MCID: VRC001
MIFTS: 54

Varicocele

Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Varicocele

MalaCards integrated aliases for Varicocele:

Name: Varicocele 12 56 6 45 15 74
Scrotal Varices 12
Varicoceles 64

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12337
ICD9CM 36 456.4
MeSH 45 D014646
SNOMED-CT 69 46871008 51070004
ICD10 34 I86.1
UMLS 74 C0042341

Summaries for Varicocele

PubMed Health : 64 About varicoceles: Varicoceles are varicose veins in the scrotum. They form in the veins that run along the spermatic cord. Blood from the testicles flows back into the body through those veins. Like varicose veins in the legs, varicoceles form when blood builds up in the veins and they become permanently enlarged.

MalaCards based summary : Varicocele, also known as scrotal varices, is related to varicose veins and hypogonadotropism, and has symptoms including pain in scrotum An important gene associated with Varicocele is GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Allograft rejection. The drugs Ginseng and Methylene blue have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and kidney, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and immune system

Wikipedia : 77 A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of... more...

Related Diseases for Varicocele

Diseases related to Varicocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 135)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 varicose veins 32.5 CASP9 HIF1A SHBG
2 hypogonadotropism 30.9 GNRH1 PRL
3 gynecomastia 30.3 CGA PRL SHBG
4 impotence 30.0 NOS2 NOS3 PRL SHBG
5 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 29.8 AMH AZF1 CGA GNRH1 SHBG
6 ischemia 29.5 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
7 spermatocele 11.4
8 infertility 10.9
9 male infertility 10.6
10 azoospermia 10.5
11 pituitary infarct 10.4 GNRH1 PRL
12 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.4
13 chiasmal syndrome 10.4 GNRH1 PRL
14 hypothalamic disease 10.4 GNRH1 PRL
15 hypoxia 10.4
16 pituitary apoplexy 10.3 GNRH1 PRL
17 empty sella syndrome 10.3 GNRH1 PRL
18 oligospermia 10.3
19 nodular prostate 10.3 GNRH1 HIF1A
20 pelvic varices 10.3 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
21 estrogen excess 10.3 PRL SHBG
22 premenstrual tension 10.3 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
23 hyperprolactinemia 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
24 hyperandrogenism 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
25 hypogonadism 10.2
26 hydrocele 10.2
27 amenorrhea 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
28 hyperthyroidism 10.2 CGA PRL SHBG
29 male reproductive system disease 10.2 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
30 testicular cancer 10.2 AZF1 CGA SHBG
31 platelet membrane fluidity 10.2 NOS2 NOS3
32 cerebral hypoxia 10.2 CASP3 CASP9
33 polycystic ovary syndrome 10.2 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
34 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 10.2
35 thrombosis 10.2
36 prostatic adenoma 10.2
37 male reproductive organ cancer 10.2 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
38 chronic mountain sickness 10.1 CASP9 NOS3
39 sexual disorder 10.1 NOS3 PRL SHBG
40 respiratory system cancer 10.1 CASP3 GSTM1 PARP1
41 freemartinism 10.1 AMH GNRH1
42 anovulation 10.1 CGA GNRH1 PRL SHBG
43 inguinal hernia 10.1
44 acquired metabolic disease 10.1 NOS3 PRL SHBG
45 dystrophinopathies 10.1 CASP9 NOS2
46 arteriovenous fistula 10.1
47 y chromosome infertility 10.1
48 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 10.1 AMH CGA GNRH1
49 spondyloarthropathy 1 10.0
50 spinal cord injury 10.0

Comorbidity relations with Varicocele via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Prostatic Hypertrophy

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Varicocele:



Diseases related to Varicocele

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Varicocele

UMLS symptoms related to Varicocele:


pain in scrotum

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Varicocele:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.17 AMH CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG GNRH1
2 immune system MP:0005387 10.06 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2
3 integument MP:0010771 9.91 CASP3 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 PARP1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.85 CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.8 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3 PRL
6 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.73 AMH FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 PRL
7 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.5 CASP3 FASLG GNRH1 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
8 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.36 AMH CASP3 CGA FASLG GNRH1 HSPA2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Varicocele

PubMedHealth treatment related to Varicocele: 64

Varicoceles do not normally need to be treated. But some experts do suggest treatment for men who have fertility problems and a varicocele, in the hope that it will improve fertility.The treatment involves “shutting down” the affected vein so that the blood flows through healthy, neighboring veins instead. This can be done by blocking the vein using minimally-invasive procedures (embolization) or by performing varicose vein surgery. In embolization, the affected vein is blocked using a catheter to inject either a solution that causes scarring (sclerotherapy), a tissue adhesive, or a detachable balloon or coil. In surgery, the swollen vein and the surrounding smaller veins are either cut or tied.

Drugs for Varicocele (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ginseng Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50647-08-0
2
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational Phase 2 61-73-4
3
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational 1406-66-2 14986
4
Papaverine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 58-74-2, 61-25-6 4680
5
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
6
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 139-88-8, 1191-50-0 5248 14492
7
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985
8 Tocotrienol Investigational 6829-55-6
9 Androgens
10 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
11 Hormones ,Not Applicable
12 Estrogens
13 Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
14 Tocopherols
15 Tocotrienols
16 Vitamins
17 Central Nervous System Depressants Not Applicable
18 Analgesics Not Applicable
19 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Not Applicable
20 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable
21 Anesthetics Not Applicable
22 Vaccines
23 Immunologic Factors
24 Follicle Stimulating Hormone
25 Sclerosing Solutions Not Applicable
26 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 35)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of FSHR Polymorphism p.N680S in the Therapy With FSH in Patients Who Underwent Varicocele Surgery Unknown status NCT02719093 Phase 4 recombinant FSH
2 Comparison of Outcomes of Two Approaches in Microsurgical Varicocelectomy in Chinese Infertile Males: A Prospective Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT01463787 Phase 4
3 Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Male Infertility Completed NCT02202382 Phase 4 Korean Red Ginseng, Varicocelectomy;Placebo
4 Microsurgical Varicocelectomy Versus No Surgery in Men With a Palpable Varicocele and an Abnormal Semen Analysis Terminated NCT00767338 Phase 3
5 Dye Assisted Lymphatic Sparing Subinguinal Varicocelectomy Completed NCT01259258 Phase 2
6 Outcome of ICSI Using Cryopreserved Testicular Sperm From Infertile Men With Varicocele-associated Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02306499 Not Applicable
7 The Anaesthesiological Approach to Varicocele Correction in Outpatients Setting: an Observational Analisy Unknown status NCT02401087
8 Evaluation of PerformanCe of the Peripheral EOS in the Treatment of Varicocele or Pelvic Congestion SynDromE Unknown status NCT02033863
9 Doppler Ultrasound Assisted Varicocelectomy Improve Sperm Qualities Unknown status NCT02695199 Not Applicable
10 Odense Androgen Study: Study of Androgens, Body Composition, and Muscle Function in Danish Men Unknown status NCT00150163
11 Oxidative Stress and Lipidomics in Male Infertility Unknown status NCT02062229
12 Effect of TAP Block for Postoperative Pain Control After Varicocele Operations. Completed NCT02983383 Not Applicable
13 Role of the Toxic Metal Cadmium in the Mechanism Producing Infertility With a Varicocele Completed NCT00044369
14 Beneficial Effects of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters for Causes Other Than Infertility Completed NCT02006316
15 The Effect of Spermatic Vein Embolization on Prostatic Hypertrophy Completed NCT00639899 Not Applicable
16 Sclerotherapy of Internal Spermatic Veins in Patients With Varicocele and Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00637208 Not Applicable
17 Assessing the Rates of Major Complications in Combined Mini-incision Microscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02092311 Not Applicable
18 Single Incision Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02335385 Not Applicable
19 Analysis on AEFI Surveillance Data for Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Completed NCT02983656
20 Varicocelectomy To Treat Pain, Predictors Of Success Completed NCT01395186 Not Applicable
21 The Role of Artery-Preserving Varicocelectomy in Subfertile Men With Severe Oligozoospermia. Completed NCT03344588 Not Applicable
22 Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a Left-sided Varicocele Recruiting NCT03540056
23 The Role of Microsurgery in Surgical Treatment of Varicocele. Recruiting NCT02722187 Not Applicable
24 Comparison of TAP Bock vs QL Block in Varicocele Surgery Recruiting NCT03793764 Not Applicable
25 EASYX-1 : A Multicenter Study on Safety and Efficacy of Easyx Liquid Embolization Agent Used in Five Separate Indications Recruiting NCT03477149 Not Applicable
26 Quality of Life Among Testicular Cancer Survivors Recruiting NCT02304575
27 Anterior Transversalis Fascia Approach Versus Preperitoneal Space Approach for Inguinal Hernia Repair in Residents Recruiting NCT02984917 Not Applicable
28 The Effect and Prognosis of Different Operations on Varicocele - a Single-center Clinical Study Active, not recruiting NCT01757548 Not Applicable
29 The Search for Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Varicocele Active, not recruiting NCT03079609 Not Applicable
30 IVF Outcomes After Varicocele Repair Not yet recruiting NCT03090438 Not Applicable
31 Varicocele Treatement by Endovasculer Embolization Not yet recruiting NCT03341897 Not Applicable
32 the Effect of Different Modialites of Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters in Patient With Normal Semen Analysis Not yet recruiting NCT03281915
33 Outcome of Sub-inguinal Varicocelectomy on Normal Semen in Patients Complaining of Orchilagia With Normal Semen Not yet recruiting NCT03835143
34 Canadian Varicocelectomy Initiative (CVI): Effects on Male Fertility and Testicular Function of Varicocelectomy Terminated NCT00961558 Not Applicable
35 Varicocelectomy: Can Sex-hormones Predict Improvements in Semen Quality? Terminated NCT01296230 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Varicocele

Cochrane evidence based reviews: varicocele

Genetic Tests for Varicocele

Anatomical Context for Varicocele

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Varicocele:

42
Testis, Testes, Kidney, Pituitary, Endothelial, Spinal Cord, Colon

Publications for Varicocele

Articles related to Varicocele:

(show top 50) (show all 2024)
# Title Authors Year
1
Hypoxia pathway has more impact than inflammation pathway on etiology of infertile men with varicocele. ( 30474123 )
2019
2
Seminal and serum leptin levels in male patients with varicocele and isolated asthenozoospermia before and after repair. ( 30633613 )
2019
3
Re: Fate of Recurrent or Persistent Varicocele in the Era of Assisted Reproduction Technology: . ( 30653018 )
2019
4
Sneeze and pop: a ruptured varicocele; analysis of literature, guided by a well-documented case-report. ( 30704438 )
2019
5
Molecular pathways of varicocele and its repair - A paired labelled shotgun proteomics approach. ( 30710756 )
2019
6
Seminal plasma miR-210-3p is a biomarker for screening dyszoospermia caused by varicocele. ( 30714182 )
2019
7
Shear Wave Elastography Evaluation of Testes in Patients With Varicocele. ( 30724872 )
2019
8
Prognostic values of shear wave elastography in adolescent boys with varicocele. ( 30777658 )
2019
9
Isolated Right-Sided Varicocele: Is Further Workup Necessary? ( 30779666 )
2019
10
Microsurgical varicocele ligation: surgical methodology and associated outcomes. ( 30827515 )
2019
11
Evaluation of hemorrhoidal disease and lower extremity venous insufficiency in primary adult varicocele: A prospective controlled study. ( 30836835 )
2019
12
Prevalence and awareness of varicocele among athletes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ( 30859094 )
2019
13
Reduced sperm telomere length in individuals with varicocele is associated with reduced genomic integrity. ( 30867501 )
2019
14
Re: Pros and Cons of Robotic Microsurgery as an Appropriate Approach to Male Reproductive Surgery for Vasectomy Reversal and Varicocele Repair. ( 30888899 )
2019
15
Proteomic Profiling of Seminal Plasma Proteins in Varicocele Patients. ( 30929325 )
2019
16
Does right-sided varicocele indicate a right-sided kidney tumor? ( 30932432 )
2019
17
Effect of royal jelly on testicular antioxidant enzymes activity, MDA level and spermatogenesis in rat experimental Varicocele model. ( 30947966 )
2019
18
Venous leg symptoms in patients with varicocele: A multicenter assessment study (VEIN-TURKEY study). ( 29793400 )
2019
19
Varicocele and Testicular Pain: A Review. ( 29774668 )
2019
20
Morinda Officinalis Polysaccharides Attenuate Varicocele-Induced Spermatogenic Impairment through the Modulation of Angiogenesis and Relative Factors. ( 31110554 )
2019
21
Protein Fingerprinting of Seminal Plasma Reveals Dysregulation of Exosome-Associated Proteins in Infertile Men with Unilateral Varicocele. ( 31081293 )
2019
22
Is there a relationship between varicocele and testosterone levels? ( 31070084 )
2019
23
Systematic Review of the impact of varicocele grade on response to surgical management. ( 31042452 )
2019
24
Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from bilateral varicocele patients indicates an oxidative state and increased inflammatory response. ( 31006709 )
2019
25
Retroperitoneal high ligation versus subinguinal varicocelectomy: Effectiveness of two different varicocelectomy techniques on the treatment of painful varicocele. ( 30995701 )
2019
26
Testicular Sonographic Color Doppler Dynamic Tissue Perfusion Measurements in Adolescents with Varicocele. ( 30991395 )
2019
27
Indications and outcomes of varicocele repair. ( 30990285 )
2019
28
Correlation between Testicular Hemodynamic and Semen Quality Indices in Clinical Varicocele Patients in Pakistan. ( 30984784 )
2019
29
Relationship between varicocele and platelet indices: changes of mean platelet volume before and after operation. ( 30969016 )
2019
30
Left spermatic vein reflux after varicocele repair predicts pregnancies and live births in subfertile couples. ( 30955179 )
2019
31
14-3-3 epsilon plays an important role in testicular germ cell apoptosis: A functional proteomic study of experimental varicocele. ( 30950109 )
2019
32
The relationship among sperm global DNA methylation, telomere length, and DNA fragmentation in varicocele: a cross-sectional study of 20 cases. ( 30601031 )
2019
33
Varicocele, conventional laparoscopic ligation versus occluding balloon embolization. ( 30600435 )
2019
34
Effects of Varicocele Treatment on Sperm Conventional Parameters: Surgical Varicocelectomy Versus Sclerotherapy. ( 30519724 )
2019
35
The use of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the functional assessment of the testes of patients with clinical varicocele. ( 30461039 )
2019
36
Varicocele repair in patients prepared for intracytoplasmic sperm injection: To do or not to do? ( 30375021 )
2019
37
Evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation index, Zinc concentration and seminal parameters from infertile men with varicocele. ( 30370543 )
2019
38
Comparison of the clinical characteristics of patients with varicocele according to the presence or absence of scrotal pain. ( 30357879 )
2019
39
Comparison of main molecular markers involved in autophagy and apoptosis pathways between spermatozoa of infertile men with varicocele and fertile individuals. ( 30353556 )
2019
40
Berberine ameliorates experimental varicocele-induced damages at testis and sperm levels; evidences for oxidative stress and inflammation. ( 30334274 )
2019
41
Effects of varicocele on testicles: Value of strain elastography: A prospective controlled study. ( 30318780 )
2019
42
Treatment of Varicocele in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis from the European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines Panel. ( 30316583 )
2019
43
Evaluation of Normal and Varicocele-Bearing Testes Using Real-time Strain Elastography. ( 30171622 )
2019
44
Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies a Rare Nonsense Mutation in FAM47C as a Possible Cause of Severe Oligospermia in Brothers With Varicocele. ( 30922974 )
2019
45
Thiol-disulphide balance in infertility secondary to varicocele. ( 31058347 )
2019
46
Varicocele Due to Post-traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula. ( 29432872 )
2018
47
Varicocele due to renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal tumor: a case report. ( 29304872 )
2018
48
Hypogonadism is independently associated with varicocele repair in a contemporary cohort of men in the USA. ( 30381578 )
2018
49
Influence of all-trans retinoic acid on sperm metabolism and oxidative stress: Its involvement in the physiopathology of varicocele-associated male infertility. ( 29943815 )
2018
50
Men With Severe Oligospermia Appear to Benefit From Varicocele Repair: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Assisted Reproductive Technology. ( 29051002 )
2018

Variations for Varicocele

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Varicocele:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 46;XY;t(12;14)(q15;q13)mat Translocation Uncertain significance

Expression for Varicocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Varicocele.

Pathways for Varicocele

Pathways related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 34)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.88 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG NOS3 PRL
2
Show member pathways
12.75 CASP3 CASP9 CGA FASLG HSPA2
3 12.61 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GSTM1 HIF1A NOS2
4
Show member pathways
12.5 CASP3 CASP9 CGA GNRH1 PARP1
5
Show member pathways
12.37 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG PARP1
6
Show member pathways
12.28 CASP3 CGA NOS2 NOS3 PRL
7
Show member pathways
12.13 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG PARP1
8
Show member pathways
12.11 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2 NOS2
9 12.09 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG PARP1
10
Show member pathways
12.05 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG HIF1A
11 11.89 CASP9 HIF1A PLCZ1
12 11.87 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
13
Show member pathways
11.85 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1 PLCZ1
14 11.82 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
15 11.81 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
16 11.75 CASP3 CASP9 NOS2
17
Show member pathways
11.69 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
18
Show member pathways
11.68 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3
19 11.59 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3 PARP1
20
Show member pathways
11.5 HSPA2 NOS2 NOS3
21 11.46 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2
22
Show member pathways
11.36 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1
23 11.32 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GSTM1
24 11.17 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
25 11.04 HIF1A NOS3
26 11.03 NOS2 NOS3
27 10.97 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1 PLCZ1
28 10.91 GNRH1 SHBG
29 10.91 CASP3 CASP9 PARP1
30 10.74 CGA GNRH1
31 10.74 NOS2 NOS3
32 10.73 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
33 10.64 HIF1A PARP1
34 10.48 NOS2 NOS3

GO Terms for Varicocele

Biological processes related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.81 CASP3 FASLG HIF1A NOS2
2 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.77 AMH CGA FASLG GNRH1 PRL
3 platelet formation GO:0030220 9.57 CASP3 CASP9
4 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 9.56 NOS2 NOS3
5 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.55 CASP3 CASP9
6 gonad development GO:0008406 9.54 AMH CGA
7 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.52 NOS2 NOS3
8 positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0043525 9.5 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG
9 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0006919 9.49 CASP9 FASLG
10 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.46 NOS2 NOS3
11 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.43 NOS2 NOS3
12 response to cobalt ion GO:0032025 9.4 CASP3 CASP9
13 glial cell apoptotic process GO:0034349 9.26 CASP3 CASP9
14 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.26 AMH CASP3 CASP9 GNRH1
15 ovulation cycle GO:0042698 9.18 GNRH1
16 leukocyte apoptotic process GO:0071887 9.16 CASP3 CASP9
17 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.1 CASP3 CASP9 FASLG GNRH1 NOS2 NOS3

Molecular functions related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enzyme binding GO:0019899 9.78 GSTM1 HIF1A HSPA2 PARP1
2 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0097153 9.46 CASP3 CASP9
3 death receptor binding GO:0005123 9.43 CASP3 FASLG
4 FMN binding GO:0010181 9.4 NOS2 NOS3
5 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.37 NOS2 NOS3
6 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097199 9.32 CASP3 CASP9
7 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.26 NOS2 NOS3
8 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 9.16 NOS2 NOS3
9 nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0004517 8.96 NOS2 NOS3
10 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.92 AMH CGA GNRH1 PRL

Sources for Varicocele

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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