Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Varicocele

MalaCards integrated aliases for Varicocele:

Name: Varicocele 12 54 6 44 15 70
Scrotal Varices 12 32
Varicoceles 62


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12337
ICD9CM 34 456.4
MeSH 44 D014646
SNOMED-CT 67 195480007
ICD10 32 I86.1
UMLS 70 C0042341

Summaries for Varicocele

PubMed Health : 62 About varicoceles: Varicoceles are varicose veins in the scrotum. They form in the veins that run along the spermatic cord. Blood from the testicles flows back into the body through those veins. Like varicose veins in the legs, varicoceles form when blood builds up in the veins and they become permanently enlarged.

MalaCards based summary : Varicocele, also known as scrotal varices, is related to varicose veins and infertility, and has symptoms including pain in scrotum An important gene associated with Varicocele is GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Akt Signaling and Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway. The drugs Methylene blue and Bupivacaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and kidney, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and neoplasm

Wikipedia : 73 A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of... more...

Related Diseases for Varicocele

Diseases related to Varicocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 268)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 varicose veins 31.8 SHBG IL6 HIF1A CASP9
2 infertility 31.4 SHBG PRL PLCZ1 GNRH1 AZF1 AMH
3 male infertility 31.1 SHBG PRL PLCZ1 HSPA2 GSTM1 GNRH1
4 oligospermia 31.0 PRL GSTM1 GNRH1 FAM47C AMH
5 testicular disease 30.9 IL6 GNRH1 AMH ALB
6 oligoasthenoteratozoospermia 30.6 GSTM1 AMH ACR
7 testicular torsion 30.5 NOS3 CASP3 AMH
8 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 30.5 SHBG PRL GNRH1 AZF1 AMH
9 gynecomastia 30.4 SHBG PRL GNRH1
10 prostatitis 30.3 PRL IL6 CASP3
11 spinal cord injury 30.3 NOS2 IL6 CASP3
12 impotence 30.3 SHBG PRL NOS3 NOS2 GNRH1 ALB
13 vascular disease 30.2 NOS3 NOS2 IL6 CASP3 ALB
14 sexual disorder 30.1 SHBG PRL NOS3 GNRH1 ALB
15 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 30.1 SHBG PRL GNRH1 AMH
16 hyperprolactinemia 30.0 SHBG PRL GNRH1
17 anovulation 29.9 SHBG PRL GNRH1 AMH
18 ischemia 29.8 NOS3 NOS2 HIF1A CASP9 CASP3
19 retinal vascular disease 29.6 NOS3 IL6 HIF1A CASP3 ALB
20 testicular cancer 29.6 SHBG IL6 GSTM1 GNRH1 CASP3 AZF1
21 pheochromocytoma 29.4 PRL IL6 HSP90AA1 HIF1A CASP3
22 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 29.2 SHBG NOS3 IL6 HIF1A GSTM1 ALB
23 pelvic varices 29.1 SHBG PRL LDHC IL6 GNRH1 CASP3
24 hydrocele 10.8
25 azoospermia 10.7
26 inguinal hernia 10.4
27 platelet membrane fluidity 10.4 NOS3 NOS2
28 chronic salpingo-oophoritis 10.4 PRL AMH
29 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.4
30 hypogonadism 10.4
31 pyometritis 10.4 PRL GNRH1
32 mixed cerebral palsy 10.4 SHBG PRL GNRH1
33 estrogen excess 10.3 SHBG PRL GNRH1
34 heterophyiasis 10.3 CASP3 ALB
35 hypoxia 10.3
36 cerebral hypoxia 10.3 CASP9 CASP3
37 priapism 10.3 NOS3 NOS2 GNRH1
38 pituitary infarct 10.3 PRL GNRH1
39 cerebral artery occlusion 10.3 NOS3 NOS2 HIF1A
40 ovarian cyst 10.3 PRL GNRH1 AMH
41 spermatogenic failure 3 10.3
42 postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis 10.3 SHBG GNRH1 AMH
43 immuno-osseous dysplasia 10.3 NOS2 ALB
44 amenorrhea 10.3 SHBG PRL GNRH1
45 hepatopulmonary syndrome 10.3 NOS3 NOS2 ALB
46 carbuncle 10.3 IL6 CASP9 CASP3
47 endogenous depression 10.3 PRL IL6 GNRH1
48 adenomyosis 10.3 PRL IL6 GNRH1
49 pulmonary edema 10.2 NOS3 NOS2 HIF1A
50 hyperandrogenism 10.2 SHBG PRL GNRH1

Comorbidity relations with Varicocele via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Prostatic Hypertrophy

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Varicocele:

Diseases related to Varicocele

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Varicocele

UMLS symptoms related to Varicocele:

pain in scrotum

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Varicocele:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.97 ALB AMH CASP3 CASP9 GNRH1 HIF1A
2 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.5 ALB AMH GNRH1 HIF1A IL6 NOS2
3 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.44 ACR AMH CASP3 GNRH1 HSP90AA1 HSPA2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Varicocele

PubMed Health treatment related to Varicocele: 62

Varicoceles do not normally need to be treated. But some experts do suggest treatment for men who have fertility problems and a varicocele , in the hope that it will improve fertility. The treatment involves “shutting down” the affected vein so that the blood flows through healthy, neighboring veins instead. This can be done by blocking the vein using minimally-invasive procedures (embolization) or by performing varicose vein surgery . In embolization, the affected vein is blocked using a catheter to inject either a solution that causes scarring (sclerotherapy), a tissue adhesive, or a detachable balloon or coil. In surgery, the swollen vein and the surrounding smaller veins are either cut or tied.

Drugs for Varicocele (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 14)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational Phase 2 61-73-4
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Approved, Investigational 1191-50-0, 139-88-8 5248 14492
4 Follicle Stimulating Hormone
5 Androgens
6 Anti-Infective Agents, Local
7 Anesthetics, Local
8 Anesthetics
9 Vaccines
10 Analgesics
11 Anti-Inflammatory Agents
12 Sclerosing Solutions
13 Hormone Antagonists
14 Hormones

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 33)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of FSHR Polymorphism p.N680S in the Therapy With FSH in Patients Who Underwent Varicocele Surgery Unknown status NCT02719093 Phase 4 recombinant FSH
2 Comparison of Outcomes of Two Approaches in Microsurgical Varicocelectomy in Chinese Infertile Males: A Prospective Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT01463787 Phase 4
3 A Prospective, Randomized, Study of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy Versus Observation in the Treatment of Male Partners With a Palpable Varicocele and an Abnormal Semen Analysis Terminated NCT00767338 Phase 3
4 Dye Assisted Lymphatic Sparing Varicocelectomy,Prospective Randomized Study Completed NCT01259258 Phase 2
5 Comparison Between Laparoscopic Doppler Ultrasound Assisted Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy and Microscopic Subinguinal Varicocelectomy Unknown status NCT02695199
6 The Search for Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Varicocele Unknown status NCT03079609
7 The Role of Microsurgery in Surgical Treatment of Varicocele. Unknown status NCT02722187
8 The Effect and Prognosis of Different Operations on Varicocele - a Single-center Clinical Study Unknown status NCT01757548
9 Outcome of ICSI Using Cryopreserved Testicular Sperm From Infertile Men With Varicocele-associated Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02306499
10 PrOspective, MultiCenter Study for the Evaluation of PerformanCe of the ArtVentive Medical Group Peripheral EndoLuminal OcclUsion SystemTM in the Treatment of Varicocele or Pelvic Congestion SynDromE - OCCLUDE I Unknown status NCT02033863
11 Comparison Between Impact of Inguinal and Subinguinal Approaches of Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters in Patients With Normal Semen Analysis Unknown status NCT03281915
12 Quality of Life Among Testicular Cancer Survivors Unknown status NCT02304575
13 Varicocelectomy To Treat Pain, Predictors Of Success : A Prospective Study Completed NCT01395186
14 Assessing Post-operative Rates of Recurrence, Hydrocele and Testicular Atrophy in Patients Operated With a New Approach of Varicocelectomy Named Combined Mini-incision Microscopic Varicocelectomy (CMMV) Completed NCT02092311
15 the Effect of Sub-inguinal Varicocelectomy in Patients Complaining of Orchialgia With Normal Semen Analysis Completed NCT03835143
16 Seminal TEX101 as a Predictor of Recovery of Spermatogenesis in Azoospermic Men With Palpable Varicocele Completed NCT04397887
17 Increased Testicular Cd2+ & Infertility With Varicocele ( a Varicose Vein in the Scrotum) Completed NCT00044369
18 Effect of TAP Block for Postoperative Pain Control After Varicocele Operations on Analgesia Quality and Postoperative Analgesic Consumption Completed NCT02983383
19 The Anaesthesiological Approach to Varicocele Correction in Outpatients Setting: an Observational Analysis Completed NCT02401087
20 Selective Retrograde Venography and Sclerotherapy of Internal Spermatic Veins and Associated Venous Bypasses and Retro-Peritoneal Collateral in Patients With Bilateral Varicocele and Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00637208
21 Selective Retrograde Venography and Sclerotherapy of Internal Spermatic Veins and Associated Venous Bypasses and Retro-Peritoneal Collateral in Patients With Varicocele and Hypertrophy of Prostate Completed NCT00639899
22 Single Incision Transumbilical Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy: Comparison With the Conventional Laparoscopic Approach. Completed NCT02335385
23 Analysis on AEFI Surveillance Data for Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Completed NCT02983656
24 EASYX-1 : A Multicenter Study on Safety and Efficacy of Easyx Liquid Embolization Agent Used in Five Separate Indications Completed NCT03477149
25 Beneficial Effects of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy on Semen Parameters in Patients Who Underwent Surgery for Causes Other Than Infertility Completed NCT02006316
26 Outcome of Subinguinal Varicocelectomy on Normal Semen in Patients Complaining of Orchialgia Completed NCT04509869
27 Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a Left-sided Varicocele Recruiting NCT03540056
28 The Comparison of TAP Block and QL Block on Postoperative Analgesic Consumption and Patient Satisfaction After Varicocele Surgery Recruiting NCT03793764
29 Endovasculer Treatement of Male Pelvic Venous Insufficiency Not yet recruiting NCT03341897
30 The Effect of Preliminary Varicocele Repair on IVF Outcomes in Male Factor Infertility Not yet recruiting NCT03090438
31 Varicocele Repair for Infertile Men Undergoing IVF/ICSI: a Parallel, Two-group, Randomized Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04608864
32 A Prospective, Multi-Centre, Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Varicocelectomy to Observation in Infertile Men With Clinical Varicoceles Terminated NCT00961558
33 Varicocelectomy: Can Sex-hormones Predict Improvements in Semen Quality? Terminated NCT01296230

Search NIH Clinical Center for Varicocele

Cochrane evidence based reviews: varicocele

Genetic Tests for Varicocele

Anatomical Context for Varicocele

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Varicocele:

Testis, Testes, Kidney, Prostate, Endothelial, Pituitary, Eye

Publications for Varicocele

Articles related to Varicocele:

(show top 50) (show all 4641)
# Title Authors PMID Year
[Azoospermia factor and male infertility]. 61 54
20369704 2010
The association between varicocele, premature ejaculation and prostatitis symptoms: possible mechanisms. 61 54
19674254 2009
Hormonal regulation of total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma. 61 54
19234315 2009
Baseline follicle-stimulating hormone is a strong predictor for the outcome of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone test in young men with unilateral medium- or high-grade varicocele. 54 61
16925763 2006
Human sperm sex hormone-binding globulin isoform: characterization and measurement by time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. 54 61
16131577 2005
Varicocele ligation on free testosterone levels in infertile men with varicocele. 61 54
15669609 2004
Does the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test predict clinical outcomes after microsurgical varicocelectomy? 61 54
15183968 2004
The changes in testicular vascular permeability during progression of the experimental varicocele. 54 61
12507549 2003
AZF microdeletions associated with idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases with cryptorchidism and varicocele. 54 61
12508125 2002
Assessment of sperm functions in infertile patients with varicoceles. 54 61
12390086 2002
Varicocele as a progressive lesion: positive effect of varicocele repair. 54 61
11212075 2001
Predictive indicators of successful varicocele repair in men with infertility. 61 54
10997484 2000
Pituitary and testicular function in adolescents with varicocele. 54 61
10624500 1999
Serum inhibin B levels and the response to gonadotropin stimulation test in pubertal boys with varicocele. 61 54
10458399 1999
[Gonadotropin response to GnRH and seminal parameters in low grade varicocele]. 61 54
10193017 1999
Evaluation of the relationship between semen parameters, pregnancy rate of wives of infertile men with varicocele, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone test before and after varicocelectomy. 54 61
9801113 1998
[The naloxone test in patients with varicocele]. 61 54
9695347 1998
[Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in selecting patients for varicocelectomy]. 54 61
9153874 1997
The value of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone test as a prognostic factor in infertile patients with varicocele. 54 61
8944523 1996
Free sex steroid and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in oligozoospermic men with varicoceles. 54 61
8690120 1996
[Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal damage in adolescents with varicocele]. 61 54
8935565 1996
The effect of smoking and varicocele on human sperm acrosin activity and acrosome reaction. 61 54
8822441 1995
Correlation of testicular volume, histology and LHRH test in adolescents with idiopathic varicocele. 54 61
7925532 1994
Serum levels of steroid hormones in men with varicocele and oligospermia as compared to normozoospermic men. 54 61
1305061 1992
Fructose, prostatic acid phosphatase and zinc levels in the seminal plasma of varicoceles. 54 61
1977719 1990
[Indices of testicular endosecretory function and of the status of the hypophyseal-gonadal system in varicocele]. 61 54
2368218 1990
Prospective evaluation of the association between varicocele and benign prostatic hyperplasia in men over 40 years of age. 61
33586806 2021
Mean platelet volume values may not be associated with the presence of varicocele. 61
33635554 2021
Response and Rebuttal to the Letter to Editor Re: 'Platelet indices and varicocele: A systematic review and meta-analysis'. 61
33635581 2021
Varicocele indicated scrotoplasty with varicocelectomy: A case report. 61
33552916 2021
Utility of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Male Infertility: Clinical Guidelines Based on a Systematic Review and Analysis of Evidence. 61
33474843 2021
[Initial experience in microsurgical treatment of varicocele: Comparative analysis with conventional macrosurgical varicocelectomy]. 61
31982333 2021
Effects of HIF-1α on Spermatogenesis of Varicocele Rats by Regulating VEGF/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway. 61
33237516 2021
Is ferroptosis involved in ROS-induced testicular lesions in a varicocele rat model? 61
33789564 2021
Protein Fingerprinting of Seminal Plasma Reveals Dysregulation of Exosome-Associated Proteins in Infertile Men with Unilateral Varicocele. 61
31081293 2021
A network meta-analysis protocol of efficacy and safety evaluation of different surgery regimens for varicocele patients with infertility: A study protocol. 61
33655904 2021
The European Academy of Andrology (EAA) ultrasound study on healthy, fertile men: Scrotal ultrasound reference ranges and associations with clinical, seminal, and biochemical characteristics. 61
33244893 2021
Conventional semen analysis and advanced sperm function tests in diagnosis and management of varicocele. 61
32369238 2021
Oxidative origin of sperm DNA fragmentation in the adult varicocele. 61
33146981 2021
Sperm DNA damage and cytokines in varicocele: A case-control study. 61
33689198 2021
Specific urogenital disease information-revealing male genital votive offerings dedicated to gods in ancient age sanctuary medicine. 61
33650539 2021
The most commonly injured nerves at surgery: A comprehensive review. 61
33090551 2021
Testicular volume in infertile versus fertile white-European men: a case-control investigation in the real-life setting. 61
33723100 2021
Total Motile Sperm Count in Adolescent Boys with Varicocele is Associated with Hormone Levels and Total Testicular Volume. 61
33026928 2021
[Recommendations of the Committee of Andrology and Sexual Medicine of the AFU concerning the management of Varicocele]. 61
33308982 2021
Thymoquinone improves testicular damage and sperm quality in experimentally varicocele-induced adolescent rats. 61
33660882 2021
Increased Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Infertile Men with Varicocele: Relationship with Apoptosis, Seminal Oxidative Stress, and Spermatic Parameters. 61
32909188 2021
What does a varicocele do to a man's fertility? There is much more than meets the eye. 61
33284533 2021
The impact of ipsilateral testicular atrophy on semen quality and sperm DNA fragmentation response to varicocele repair. 61
32930104 2021
Platelet indices and varicocele: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33369777 2021

Variations for Varicocele

Expression for Varicocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Varicocele.

Pathways for Varicocele

Pathways related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 27)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.28 NOS3 NOS2 HSP90AA1 CASP9
Show member pathways
9 12.1 NOS2 IL6 CASP9 CASP3
10 12.03 NOS2 IL6 CASP9 CASP3
11 11.79 NOS2 IL6 HSP90AA1 HIF1A
12 11.77 NOS2 CASP9 CASP3
Show member pathways
11.76 NOS3 HSP90AA1 HIF1A
Show member pathways
11.71 NOS3 CASP9 CASP3
15 11.69 PRL IL6 HSP90AA1
16 11.67 NOS3 HSP90AA1 CASP9 CASP3
17 11.64 NOS2 IL6 CASP3
18 11.62 GSTM1 CASP9 CASP3
19 11.59 NOS3 NOS2 LDHC IL6 HIF1A
20 11.44 NOS3 HSP90AA1 HIF1A
Show member pathways
11.44 NOS3 NOS2 HSPA2 HSP90AA1
22 11.38 IL6 HSPA2 CASP9 CASP3
23 11.34 IL6 CASP9 CASP3
24 11.17 NOS3 NOS2 HIF1A CASP9 CASP3
25 10.73 NOS3 NOS2
26 10.73 NOS2 IL6 HIF1A CASP9 CASP3
27 10.47 NOS3 NOS2

GO Terms for Varicocele

Biological processes related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.92 IL6 HIF1A GNRH1 CASP3 ALB
2 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.72 NOS2 IL6 HSP90AA1 HIF1A CASP3
3 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.67 GNRH1 CASP9 CASP3 AMH
4 response to heat GO:0009408 9.61 NOS3 HSPA2 HSP90AA1
5 cellular response to virus GO:0098586 9.58 IL6 HSP90AA1 HIF1A
6 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.51 NOS3 NOS2
7 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.49 IL6 HIF1A
8 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.48 NOS3 NOS2
9 response to cobalt ion GO:0032025 9.46 CASP9 CASP3
10 leukocyte apoptotic process GO:0071887 9.26 CASP9 CASP3
11 glial cell apoptotic process GO:0034349 9.16 CASP9 CASP3
12 response to antibiotic GO:0046677 9.13 HSP90AA1 CASP9 CASP3
13 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.02 NOS3 NOS2 GNRH1 CASP9 CASP3

Molecular functions related to Varicocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis GO:0097200 9.37 CASP9 CASP3
2 cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097199 9.32 CASP9 CASP3
3 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.26 NOS3 NOS2
4 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.16 NOS3 NOS2
5 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 8.96 NOS3 NOS2
6 nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0004517 8.62 NOS3 NOS2

Sources for Varicocele

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....