Aliases & Classifications for Vestibular Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Vestibular Disease:

Name: Vestibular Disease 12 15
Vestibular Diseases 44 73
Vertigo, Vestibular Disorder 12
Vestibular Dysfunction 29
Diseases of Inner Ear 73
Vestibular Disorder 55

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:3426
ICD10 33 H81 H81.9 H81.90
MeSH 44 D015837
SNOMED-CT 68 20425006

Summaries for Vestibular Disease

MalaCards based summary : Vestibular Disease, also known as vestibular diseases, is related to deafness, autosomal dominant 9 and drug-induced hearing loss, and has symptoms including vertigo and vertigo/dizziness. An important gene associated with Vestibular Disease is COCH (Cochlin), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Gap junction trafficking. The drugs Glucosamine and Histamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, endothelial and brain, and related phenotypes are hearing/vestibular/ear and homeostasis/metabolism

Related Diseases for Vestibular Disease

Diseases related to Vestibular Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 144)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 deafness, autosomal dominant 9 32.5 COCH FAM136A
2 drug-induced hearing loss 31.7 GJB2 GJB3 SLC26A4
3 meniere disease 31.4 AQP2 COCH FAM136A
4 deafness, autosomal recessive 4, with enlarged vestibular aqueduct 30.8 COCH FOXI1 GJB2 GJB3 GJB6 KCNJ10
5 motion sickness 29.9 AVP FAM136A
6 sensorineural hearing loss 29.9 COCH GJB2 GJB3 GJB6 SLC26A4
7 dfnb1 29.8 GJB2 GJB6
8 nonsyndromic deafness 29.3 COCH FOXI1 GJB2 GJB3 GJB6 SLC26A4
9 deafness, autosomal recessive 84a 11.9
10 usher syndrome, type i 11.5
11 usher syndrome, type iiia 11.2
12 usher syndrome, type iiib 11.2
13 sinoatrial node dysfunction and deafness 11.2
14 usher syndrome, type ic 11.0
15 albinism, ocular, with late-onset sensorineural deafness 11.0
16 usher syndrome, type id 11.0
17 usher syndrome, type if 11.0
18 usher syndrome, type ig 11.0
19 usher syndrome, type ih 11.0
20 deafness, autosomal recessive 25 11.0
21 deafness, autosomal recessive 79 11.0
22 usher syndrome, type ij 11.0
23 deafness, autosomal recessive 18b 11.0
24 usher syndrome, type ik 11.0
25 superior semicircular canal dehiscence 10.3 COCH RTEL1
26 deafness, autosomal dominant 36 10.2 GJB2 SLC26A4
27 hypotrichosis-deafness syndrome 10.2 GJB2 GJB3
28 deafness, autosomal recessive 93 10.2 GJB2 GJB3
29 deafness, autosomal recessive 28 10.2 GJB2 GJB3
30 deafness, autosomal recessive 26 10.2 GJB2 SLC26A4
31 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.2
32 deafness, autosomal dominant 6 10.2 COCH GJB2 SLC26A4
33 deafness, autosomal dominant 13 10.2 COCH GJB2 SLC26A4
34 mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma 10.2 GJB2 GJB3
35 deafness, autosomal recessive 30 10.2 GJB2 SLC26A4
36 deafness, autosomal dominant 24 10.2 GJB2 GJB6
37 inappropriate adh syndrome 10.1 AQP2 AVP
38 knuckle pads, leukonychia, and sensorineural deafness 10.1 GJB2 GJB6
39 deafness, x-linked 2 10.1 GJB2 GJB6
40 autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 3 10.1 GJB2 SLC26A4
41 vohwinkel syndrome 10.1 GJB2 GJB6
42 deafness, autosomal recessive 67 10.1 GJB2 GJB3
43 autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 10.1 GJB2 SLC26A4
44 congenital cytomegalovirus 10.1 GJB2 GJB6
45 impaired renal function disease 10.1 AQP2 AVP
46 syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone 10.1 AQP2 AVP
47 obstructive hydrocephalus 10.1 CRLF1 GJB6
48 diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal 10.1 AQP2 AVP
49 deafness, autosomal dominant 2a 10.1 COCH GJB2 GJB6
50 deafness, autosomal recessive 23 10.1 GJB2 GJB6 SLC26A4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Vestibular Disease:



Diseases related to Vestibular Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Vestibular Disease

UMLS symptoms related to Vestibular Disease:


vertigo, vertigo/dizziness

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Vestibular Disease:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.7 COCH FOXI1 GJB2 GJB6 KCNE3 KCNJ10
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.7 AQP2 AVP DIO3 FOXI1 GJB2 GJB3
3 nervous system MP:0003631 9.28 AVP CRLF1 FOXI1 GJB2 GJB6 KCNE3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Vestibular Disease

Drugs for Vestibular Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 148)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Glucosamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 3416-24-8 439213
2
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
3
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 523-87-5 441281
4
Betahistine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 5638-76-6 2366
5
Caffeine Approved Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
6 Piracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7491-74-9
7
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
8
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
9
Calcium Carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
10
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2 14986
11
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 98-92-0 936
12
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
13
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
14
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 4 108-95-2 996
15
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
16
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
17
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
18
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
19
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
20
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 378-44-9 9782
21
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 5280795 6221
22
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
23
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
24
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
25
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 59-67-6 938
26
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
27 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 4 6829-55-6
28
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
29 Anticoagulants Phase 4
30 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
31 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
32 Antimetabolites Phase 4
33 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
34 Glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate Phase 4
35 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
36 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
37
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 51-74-1 65513
38 Antiemetics Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
39 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
40 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
41 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
42 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
43 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
44 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Not Applicable
45 Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
46 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4,Not Applicable
47 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
48 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
49 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
50 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 157)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Imaging Angiographies of the Supra-Aortic Vessels by Three Different Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents in Patients Unknown status NCT00132223 Phase 4 Contrast agent
2 Effects of Betaserc on Vestibular Compensation in Patients Suffering From Disabling Meniere's Disease and Having Undergone Vestibular Neurotomy Completed NCT00160238 Phase 4 Betahistine 24 mg bid (Betaserc)
3 Effect of Caffeine Intake in Vestibular Function Completed NCT02825199 Phase 4
4 Comparison of Efficacy Between Piracetam and Dimenhydrinate in Patients With Peripheral Vertigo Completed NCT01890538 Phase 4 Administration of 100 mg dimenhydrinate intravenous;2 g piracetam intravenous
5 Comparison of Efficacy Dimenhydrinate and Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Nausea Due to Vertigo Completed NCT02253524 Phase 4 Dimenhydrinate;Metoclopramide
6 Efficacy of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on the Prevention of Recurrences in BPPV Completed NCT02031692 Phase 4 400IU cholecalciferol and 500mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate
7 Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01574313 Phase 4 0.25mg, fludiazine;25mg cephadol@ (diphenidol);200mg kentons@ (tocopherol nicotinate).
8 Chlorobutanol, Potassium Carbonate, and Irrigation in Cerumen Removal Completed NCT00765635 Phase 4 drops intilation (Taponoto ® );drops intilation (Otocerum®);drops intilation (Placebo)
9 Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy and Corticosteroid Treatment Recruiting NCT02912182 Phase 4 Betamethasone;Placebo;Prednisolone
10 A Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Betahistine Mesilate In The Treatment Of Patients With Vertigo Caused By Cerebral Infarction In Posterior Circulation Withdrawn NCT00474409 Phase 4 Merislon
11 Non Inferiority of Meclin® (Meclizine Chlorhydrate) Versus Dramin® (Dimenhydrinate) in Control of Acute Vertigo Symptoms From Peripheral Origin Unknown status NCT02112578 Phase 3 Meclizine;Dimenhydrinate
12 Efficacy of Antiviral Medications in Controlling Vertigo Attacks of Patients With Meniere's Disease Unknown status NCT01729767 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acyclovir;Placebo
13 Conventional Versus Virtual Reality Based Vestibular Rehabilitation Completed NCT01442623 Phase 2, Phase 3
14 Study of Lamotrigine to Treat Ménière's Disease Completed NCT02158585 Phase 3 Lamotrigine;Placebo
15 The Treatment of Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT02029508 Phase 3
16 Promethazine vs. Lorazepam for Treatment of Vertigo Completed NCT01827293 Phase 3 Promethazine;Lorazepam
17 Treatment of Geotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT01366430 Phase 3
18 Treatment of Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT00810641 Phase 3
19 Canalith Repositioning Procedure for BPPV in Primary Care Completed NCT00182273 Phase 3
20 Effects of Prismatic Spectacle Lenses on Symptoms of Dizziness, Headache and Anxiety as Caused by Vertical Heterophoria Completed NCT00785135 Phase 3
21 Rizatriptan for Episodic Dizziness in Vestibular Migraine Recruiting NCT02447991 Phase 2, Phase 3 Rizatriptan;Placebo
22 Visual Feedback Goggle for Positional Vertigo Treatment Unknown status NCT00729885 Phase 1, Phase 2
23 Efficacy of Extended-release, Once Daily Tramadol for Post Operative Analgesia in Shoulder Arthroscopy Unknown status NCT02247648 Phase 2 tramadol;Placebo
24 Prednisone Treatment for Vestibular Neuronitis Completed NCT00271791 Phase 2 Prednisone;Prednisone
25 A Clinical Trial To Evaluate Efficacy And Safety Of Levophencynonate Hydrochloride In Patient With Vertigo Completed NCT02299804 Phase 2 Levophencynonate Hydrochloric;Placebo
26 Treatment of Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT02046980 Phase 2
27 Effect of V0251 in Acute Vertigo Completed NCT01583738 Phase 2 V0251;placebo
28 Treatments for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Completed NCT00000359 Phase 2
29 A Trial of Booklet Based Self Management of Dizziness Completed NCT00732797 Phase 2
30 Vestibular Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease Not yet recruiting NCT03799991 Phase 1, Phase 2
31 4-Aminopyridine, Atenolol, or Placebo in Patients With Vestibular Migraine Withdrawn NCT03578354 Phase 2 4-aminopyridine;Atenolol
32 Use of a Vibrotactile Sensory Prosthesis in Patients With Postural Imbalance and Spatial Disorientation Unknown status NCT00146952 Phase 1
33 Head-Mounted Vibrotactile Prosthesis for Patients With Chronic Postural Instability Completed NCT00889824 Phase 1
34 Verapamil vs. Sertraline for Vestibular Migraine & Chronic Subjective Dizziness Completed NCT01669304 Phase 1 Verapamil;Sertraline
35 Physiotherapy in Vestibular Disorders Unknown status NCT02746770 Not Applicable
36 Game Based Vestibular Exercise for Home Rehabilitation Unknown status NCT02134444 Not Applicable
37 Vestibular and Multisensory Influence on Bodily and Spatial Representations Unknown status NCT02072460 Not Applicable
38 Biological Rhythms and Vestibular System Unknown status NCT01839409 Not Applicable
39 Neural Mechanisms Engaged in Control of Eye Movements Unknown status NCT00999934
40 The Liberatory Maneuver for the Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Unknown status NCT01008124 Not Applicable
41 Evaluation of the Sensorial Preference Unknown status NCT01146249
42 Proof of Concept Study Concerning Vestibular Stimulation Using a New Method of Dynamic Posturography. Unknown status NCT02851524 Not Applicable
43 Vestibular System in Migrainous Vertigo Patients Unknown status NCT00901953
44 Comorbidity Between Balance and Childhood Anxiety Unknown status NCT00599742 Not Applicable
45 Efficacy of Postural Restriction in Treating Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Unknown status NCT02475239 Not Applicable
46 Tailored Care for Somatoform Vertigo/Dizziness Unknown status NCT02320851 Not Applicable
47 Treatment of Posterior Canal Type of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Unknown status NCT01822002 Not Applicable
48 The Head Impulse Test in the Screening of Vestibular Function Unknown status NCT01426932
49 Pilot Project on External Vestibular Prosthesis in Chronic Subjective Dizziness Unknown status NCT02048670 Not Applicable
50 Electrical Stimulation and Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Unknown status NCT02088996 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Vestibular Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: vestibular diseases

Genetic Tests for Vestibular Disease

Genetic tests related to Vestibular Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Vestibular Dysfunction 29

Anatomical Context for Vestibular Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Vestibular Disease:

41
Testes, Endothelial, Brain, Skin, Thyroid

Publications for Vestibular Disease

Articles related to Vestibular Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 75)
# Title Authors Year
1
Tone-induced cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: comparing abnormalities in traumatic and non-traumatic vestibular disease. ( 30295212 )
2018
2
Genetic contribution to vestibular diseases. ( 29582143 )
2018
3
Treating peripheral vestibular disease-associated nausea. ( 28432250 )
2017
4
An unusual case of peripheral vestibular disease in a cat following ear cleaning. ( 28216690 )
2017
5
Health care utilization, prognosis and outcomes of vestibular disease in primary care settings: systematic review. ( 27083883 )
2016
6
Developing and Implementing Diagnostic Prediction Models for Vestibular Diseases in Primary Care. ( 27577483 )
2016
7
Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia. ( 26403953 )
2015
8
Central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. ( 25115042 )
2014
9
What is your neurologic diagnosis? Vestibular disease. ( 24871057 )
2014
10
Endoscopic findings of the external ear canal in a group of clinically normal horses and horses with head shaking or vestibular disease. ( 24693653 )
2014
11
Diagnostic imaging of peripheral vestibular disease in a Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides). ( 24881151 )
2014
12
Proposed treatment for geriatric vestibular disease in dogs. ( 25103883 )
2014
13
Influence of vestibular disease on psychological distress: a multicenter study. ( 23380760 )
2013
14
Vestibular disease: anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs. ( 22847320 )
2012
15
Vestibular disease: diseases causing vestibular signs. ( 22847321 )
2012
16
Modifications of muscle synergies and spinal maps due to absence of visual feedback in patients with unilateral vestibular disease. ( 23366708 )
2012
17
Diversity of head shaking nystagmus in peripheral vestibular disease. ( 22525213 )
2012
18
Selective atonal gene delivery improves balance function in a mouse model of vestibular disease. ( 21472006 )
2011
19
Patients' psychological well-being and resilient coping protect from secondary somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) 1A year after vestibular disease. ( 20717689 )
2011
20
The reliability and response stability of dynamic testing of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with vestibular disease. ( 22101298 )
2011
21
Vestibular disease in dogs and cats. ( 19942058 )
2010
22
Reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of Turkish Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disease. ( 20183891 )
2010
23
Clinical romberg testing does not detect vestibular disease. ( 20502374 )
2010
24
Clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging findings and outcome in 77 cats with vestibular disease: a retrospective study. ( 19932040 )
2010
25
Different types of dizziness in patients with peripheral vestibular diseases--their prevalence and relation to migraine. ( 20380548 )
2010
26
Surgical management of common peripheral vestibular diseases. ( 20729736 )
2010
27
Medical management of common peripheral vestibular diseases. ( 20827085 )
2010
28
New methods for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular diseases. ( 21173877 )
2010
29
Diabetic polyneuropathy may increase the handicap related to vestibular disease. ( 19427968 )
2009
30
Unilateral vestibular disease. ( 19412404 )
2009
31
What is your neurologic diagnosis? Vestibular disease secondary to brain neoplasm. ( 19284335 )
2009
32
Blood glucose and insulin levels in patients with peripheral vestibular disease. ( 19893939 )
2009
33
Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms and updating orientation in patients with vestibular disease. ( 17578858 )
2008
34
Digital craniocorpography and peripheral vestibular diseases. ( 18616084 )
2008
35
The effect of vestibular rehabilitation supplemented by training of the breathing rhythm or proprioception exercises, in patients with chronic peripheral vestibular disease. ( 18219105 )
2007
36
Hypothyroid-associated central vestibular disease in 10 dogs: 1999-2005. ( 17186851 )
2006
37
Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms in vestibular disease. ( 16464901 )
2006
38
Signs of neurologic dysfunction in dogs with central versus peripheral vestibular disease. ( 16117064 )
2005
39
Subjective assessment of visual verticality in follow-up of patients with acute vestibular disease. ( 12861870 )
2003
40
Vestibular disease and cognitive dysfunction: no evidence for a causal connection. ( 12973270 )
2003
41
Feline vestibular diseases--new developments. ( 12670436 )
2003
42
Is hyperventilation-induced nystagmus more common in retrocochlear vestibular disease than in end-organ vestibular disease? ( 12121015 )
2002
43
Visual and psychological aspects of vestibular disease. ( 11796943 )
2002
44
Head shaking nystagmus in the follow-up of patients with vestibular diseases. ( 11994119 )
2002
45
Paradoxical vestibular disease with trigeminal nerve-sheath tumor in a dog. ( 11525099 )
2001
46
Peripheral vestibular disease associated with cryptococcosis in three cats. ( 11716589 )
2000
47
Psychiatric symptoms and distress differ between patients with postherpetic neuralgia and peripheral vestibular disease. ( 10750630 )
2000
48
Vestibular disease in two horses: a case of mycotic otitis media and a case of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. ( 10466833 )
1999
49
In vitro release kinetics of gentamycin from a sodium hyaluronate gel delivery system suitable for the treatment of peripheral vestibular disease. ( 10028414 )
1999
50
Subjective visual vertical in peripheral unilateral vestibular diseases. ( 10378186 )
1999

Variations for Vestibular Disease

Expression for Vestibular Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Vestibular Disease.

Pathways for Vestibular Disease

Pathways related to Vestibular Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.79 GJB2 GJB3 GJB6

GO Terms for Vestibular Disease

Cellular components related to Vestibular Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 gap junction GO:0005921 9.13 GJB2 GJB3 GJB6
2 connexin complex GO:0005922 8.8 GJB2 GJB3 GJB6

Biological processes related to Vestibular Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 renal water homeostasis GO:0003091 9.26 AQP2 AVP
2 water transport GO:0006833 9.16 AQP2 AVP
3 cell communication GO:0007154 9.13 GJB2 GJB3 GJB6
4 sensory perception of sound GO:0007605 8.92 COCH GJB2 GJB6 SLC26A4

Molecular functions related to Vestibular Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 gap junction channel activity GO:0005243 8.62 GJB2 GJB3

Sources for Vestibular Disease

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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