Aliases & Classifications for Varicocele

MalaCards integrated aliases for Varicocele:

Name: Varicocele 12 29 55 6 44 15 73
Scrotal Varices 12
Varicoceles 63

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12337
ICD10 33 I86.1
ICD9CM 35 456.4
MeSH 44 D014646
UMLS 73 C0042341

Summaries for Varicocele

PubMed Health : 63 About varicoceles: Varicoceles are varicose veins in the scrotum. They form in the veins that run along the spermatic cord. Blood from the testicles flows back into the body through those veins. Like varicose veins in the legs, varicoceles form when blood builds up in the veins and they become permanently enlarged.

MalaCards based summary : Varicocele, also known as scrotal varices, is related to oligospermia and gynecomastia, and has symptoms including pain in scrotum An important gene associated with Varicocele is GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Development Endothelin-1/EDNRA signaling and Pathways in cancer. The drugs Ginseng and Methylene blue have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and prostate, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and reproductive system

Wikipedia : 76 A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of... more...

Related Diseases for Varicocele

Diseases related to Varicocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 106)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oligospermia 30.9 GSTM1 GSTT1 PRL
2 gynecomastia 30.4 CGA PRL SHBG
3 varicose veins 30.3 CASP9 HIF1A SHBG
4 impotence 29.3 NOS2 NOS3 PRL SHBG
5 ischemia 28.5 CASP3 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
6 spermatocele 11.0
7 pituitary infarct 10.8 GNRH1 PRL
8 endometriosis of uterus 10.8 GNRH1 PRL
9 hypogonadotropism 10.7 GNRH1 PRL
10 hypothalamic disease 10.7 GNRH1 PRL
11 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.7 GSTM1 GSTT1
12 infertility 10.7
13 chiasmal syndrome 10.7 GNRH1 PRL
14 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.7 GSTM1 GSTT1
15 pituitary apoplexy 10.7 GNRH1 PRL
16 isolated cleft lip 10.6 GSTM1 GSTT1
17 empty sella syndrome 10.6 GNRH1 PRL
18 penis agenesis 10.6 CGA GNRH1
19 premenstrual tension 10.5 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
20 hyperprolactinemia 10.5 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
21 hyperandrogenism 10.4 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
22 amenorrhea 10.4 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
23 nodular prostate 10.4 GNRH1 HIF1A
24 hyperthyroidism 10.4 CGA PRL SHBG
25 polycystic ovary syndrome 10.4 GNRH1 PRL SHBG
26 toxic encephalopathy 10.3 CASP3 GSTM1 GSTT1
27 male infertility 10.3
28 oral cancer 10.3 CASP3 GSTM1 GSTT1
29 tendinopathy 10.3 CASP3 NOS3
30 male reproductive organ cancer 10.3 CASP3 GNRH1 SHBG
31 freemartinism 10.3 AMH GNRH1
32 pelvic varices 10.3 GNRH1 SHBG
33 cerebral hypoxia 10.3 CASP3 CASP9
34 arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1 NOS3
35 ischemic optic neuropathy 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1 NOS3
36 azoospermia 10.3
37 platelet membrane fluidity 10.2 NOS2 NOS3
38 sexual disorder 10.2 NOS3 PRL SHBG
39 anovulation 10.2 CGA GNRH1 PRL SHBG
40 aging 10.2
41 testicular disease 10.2 CASP3 CGA NOS3
42 internal hemorrhoid 10.2 CASP3 NOS2
43 prostatitis 10.2
44 acquired metabolic disease 10.2 NOS3 PRL SHBG
45 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.1
46 hypoxia 10.1
47 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 10.1 AMH CGA GNRH1
48 chronic mountain sickness 10.1 CASP9 NOS3
49 cerebral artery occlusion 10.1 HIF1A NOS3
50 gonadal disease 10.0 AMH GNRH1 SHBG

Comorbidity relations with Varicocele via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Prostatic Hypertrophy

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Varicocele:



Diseases related to Varicocele

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Varicocele

UMLS symptoms related to Varicocele:


pain in scrotum

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Varicocele:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.65 HIF1A HSPA2 NOS2 NOS3 PRL AMH
2 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.28 GNRH1 HSPA2 NOS2 NOS3 PLCZ1 PRL

Drugs & Therapeutics for Varicocele

PubMedHealth treatment related to Varicocele: 63

Varicoceles do not normally need to be treated. But some experts do suggest treatment for men who have fertility problems and a varicocele, in the hope that it will improve fertility.The treatment involves “shutting down” the affected vein so that the blood flows through healthy, neighboring veins instead. This can be done by blocking the vein using minimally-invasive procedures (embolization) or by performing varicose vein surgery. In embolization, the affected vein is blocked using a catheter to inject either a solution that causes scarring (sclerotherapy), a tissue adhesive, or a detachable balloon or coil. In surgery, the swollen vein and the surrounding smaller veins are either cut or tied.

Drugs for Varicocele (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 23)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ginseng Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50647-08-0
2
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational Phase 2 61-73-4
3
Papaverine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 61-25-6, 58-74-2 4680
4
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1191-50-0, 139-88-8 14492 5248
5
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 1406-66-2 14986
6
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985
7 Androgens
8 Estrogens
9 Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
10 Hormones ,Not Applicable
11 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
12 Tocopherols
13 Tocotrienols
14 Vitamins
15 Analgesics Not Applicable
16 Anesthetics Not Applicable
17 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable
18 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Not Applicable
19 Central Nervous System Depressants Not Applicable
20 Vaccines
21 Follicle Stimulating Hormone
22 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Not Applicable
23 Tocotrienol Investigational, Nutraceutical 6829-55-6

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 33)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of FSHR Polymorphism p.N680S in the Therapy With FSH in Patients Who Underwent Varicocele Surgery Unknown status NCT02719093 Phase 4 recombinant FSH
2 Comparison of Outcomes of Two Approaches in Microsurgical Varicocelectomy in Chinese Infertile Males: A Prospective Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT01463787 Phase 4
3 Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Male Infertility Completed NCT02202382 Phase 4 Korean Red Ginseng, Varicocelectomy;Placebo
4 Microsurgical Varicocelectomy Versus No Surgery in Men With a Palpable Varicocele and an Abnormal Semen Analysis Terminated NCT00767338 Phase 3
5 Dye Assisted Lymphatic Sparing Subinguinal Varicocelectomy Completed NCT01259258 Phase 2
6 Outcome of ICSI Using Cryopreserved Testicular Sperm From Infertile Men With Varicocele-associated Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02306499 Not Applicable
7 The Anaesthesiological Approach to Varicocele Correction in Outpatients Setting: an Observational Analisy Unknown status NCT02401087
8 Evaluation of PerformanCe of the Peripheral EOS in the Treatment of Varicocele or Pelvic Congestion SynDromE Unknown status NCT02033863
9 Doppler Ultrasound Assisted Varicocelectomy Improve Sperm Qualities Unknown status NCT02695199 Not Applicable
10 Odense Androgen Study: Study of Androgens, Body Composition, and Muscle Function in Danish Men Unknown status NCT00150163
11 Oxidative Stress and Lipidomics in Male Infertility Unknown status NCT02062229
12 Effect of TAP Block for Postoperative Pain Control After Varicocele Operations. Completed NCT02983383 Not Applicable
13 Role of the Toxic Metal Cadmium in the Mechanism Producing Infertility With a Varicocele Completed NCT00044369
14 Beneficial Effects of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters for Causes Other Than Infertility Completed NCT02006316
15 The Effect of Spermatic Vein Embolization on Prostatic Hypertrophy Completed NCT00639899 Not Applicable
16 Sclerotherapy of Internal Spermatic Veins in Patients With Varicocele and Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00637208 Not Applicable
17 Assessing the Rates of Major Complications in Combined Mini-incision Microscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02092311 Not Applicable
18 Single Incision Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy Completed NCT02335385 Not Applicable
19 Analysis on AEFI Surveillance Data for Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Completed NCT02983656
20 Varicocelectomy To Treat Pain, Predictors Of Success Completed NCT01395186 Not Applicable
21 The Role of Artery-Preserving Varicocelectomy in Subfertile Men With Severe Oligozoospermia. Completed NCT03344588 Not Applicable
22 Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a Left-sided Varicocele Recruiting NCT03540056
23 The Role of Microsurgery in Surgical Treatment of Varicocele. Recruiting NCT02722187 Not Applicable
24 The Search for Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Varicocele Recruiting NCT03079609 Not Applicable
25 EASYX-1 : A Multicenter Study on Safety and Efficacy of Easyx Liquid Embolization Agent Used in Five Separate Indications Recruiting NCT03477149 Not Applicable
26 Quality of Life Among Testicular Cancer Survivors Recruiting NCT02304575
27 Anterior Transversalis Fascia Approach Versus Preperitoneal Space Approach for Inguinal Hernia Repair in Residents Recruiting NCT02984917 Not Applicable
28 The Effect and Prognosis of Different Operations on Varicocele - a Single-center Clinical Study Active, not recruiting NCT01757548 Not Applicable
29 IVF Outcomes After Varicocele Repair Not yet recruiting NCT03090438 Not Applicable
30 Varicocele Treatement by Endovasculer Embolization Not yet recruiting NCT03341897 Not Applicable
31 the Effect of Different Modialites of Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters in Patient With Normal Semen Analysis Not yet recruiting NCT03281915
32 Canadian Varicocelectomy Initiative (CVI): Effects on Male Fertility and Testicular Function of Varicocelectomy Terminated NCT00961558 Not Applicable
33 Varicocelectomy: Can Sex-hormones Predict Improvements in Semen Quality? Terminated NCT01296230 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Varicocele

Cochrane evidence based reviews: varicocele

Genetic Tests for Varicocele

Genetic tests related to Varicocele:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Varicocele 29

Anatomical Context for Varicocele

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Varicocele:

41
Testis, Testes, Prostate, Endothelial, Kidney, Smooth Muscle, Pituitary

Publications for Varicocele

Articles related to Varicocele:

(show top 50) (show all 732)
# Title Authors Year
1
Varicocele embolization: Anatomical variations of the left internal spermatic vein and endovascular treatment with different types of coils. ( 29910172 )
2018
2
The protective effects of GYY4137 on ipsilateral testicular injury in experimentally varicocele-induced rats. ( 29387197 )
2018
3
Venous leg symptoms in patients with varicocele: A multicenter assessment study (VEIN-TURKEY study). ( 29793400 )
2018
4
Ischemic colitis following left antegrade sclerotherapy for idiopathic varicocele. ( 29473213 )
2018
5
Chronic epididymitis and Grade III varicocele and their associations with semen characteristics in men consulting for couple infertility. ( 29516876 )
2018
6
The prevalence and severity of varicocele in adult population over the age of forty years old: a cross-sectional study. ( 29683379 )
2018
7
The Effect of Subclinical Varicocele on Pregnancy Rates and Semen Parameters: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 29774482 )
2018
8
Thiol-disulphide homoeostasis as an oxidative stress marker in men with varicocele. ( 29411889 )
2018
9
Assessment of seminal granulysin in infertile men with varicocele. ( 29896906 )
2018
10
Varicocele due to renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal tumor: a case report. ( 29304872 )
2018
11
Effects of microsurgical varicocelectomy on semen analysis and sperm function tests in patients with different grades of varicocele: Role of sperm functional tests in evaluation of treatments outcome. ( 29938821 )
2018
12
Effect of metabolic and antioxidant supplementation on sperm parameters in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, with and without varicocele: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. ( 29315686 )
2018
13
Protective effect of MOTILIPERM in varicocele-induced oxidative injury in rat testis by activating phosphorylated inositol requiring kinase 1I+ (p-IRE1I+) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) pathways. ( 29316840 )
2018
14
Varicocele management for infertility and pain: A systematic review. ( 29713547 )
2018
15
Influence of all-trans retinoic acid on sperm metabolism and oxidative stress: Its involvement in the physiopathology of varicocele-associated male infertility. ( 29943815 )
2018
16
Comparison of scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy and laparoscopic Palomo surgery in treatment of adolescent varicocele: A 15-year review. ( 29941347 )
2018
17
Bilateral is superior to unilateral varicocelectomy in infertile males with left clinical and right subclinical varicocele: a prospective randomized controlled study. ( 29210007 )
2018
18
Role of varicocele treatment in assisted reproductive technologies. ( 29713550 )
2018
19
Response to Pelvic venous reflux in male: Varicocele? ( 29316851 )
2018
20
Berberine inhibits experimental varicocele-induced cell cycle arrest via regulating cyclin D1, cdk4 and p21 proteins expression in rat testicles. ( 29441600 )
2018
21
LncRNA gadd7, increased in varicocele patients, suppresses cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. ( 29435165 )
2018
22
Effects of Varicocelectomy on Serum Testosterone Levels among Infertile Men with Varicocele. ( 29707936 )
2018
23
Men With Severe Oligospermia Appear to Benefit From Varicocele Repair: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Assisted Reproductive Technology. ( 29051002 )
2018
24
Varicocele and Testicular Pain: A Review. ( 29774668 )
2018
25
Comparison of The Efficacy and Safety of Palomo, Ivanissevich and Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy in Iranian Infertile Men with Palpable Varicocele. ( 29334212 )
2018
26
Can Melissa officinalis improve chromatin structure and sperm parameters in a rat model of varicocele? ( 29876952 )
2018
27
Effect of Varicocelectomy on Serum FSH and LH Levels for Patients with Varicocele: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ( 29973753 )
2018
28
Varicocele Due to Post Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula. ( 29432872 )
2018
29
Varicocele Management Strategies and Resulting Paternity Rates in a Cohort of Young Adults. ( 29729366 )
2018
30
With a new clip technique surgically inducing varicocele in Sprague-Dawley rats. ( 29879956 )
2018
31
Effect of varicocelectomy and/or mast cells stabilizer on sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile patients with varicocele. ( 29195028 )
2018
32
A Novel Method for Investigating the Role of Reflux Pattern in Color Doppler Ultrasound for Grading of Varicocele. ( 29695731 )
2018
33
A global view of the pathophysiology of varicocele. ( 29978951 )
2018
34
Historical investigations into varicocele pathophysiology and sperm migration. ( 29274657 )
2018
35
Thrombosed varicocele - a rare cause for acute scrotal pain: a case report. ( 29739377 )
2018
36
Expression of TRPC5 is decreased in the sperm of patients with varicocele-associated asthenozoospermia. ( 29774143 )
2018
37
Re: Increased Body Mass Index in Men with Varicocele is Associated with Larger Spermatic Vein Diameters when Supine. ( 27979554 )
2017
38
The intriguing role of VEGF in varicocele. ( 28741722 )
2017
39
Microsurgical varicocelectomy for clinical varicocele: A review for potential new indications. ( 28671268 )
2017
40
Treatment of varicocele in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ( 28851509 )
2017
41
Varicocele and semen quality: a retrospective case-control study of 4230 patients from a single centre. ( 28647897 )
2017
42
Back pain after varicocele embolization. ( 28678016 )
2017
43
Chrysin Administration Protects against Oxidative Damage in Varicocele-Induced Adult Rats. ( 29410731 )
2017
44
Y chromosome microdeletions and varicocele as aetiological factors of male infertility: A cross-sectional study. ( 29265486 )
2017
45
Back pain after varicocele embolization. ( 28678015 )
2017
46
Pelvic venous reflux in male: Varicocele? ( 29212416 )
2017
47
Roles of Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis and inhibin B in the testicular dysfunction of rats with left-side varicocele. ( 28722192 )
2017
48
Therapeutic efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery versus microsurgery for varicocele of adult males: A meta-analysis. ( 28834886 )
2017
49
Varicocele ( 28846314 )
2017
50
<i>Morinda Officinalis</i> Polysaccharides Stimulate Hypothalamic GnRH Secretion in Varicocele Progression. ( 29234440 )
2017

Variations for Varicocele

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Varicocele:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 46;XY;t(12;14)(q15;q13)mat Translocation Uncertain significance

Expression for Varicocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Varicocele.

Pathways for Varicocele

Pathways related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 26)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.48 CASP3 CASP9 CGA GNRH1
2 12.45 CASP3 CASP9 GSTM1 GSTT1 HIF1A NOS2
3
Show member pathways
12.17 CASP3 CGA NOS2 NOS3 PRL
4
Show member pathways
11.94 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2 NOS2
5 11.9 GSTM1 GSTT1 NOS3
6 11.81 CASP9 HIF1A PLCZ1
7 11.76 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
8 11.71 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
9 11.65 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3
10 11.64 CASP3 CASP9 NOS2
11
Show member pathways
11.57 CASP3 CASP9 NOS3
12
Show member pathways
11.38 HSPA2 NOS2 NOS3
13 11.32 CASP3 CASP9 HSPA2
14 11.32 CASP3 CASP9 GSTM1 GSTT1
15 11.12 CASP3 CASP9 PLCZ1
16
Show member pathways
11.04 NOS2 NOS3
17 11 HIF1A NOS3
18 11 NOS2 NOS3
19 10.99 GSTM1 GSTT1
20 10.96 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2
21 10.95 CASP3 CASP9
22 10.84 CASP3 CASP9 HIF1A NOS2 NOS3
23 10.83 GNRH1 SHBG
24 10.67 CGA GNRH1
25 10.66 NOS2 NOS3
26 10.36 NOS2 NOS3

GO Terms for Varicocele

Biological processes related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of blood vessel diameter GO:0097755 9.54 NOS2 NOS3
2 positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:1902895 9.52 HIF1A PRL
3 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.51 GSTM1 GSTT1
4 platelet formation GO:0030220 9.49 CASP3 CASP9
5 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 9.48 NOS2 NOS3
6 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.46 NOS2 NOS3
7 gonad development GO:0008406 9.43 AMH CGA
8 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.4 NOS2 NOS3
9 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c GO:0008635 9.37 CASP3 CASP9
10 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.32 NOS2 NOS3
11 response to cobalt ion GO:0032025 9.26 CASP3 CASP9
12 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.26 AMH CASP3 CASP9 GNRH1
13 glial cell apoptotic process GO:0034349 9.16 CASP3 CASP9
14 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.02 CASP3 CASP9 GNRH1 NOS2 NOS3

Molecular functions related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, NAD(P)H as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016709 9.46 NOS2 NOS3
2 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0097153 9.43 CASP3 CASP9
3 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis GO:0097200 9.4 CASP3 CASP9
4 FMN binding GO:0010181 9.37 NOS2 NOS3
5 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.32 NOS2 NOS3
6 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.26 NOS2 NOS3
7 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 9.16 NOS2 NOS3
8 nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0004517 8.96 NOS2 NOS3
9 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.92 AMH CGA GNRH1 PRL

Sources for Varicocele

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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