GNRH1 PRL
15 hypoxia 10.4
16 pituitary apoplexy 10.3 GNRH1 PRL
17 empty sella syndrome 10.3 GNRH1 PRL
18 nodular prostate 10.3 GNRH1 HIF1A
19 oligospermia 10.3
20 pelvic varices 10.3 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
21 estrogen excess 10.3 PRL SHBG
22 premenstrual tension 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
23 hyperprolactinemia 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
24 hyperandrogenism 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
25 amenorrhea 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
26 hypogonadism 10.2
27 hydrocele 10.2
28 hyperthyroidism 10.2 CGA PRL SHBG
29 freemartinism 10.2 AMH GNRH1
30 male reproductive system disease 10.2 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
31 testicular cancer 10.2 AZF1 CGA SHBG
32 platelet membrane fluidity 10.2 NOS2 NOS3
33 cerebral hypoxia 10.2 CASP3 CASP9
34 polycystic ovary syndrome 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
35 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 10.2
36 thrombosis 10.2
37 male reproductive organ cancer 10.2 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
38 chronic mountain sickness 10.1 CASP9 NOS3
39 sexual disorder 10.1 NOS3 PRL SHBG
40 respiratory system cancer 10.1 CASP3 GSTM1 PARP1
41 anovulation 10.1 CGA GNRH1 PRL SHBG
42 inguinal hernia 10.1
43 prostatic adenoma 10.1
44 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 10.1 AMH CGA GNRH1
45 acquired metabolic disease 10.1 NOS3 PRL SHBG
46 dystrophinopathies 10.1 CASP9 NOS2
47 spondyloarthropathy 1 10.1
48 arteriovenous fistula 10.1
49 spondylitis 10.1
50 spinal cord injury 10.0

Comorbidity relations with Varicocele via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Prostatic Hypertrophy

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Varicocele:



Diseases related to Varicocele

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Varicocele

UMLS symptoms related to Varicocele:


pain in scrotum

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Varicocele:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.17 AMH CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG GNRH1
2 immune system MP:0005387 10.06 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2
3 integument MP:0010771 9.91 CASP3 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 PARP1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.85 CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.8 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3 PRL
6 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.73 AMH FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 PRL
7 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.5 CASP3 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
8 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.36 AMH CASP3 CGA FASLG GNRH1 HSPA2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Varicocele

Drugs for Varicocele (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ginseng Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50647-08-0
2
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational Phase 2 61-73-4
3
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational 1406-66-2 14986
4
Papaverine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 61-25-6, 58-74-2 4680
5
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
6
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1191-50-0, 139-88-8 14492 5248
7
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985
8 Tocotrienol Investigational 6829-55-6
9 Androgens
10 Hormones ,Not Applicable
11 Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
12 Estrogens
13 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
14 Tocotrienols
15 Vitamins
16 Tocopherols
17 Central Nervous System Depressants Not Applicable
18 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Not Applicable
19 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable
20 Anesthetics Not Applicable
21 Analgesics Not Applicable
22 Immunologic Factors
23 Vaccines
24 Follicle Stimulating Hormone
25 Sclerosing Solutions Not Applicable
26 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 35)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of FSHR Polymorphism p.N680S in the Therapy With FSH in Patients Who Underwent Varicocele Surgery Unknown status NCT02719093 Phase 4 recombinant FSH
2 Comparison of Outcomes of Two Approaches in Microsurgical Varicocelectomy in Chinese Infertile Males: A Prospective Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT01463787 Phase 4
3 Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Male Infertility Completed NCT02202382 Phase 4 Korean Red Ginseng, Varicocelectomy;Placebo
4 Microsurgical Varicocelectomy Versus No Surgery in Men With a Palpable Varicocele and an Abnormal Semen Analysis Terminated NCT00767338 Phase 3
5 Dye Assisted Lymphatic Sparing Subinguinal Varicocelectomy Completed NCT01259258 Phase 2
6 Outcome of ICSI Using Cryopreserved Testicular Sperm From Infertile Men With Varicocele-associated Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02306499 Not Applicable
7 The Anaesthesiological Approach to Varicocele Correction in Outpatients Setting: an Observational Analisy Unknown status NCT02401087
8 Evaluation of PerformanCe of the Peripheral EOS in the Treatment of Varicocele or Pelvic Congestion SynDromE Unknown status NCT02033863
9 Doppler Ultrasound Assisted Varicocelectomy Improve Sperm Qualities Unknown status NCT02695199 Not Applicable
10 Odense Androgen Study: Study of Androgens, Body Composition, and Muscle Function in Danish Men Unknown status NCT00150163
11 Oxidative Stress and Lipidomics in Male Infertility Unknown status NCT02062229
12 Effect of TAP Block for Postoperative Pain Control After Varicocele Operations. Completed NCT02983383 Not Applicable
13 Role of the Toxic Metal Cadmium in the Mechanism Producing Infertility With a Varicocele Completed NCT00044369
14 Beneficial Effects of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters for Causes Other Than Infertility Completed NCT02006316
15 The Effect of Spermatic Vein Embolization on Prostatic Hypertrophy Completed NCT00639899 Not Applicable
16 Sclerotherapy of Internal Spermatic Veins in Patients With Varicocele and Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00637208 Not Applicable
17 Assessing the Rates of Major Complications in Combined Mini-incision Microscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02092311 Not Applicable
18 Single Incision Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02335385 Not Applicable
19 Analysis on AEFI Surveillance Data for Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Completed NCT02983656
20 Varicocelectomy To Treat Pain, Predictors Of Success Completed NCT01395186 Not Applicable
21 The Role of Artery-Preserving Varicocelectomy in Subfertile Men With Severe Oligozoospermia. Completed NCT03344588 Not Applicable
22 Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a Left-sided Varicocele Recruiting NCT03540056
23 The Role of Microsurgery in Surgical Treatment of Varicocele. Recruiting NCT02722187 Not Applicable
24 Comparison of TAP Bock vs QL Block in Varicocele Surgery Recruiting NCT03793764 Not Applicable
25 EASYX-1 : A Multicenter Study on Safety and Efficacy of Easyx Liquid Embolization Agent Used in Five Separate Indications Recruiting NCT03477149 Not Applicable
26 Quality of Life Among Testicular Cancer Survivors Recruiting NCT02304575
27 Anterior Transversalis Fascia Approach Versus Preperitoneal Space Approach for Inguinal Hernia Repair in Residents Recruiting NCT02984917 Not Applicable
28 The Effect and Prognosis of Different Operations on Varicocele - a Single-center Clinical Study Active, not recruiting NCT01757548 Not Applicable
29 The Search for Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Varicocele Active, not recruiting NCT03079609 Not Applicable
30 IVF Outcomes After Varicocele Repair Not yet recruiting NCT03090438 Not Applicable
31 Varicocele Treatement by Endovasculer Embolization Not yet recruiting NCT03341897 Not Applicable
32 the Effect of Different Modialites of Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters in Patient With Normal Semen Analysis Not yet recruiting NCT03281915
33 Outcome of Sub-inguinal Varicocelectomy on Normal Semen in Patients Complaining of Orchilagia With Normal Semen Not yet recruiting NCT03835143
34 Canadian Varicocelectomy Initiative (CVI): Effects on Male Fertility and Testicular Function of Varicocelectomy Terminated NCT00961558 Not Applicable
35 Varicocelectomy: Can Sex-hormones Predict Improvements in Semen Quality? Terminated NCT01296230 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Varicocele

Cochrane evidence based reviews: varicocele

Genetic Tests for Varicocele

Genetic tests related to Varicocele:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Varicocele 30

Anatomical Context for Varicocele

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Varicocele:

42
Testis, Testes, Endothelial, Pituitary, Kidney, Smooth Muscle, Spinal Cord

Publications for Varicocele

Articles related to Varicocele:

(show top 50) (show all 2010)
# Title Authors Year
1
Hypoxia pathway has more impact than inflammation pathway on etiology of infertile men with varicocele. ( 30474123 )
2019
2
Evaluation of hemorrhoidal disease and lower extremity venous insufficiency in primary adult varicocele: A prospective controlled study. ( 30836835 )
2019
3
Prevalence and awareness of varicocele among athletes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ( 30859094 )
2019
4
Reduced sperm telomere length in individuals with varicocele is associated with reduced genomic integrity. ( 30867501 )
2019
5
Re: Pros and Cons of Robotic Microsurgery as an Appropriate Approach to Male Reproductive Surgery for Vasectomy Reversal and Varicocele Repair. ( 30888899 )
2019
6
Varicocele, conventional laparoscopic ligation versus occluding balloon embolization. ( 30600435 )
2019
7
The relationship among sperm global DNA methylation, telomere length, and DNA fragmentation in varicocele: a cross-sectional study of 20 cases. ( 30601031 )
2019
8
Seminal and serum leptin levels in male patients with varicocele and isolated asthenozoospermia before and after repair. ( 30633613 )
2019
9
Re: Fate of Recurrent or Persistent Varicocele in the Era of Assisted Reproduction Technology: . ( 30653018 )
2019
10
Sneeze and pop: a ruptured varicocele; analysis of literature, guided by a well-documented case-report. ( 30704438 )
2019
11
Molecular pathways of varicocele and its repair - A paired labelled shotgun proteomics approach. ( 30710756 )
2019
12
Seminal plasma miR-210-3p is a biomarker for screening dyszoospermia caused by varicocele. ( 30714182 )
2019
13
Shear Wave Elastography Evaluation of Testes in Patients With Varicocele. ( 30724872 )
2019
14
Prognostic values of shear wave elastography in adolescent boys with varicocele. ( 30777658 )
2019
15
Isolated Right-Sided Varicocele: Is Further Workup Necessary? ( 30779666 )
2019
16
Microsurgical varicocele ligation: surgical methodology and associated outcomes. ( 30827515 )
2019
17
Varicocele embolization: Anatomical variations of the left internal spermatic vein and endovascular treatment with different types of coils. ( 29910172 )
2018
18
The protective effects of GYY4137 on ipsilateral testicular injury in experimentally varicocele-induced rats. ( 29387197 )
2018
19
Venous leg symptoms in patients with varicocele: A multicenter assessment study (VEIN-TURKEY study). ( 29793400 )
2018
20
Ischemic colitis following left antegrade sclerotherapy for idiopathic varicocele. ( 29473213 )
2018
21
Chronic epididymitis and Grade III varicocele and their associations with semen characteristics in men consulting for couple infertility. ( 29516876 )
2018
22
The prevalence and severity of varicocele in adult population over the age of forty years old: a cross-sectional study. ( 29683379 )
2018
23
The Effect of Subclinical Varicocele on Pregnancy Rates and Semen Parameters: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 29774482 )
2018
24
Thiol-disulphide homoeostasis as an oxidative stress marker in men with varicocele. ( 29411889 )
2018
25
Assessment of seminal granulysin in infertile men with varicocele. ( 29896906 )
2018
26
Varicocele due to renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal tumor: a case report. ( 29304872 )
2018
27
Effects of microsurgical varicocelectomy on semen analysis and sperm function tests in patients with different grades of varicocele: Role of sperm functional tests in evaluation of treatments outcome. ( 29938821 )
2018
28
Effect of metabolic and antioxidant supplementation on sperm parameters in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, with and without varicocele: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. ( 29315686 )
2018
29
Protective effect of MOTILIPERM in varicocele-induced oxidative injury in rat testis by activating phosphorylated inositol requiring kinase 1I+ (p-IRE1I+) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) pathways. ( 29316840 )
2018
30
Varicocele management for infertility and pain: A systematic review. ( 29713547 )
2018
31
Influence of all-trans retinoic acid on sperm metabolism and oxidative stress: Its involvement in the physiopathology of varicocele-associated male infertility. ( 29943815 )
2018
32
Comparison of scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy and laparoscopic Palomo surgery in treatment of adolescent varicocele: A 15-year review. ( 29941347 )
2018
33
Bilateral is superior to unilateral varicocelectomy in infertile males with left clinical and right subclinical varicocele: a prospective randomized controlled study. ( 29210007 )
2018
34
Role of varicocele treatment in assisted reproductive technologies. ( 29713550 )
2018
35
Response to Pelvic venous reflux in male: Varicocele? ( 29316851 )
2018
36
Berberine inhibits experimental varicocele-induced cell cycle arrest via regulating cyclin D1, cdk4 and p21 proteins expression in rat testicles. ( 29441600 )
2018
37
LncRNA gadd7, increased in varicocele patients, suppresses cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. ( 29435165 )
2018
38
Effects of Varicocelectomy on Serum Testosterone Levels among Infertile Men with Varicocele. ( 29707936 )
2018
39
Men With Severe Oligospermia Appear to Benefit From Varicocele Repair: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Assisted Reproductive Technology. ( 29051002 )
2018
40
Varicocele and Testicular Pain: A Review. ( 29774668 )
2018
41
Comparison of The Efficacy and Safety of Palomo, Ivanissevich and Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy in Iranian Infertile Men with Palpable Varicocele. ( 29334212 )
2018
42
Can Melissa officinalis improve chromatin structure and sperm parameters in a rat model of varicocele? ( 29876952 )
2018
43
Effect of Varicocelectomy on Serum FSH and LH Levels for Patients with Varicocele: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ( 29973753 )
2018
44
Varicocele Due to Post Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula. ( 29432872 )
2018
45
Varicocele Management Strategies and Resulting Paternity Rates in a Cohort of Young Adults. ( 29729366 )
2018
46
With a new clip technique surgically inducing varicocele in Sprague-Dawley rats. ( 29879956 )
2018
47
Effect of varicocelectomy and/or mast cells stabilizer on sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile patients with varicocele. ( 29195028 )
2018
48
A Novel Method for Investigating the Role of Reflux Pattern in Color Doppler Ultrasound for Grading of Varicocele. ( 29695731 )
2018
49
A global view of the pathophysiology of varicocele. ( 29978951 )
2018
50
Historical investigations into varicocele pathophysiology and sperm migration. ( 29274657 )
2018

Variations for Varicocele

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Varicocele:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 46;XY;t(12;14)(q15;q13)mat Translocation Uncertain significance

Expression for Varicocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Varicocele.

Pathways for Varicocele

Pathways related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 34)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.88 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG NOS3 PRL
2
Show member pathways
12.75 CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG HSPA2
3 12.61 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GSTM1 HIF1A NOS2
4
Show member pathways
12.5 CASP3 CASP9 CGA GNRH1 PARP1
5
Show member pathways
12.37 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG PARP1
6
Show member pathways
12.28 CASP3 CGA NOS2 NOS3 PRL
7
Show member pathways
12.13 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG PARP1
8
Show member pathways
12.11 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2 NOS2
9 12.09 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG PARP1
10
Show member pathways
12.05 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG HIF1A
11 11.89 CASP9 HIF1A PLCZ1
12 11.87 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
13
Show member pathways
11.85 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1 PLCZ1
14 11.82 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
15 11.81 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
16 11.75 CASP3 CASP9 NOS2
17
Show member pathways
11.69 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
18
Show member pathways
11.68 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3
19 11.59 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3 PARP1
20
Show member pathways
11.5 HSPA2 NOS2 NOS3
21 11.46 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2
22
Show member pathways
11.36 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1
23 11.32 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GSTM1
24 11.17 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
25 11.04 HIF1A NOS3
26 11.03 NOS2 NOS3
27 10.97 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1 PLCZ1
28 10.91 GNRH1 SHBG
29 10.91 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1
30 10.74 CGA GNRH1
31 10.74 NOS2 NOS3
32 10.73 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
33 10.64 HIF1A PARP1
34 10.48 NOS2 NOS3

GO Terms for Varicocele

Biological processes related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.81 CASP3 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
2 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.77 AMH CGA FASLG GNRH1 PRL
3 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919 9.67 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
4 platelet formation GO:0030220 9.57 CASP3 CASP9
5 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 9.56 NOS2 NOS3
6 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.55 CASP3 CASP9
7 gonad development GO:0008406 9.54 AMH CGA
8 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.52 NOS2 NOS3
9 positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0043525 9.5 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
10 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.46 NOS2 NOS3
11 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.43 NOS2 NOS3
12 response to cobalt ion GO:0032025 9.4 CASP3 CASP9
13 glial cell apoptotic process GO:0034349 9.26 CASP3 CASP9
14 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.26 AMH CASP3 CASP9 GNRH1
15 ovulation cycle GO:0042698 9.18 GNRH1
16 leukocyte apoptotic process GO:0071887 9.16 CASP3 CASP9
17 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.1 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GNRH1 NOS2 NOS3

Molecular functions related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enzyme binding GO:0019899 9.78 GSTM1 HIF1A HSPA2 PARP1
2 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0097153 9.46 CASP3 CASP9
3 death receptor binding GO:0005123 9.43 CASP3 FASLG
4 FMN binding GO:0010181 9.4 NOS2 NOS3
5 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.37 NOS2 NOS3
6 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097199 9.32 CASP3 CASP9
7 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.26 NOS2 NOS3
8 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 9.16 NOS2 NOS3
9 nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0004517 8.96 NOS2 NOS3
10 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.92 AMH CGA GNRH1 PRL

Sources for Varicocele

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....