West Nile Encephalitis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for West Nile Encephalitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for West Nile Encephalitis:

Name: West Nile Encephalitis 11 14 16
West-Nile Encephalitis 58 28
West Nile Fever 43 71
West Nile Fever with Encephalitis 11
Encephalitis, West Nile Fever 71
West Nile Fever Encephalitis 11
West-Nile Fever 58



West-Nile Encephalitis: 1-9/1000000 (United States, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Romania) <1/1000000 (Europe, Austria, Italy) 58

Age Of Onset:

West-Nile Encephalitis: All ages 58


Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare infectious diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:2365
ICD9CM 34 066.41
MeSH 43 D014901
SNOMED-CT 68 392662004
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 A92.3
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0043124 C0751583
Orphanet 58 ORPHA83476
UMLS 71 C0043124 C0751583

Summaries for West Nile Encephalitis

Disease Ontology: 11 A viral infectious disease that results in inflammation located in brain, has material basis in West Nile virus, which is transmitted by Culex, Aedes, or Anopheles species of mosquitoes. The infection has symptom high fever, has symptom headache, has symptom neck stiffness, has symptom stupor, has symptom disorientation, has symptom coma, has symptom tremors, has symptom convulsions, has symptom muscle weakness, has symptom vision loss, has symptom numbness, and has symptom paralysis.

MalaCards based summary: West Nile Encephalitis, also known as west-nile encephalitis, is related to encephalitis and lymphopenia, and has symptoms including muscle weakness, headache and coma. An important gene associated with West Nile Encephalitis is MFSD6 (Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain Containing 6), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Akt Signaling. The drugs Vaccines and Pharmaceutical Solutions have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, medulla oblongata and occipital lobe, and related phenotypes are immune system and cellular

Orphanet: 58 An acute arboviral infection caused by a virus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by an infected mosquito, that is asymptomatic in the majority of cases but that can present in rare occasions with mild flulike symptoms such as low-grade fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and/or rash, or with neurologic manifestations including meningitis, encephalitis with mental confusion or disorientation, tremors and acute flaccid paralysis/poliomyelitis.

Related Diseases for West Nile Encephalitis

Diseases in the West Nile Encephalitis family:

West Nile Virus Encephalitis

Diseases related to West Nile Encephalitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 998)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 encephalitis 31.6 TNF TLR3 RIGI MOG IL6 IL10
2 lymphopenia 31.0 IL6 IL2 IL10 CCR6
3 west nile fever 30.9 TLR3 RIGI IFNAR1 IFNA1 CD8A CD4
4 japanese encephalitis 30.8 TLR3 RIGI IFNAR1 IFNA1 CD8A CD4
5 chikungunya 30.7 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 CRP
6 optic papillitis 30.7 TNF MOG CRP CD4
7 yellow fever 30.7 RIGI IL6 IFNAR1 CRP
8 myelitis 30.7 TNF MOG IL6 IL10 CCR6 ACE2
9 crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever 30.7 IL6 IL10 IFNAR1 IFNA1
10 arachnoiditis 30.7 TNF CRP CD4
11 otitis media 30.7 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CRP ALB
12 vasculitis 30.6 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP
13 meningitis 30.6 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CRP ALB
14 q fever 30.5 TNF IL6 IL10
15 aseptic meningitis 30.5 TNF MOG IL6 IL10 IFNA1 CRP
16 viral meningitis 30.5 TNF IL6 CRP CD8A CD4 CCR6
17 acute pancreatitis 30.5 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP
18 meningoencephalitis 30.5 TNF MOG IL6 IL10 CRP CD8A
19 newcastle disease 30.5 TNF TLR3 RIGI IFNA1
20 pancreatitis 30.4 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP ALB
21 babesiosis 30.4 TNF IL10 CRP CD4 ALB
22 tick-borne encephalitis 30.4 TLR3 IFNAR1 IFNA1 CD8A CD4
23 central nervous system disease 30.3 MOG ICOSLG H2AC18 CRYAA CCR6
24 agnosia 30.3 TNF IL6 IL10 H2AC18 CRP ALB
25 myocarditis 30.3 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNA1
26 bell's palsy 30.1 TNF TLR3 IL6 CRP CD8A CD4
27 pneumonia 30.1 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL10 CRP CD8A
28 viral infectious disease 30.0 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL2 IL10
29 dengue disease 29.9 TNF RIGI IL6 IL10 IFNAR1 IFNA1
30 poliomyelitis 29.9 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL2 IL10
31 viral encephalitis 29.9 TNF TLR3 RIGI MOG IL6 IL10
32 autoimmune disease 29.9 TNF MOG IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNA1
33 orchitis 29.9 TNF MFSD6 IL6 IL2 IL10 H2AC18
34 leukemia, chronic lymphocytic 29.9 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNA1 ICOSLG
35 exanthem 29.8 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNA1 ICOSLG
36 plague 29.7 TNF RIGI IL6 IL2 IL10 H2AC18
37 avian influenza 29.7 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL10 IFNA1
38 deficiency anemia 29.6 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNA1 ICOSLG
39 systemic lupus erythematosus 29.3 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNAR1
40 peripheral nervous system disease 29.2 TNF RNU4ATAC MOG IL6 IL2 IL10
41 nervous system disease 28.7 TNF TLR3 RNU4ATAC RIGI MOG IL6
42 west nile virus encephalitis 11.6
43 kunjin encephalitis 11.3
44 west nile virus 10.9
45 hilar lung neoplasm 10.5 CD8A CD4
46 external pathological resorption 10.5 TNF IL6
47 oral tuberculosis 10.5 CD8A CD4
48 early yaws 10.5 CD8A CD4
49 adult acute lymphocytic leukemia 10.4 CD8A CD4 CCR6
50 ventilation pneumonitis 10.4 CRP CD8A CD4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to West Nile Encephalitis:

Diseases related to West Nile Encephalitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for West Nile Encephalitis


11 (show all 12)
  • muscle weakness
  • headache
  • coma
  • paralysis
  • numbness
  • tremors
  • disorientation
  • convulsions
  • high fever
  • stupor
  • neck stiffness
  • vision loss

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to West Nile Encephalitis:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 10.06 ACE2 ALB CCR6 CD4 CD8A CRP
2 cellular MP:0005384 10.03 ACE2 ALB CD4 CD8A CRYAA IFNAR1
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.97 ALB IFNAR1 IL10 IL2 IL6 RIGI
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.97 ACE2 ALB CD4 IFNAR1 IL10 IL2
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 ACE2 IFNA1 IFNAR1 IL10 IL2 IL6
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.47 ACE2 CCR6 CD4 CD8A ICOSLG IFNA1

Drugs & Therapeutics for West Nile Encephalitis

Drugs for West Nile Encephalitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 6)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Vaccines Phase 2
2 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
3 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
4 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
5 Antibodies Phase 2
6 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 13)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Phase II Trial of the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Lyophilized ChimeriVax-WN02 West Nile Vaccine in Healthy Adults Completed NCT00442169 Phase 2
2 Randomized, Modified, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase II, Dose-ranging Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Single Dose ChimeriVax-WN02 Vaccine in Healthy Adults. Completed NCT00746798 Phase 2
3 Phase 2, Stratified, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy of MGAWN1 in Subjects With Laboratory-documented West Nile Fever or Suspected Central Nervous System Infection Due to West Nile Virus Terminated NCT00927953 Phase 2
4 Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a 2-Dose Regimen of West Nile/Dengue 4-3'delta30 Chimeric Virus Vaccine (WN/DEN4delta30), a Live Attenuated Vaccine for West Nile Encephalitis Completed NCT00537147 Phase 1
5 Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of West Nile/Dengue-4 3'delta30 Chimeric Virus Vaccine (WN/DEN4-3'delta30), a Live Attenuated Vaccine for West Nile Encephalitis Completed NCT00094718 Phase 1
6 Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a 2-Dose Regimen of West Nile/Dengue 4-3´Δ30 Chimeric Virus Vaccine (WN/DEN4Δ30), a Live Attenuated Vaccine for West Nile Encephalitis, in Flavivirus-naïve Adults 50-65 Years of Age Completed NCT02186626 Phase 1
7 A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a West Nile Virus Recombinant DNA Plasmid Vaccine, VRC-WNVDNA017-00 VP, in Healthy Adult Volunteers Completed NCT00106769 Phase 1 VRC-WNVDNA017-00-VP
8 A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a West Nile Virus Recombinant DNA Plasmid Vaccine, VRC-WNVDNA020-00-VP, in Healthy Adult Subjects Completed NCT00300417 Phase 1 VRC-WNVDNA020-00-VP
9 An Exploratory Study of the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Potential Effectiveness of AVI-4020 Injection in Patients Presenting With Presumptive Acute Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus (WNV) Disease Terminated NCT00091845 Phase 1 AVI-4020 Injection
10 Investigation of the Natural History of West Nile Virus Infection in Patients With Recently Acquired West Nile Fever or Neuroinvasive Disease Completed NCT00069303
11 Investigation of the Natural History of West Nile Virus Infection in Patients With Recently Acquired West Nile Fever or Neuroinvasive Disease Completed NCT00138463
12 Expanded Access to MGAWN1 in Subjects With: Suspected West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease; Suspected West Nile Virus Infection and a Compromised Immune System; or Substantial Accidental Exposure to West Nile Virus No longer available NCT01206504
13 Prospective Investigation of Oxidative Stress in West Nile Virus Infection Withdrawn NCT04371003

Search NIH Clinical Center for West Nile Encephalitis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: west nile fever

Genetic Tests for West Nile Encephalitis

Genetic tests related to West Nile Encephalitis:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 West-Nile Encephalitis 28

Anatomical Context for West Nile Encephalitis

Organs/tissues related to West Nile Encephalitis:

MalaCards : Brain, Medulla Oblongata, Occipital Lobe, Lymph Node, B Cells, Kidney, Bone Marrow

Publications for West Nile Encephalitis

Articles related to West Nile Encephalitis:

(show top 50) (show all 597)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Simple and field amenable loop-mediated isothermal amplification-lateral flow dipstick assay for detection of west Nile virus in human clinical samples. 62
36007965 2022
Visualization of the Linear and Spatial Organization of Chromosomes in Mosquitoes. 62
35960626 2022
Benefits, companion animal zoonotic disease prevalence and public perceptions of pet ownership among people experiencing homelessness in northern California. 62
35603643 2022
Susceptibility of Culiseta longiareolata to insecticides in West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran. 62
36320294 2022
Monitoring human arboviral diseases through wastewater surveillance: Challenges, progress and future opportunities. 62
36007397 2022
Multiple Sclerosis in a Patient With Prior West Nile Encephalitis. 62
36105902 2022
Modelling the temperature suitability for the risk of West Nile Virus establishment in European Culex pipiens populations. 62
35304820 2022
West Nile Virus in Germany: An Emerging Infection and Its Relevance for Transfusion Safety. 62
36159956 2022
Tick-borne encephalitis virus and West-Nile fever virus as causes of serous meningitis of unknown origin in Kazakhstan. 62
35322572 2022
Text mining in mosquito-borne disease: A systematic review. 62
35430265 2022
Acute Fever of Unknown Origin: A Presentation of West Nile Encephalitis. 62
35857697 2022
Comorbid conditions as risk factors for West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cohort study. 62
35543409 2022
The Fauna, Diversity, and Bionomics of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran. 62
35134206 2022
Changing Spectrum of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in India and a Syndromic Approach. 62
35936627 2022
The Importance of CXCL1 in Physiology and Noncancerous Diseases of Bone, Bone Marrow, Muscle and the Nervous System. 62
35457023 2022
The Lack of the Association of the CCR5 Genotype with the Clinical Presentation and Frequency of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in the Polish Population. 62
35335642 2022
Mosquito species associated with horses in Madagascar: a review of their vector status with regard to the epidemiology of West Nile fever. 62
34427959 2022
[West Nile virus unexpectedly in the Netherlands]. 62
35499516 2022
Anti-dengue Potential of Mangiferin: Intricate Network of Dengue to Human Genes. 62
35572718 2022
Detection and persistence of environmental DNA (eDNA) of the different developmental stages of a vector mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens. 62
35947597 2022
Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage-2 in Resident Corvids in Istanbul, Turkey. 62
34748405 2021
Spatiotemporal Analysis of West Nile Virus Epidemic in South Banat District, Serbia, 2017-2019. 62
34679972 2021
Primary, secondary or less frequent causes of immune thrombocytopenia: A case report. 62
34504550 2021
Climate change and infectious disease in Europe: Impact, projection and adaptation. 62
34664039 2021
Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus: first report of lineage 1 in donkey in Turkey. 62
34536145 2021
West Nile fever upsurge in a Greek regional unit, 2020. 62
34129841 2021
[Confirmed case of a West Nile virus infection in a horse with minimal neurological signs and a favorable clinical outcome]. 62
34425618 2021
Identification and characterization of long noncoding RNAs and their association with acquisition of blood meal in Culex quinquefasciatus. 62
32621332 2021
Unusual Movement Disorders and Atypical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings in Patients with West Nile Encephalitis: Case Reports of 2 Patients with Evidence of Clinical and Imaging Resolution with IVIG. 62
34290220 2021
Seroprevalence and risk factors of West Nile virus infection in veterinarians and horses in Northern Palestine. 62
34220126 2021
Mosquito surveillance of West Nile and Usutu viruses in four territorial units of Slovakia and description of a confirmed autochthonous human case of West Nile fever, 2018 to 2019. 62
33988125 2021
Serological evidence of equine infectious anaemia, West Nile fever, surra and equine piroplasmosis in a herd of horses in northern Argentina. 62
34024382 2021
Emerging viruses in older population Chikungunya, West Nile fever and Dengue. 62
31741192 2021
Arboviruses in the Astrakhan region of Russia for 2018 season: The development of multiplex PCR assays and analysis of mosquitoes, ticks, and human blood sera. 62
33421655 2021
Current Status and a Perspective of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in the Republic of Korea. 62
33136531 2021
Management of West Nile Encephalitis: An Uncommon Complication of West Nile Virus. 62
33717727 2021
Sero-prevalence of West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus infections among cattle under extensive production system in South Omo area, southern Ethiopia. 62
33415465 2021
Predicting the spatio-temporal spread of West Nile virus in Europe. 62
33411739 2021
[Elucidation of neuropathogenesis of West Nile Encephalitis]. 62
35526998 2021
Emerging and Re-emerging Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases and the Challenges for Control: A Review. 62
34676194 2021
Assessing the introduction risk of vector-borne animal diseases for the Netherlands using MINTRISK: A Model for INTegrated RISK assessment. 62
34727138 2021
West Nile Fever - Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics. Review of the Literature and Contribution with Three Clinical Cases. 62
33415935 2020
Dengue Virus Strikes Back: Increased Future Risk of Severe Dengue Disease in Humans as a Result of Previous Exposure to Zika Virus. 62
33339098 2020
Molecular Characterisation of Cytochrome Oxidase I and Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Fragments of Culiseta longiareolata. 62
33269558 2020
[Emerging vectorial diseases: West Nile fever, Bluetongue and Schmallenberg]. 62
33012789 2020
The Roles of Osteopontin in the Pathogenesis of West Nile Encephalitis. 62
33317005 2020
Environmental drivers, climate change and emergent diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and their vectors in southern Europe: A systematic review. 62
32810503 2020
Modeling the West Nile virus transfusion transmission risk in a nonoutbreak country associated with traveling donors. 62
32869276 2020
Autochthonous West Nile virus infection outbreak in humans, Leipzig, Germany, August to September 2020. 62
33213686 2020
New onset of Bell's palsy in a patient with West Nile Encephalitis. 62
33088514 2020

Variations for West Nile Encephalitis

Expression for West Nile Encephalitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for West Nile Encephalitis.

Pathways for West Nile Encephalitis

Pathways related to West Nile Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 39)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
13.91 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6 IL2 IL10
Show member pathways
13.37 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 CD4
Show member pathways
13.27 CD4 IFNA1 IFNAR1 IL10 IL2 IL6
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.56 CD4 IL10 IL2 IL6 TNF
7 12.49 CD8A IFNA1 IL10 IL2 RIGI TLR3
Show member pathways
12.47 TNF TLR3 IL6 IFNA1
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.06 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNAR1 CD8A CD4
11 11.91 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CD8A CD4
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.8 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 CD4
Show member pathways
11.76 IL6 CRP CD8A CD4 ACE2
15 11.73 TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 CD4
16 11.68 IL10 IL2 IL6
17 11.68 CD4 IL2 IL6
Show member pathways
11.64 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
19 11.64 CCR6 CD4 CD8A IL10 IL2 TNF
Show member pathways
11.63 TNF IL6 IL2
21 11.62 TNF IL6 IL10
22 11.62 TNF IL6 IL10
23 11.54 TNF RIGI IL10 ACE2
24 11.51 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNAR1 CD4
25 11.49 TNF IL6 IL10
26 11.48 IL2 IL10 CD4
27 11.44 TNF TLR3 IL6
Show member pathways
11.36 TNF IL2 IL10
29 11.33 TNF IL6 IL10
30 11.3 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CD8A CD4
31 11.26 TNF IL6 ACE2
32 11.23 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
33 11.22 TNF IL6 IFNA1
34 11.03 TNF IL6 CRP
35 11.02 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 CD4
36 10.95 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 ICOSLG CRP
37 10.73 ACE2 IL2 IL6
38 10.67 TLR3 RIGI
Show member pathways
10.35 TNF IL6

GO Terms for West Nile Encephalitis

Cellular components related to West Nile Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.4 TNF MOG ICOSLG CD8A CD4 CCR6

Biological processes related to West Nile Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10.16 TNF RIGI IL6 IL10
2 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 10.1 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6
3 response to virus GO:0009615 10.09 TNF TLR3 RIGI IFNAR1
4 immune system process GO:0002376 10.04 TLR3 RIGI IL2 ICOSLG CD8A CD4
5 cellular response to virus GO:0098586 10.01 TLR3 IL6 IFNAR1 IFNA1
6 positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT GO:0046427 10 TNF IL6 IL10
7 response to exogenous dsRNA GO:0043330 9.99 TLR3 RIGI IFNA1
8 liver regeneration GO:0097421 9.95 TNF IL6 IL10
9 defense response GO:0006952 9.93 ICOSLG IFNA1 TLR3 TNF
10 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.92 TNF TLR3 RIGI IL6
11 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 9.91 IL6 IL2 IL10
12 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.88 TNF IL10
13 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.86 CCR6 IFNA1 IL6 TNF
14 positive regulation of plasma cell differentiation GO:1900100 9.76 IL10 IL2
15 regulation of cytokine production GO:0001817 9.7 MOG IL10 ICOSLG ACE2
16 chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0002439 9.67 TNF IL10
17 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.43 TNF IL6 CRP
18 immune response GO:0006955 9.4 TNF TLR3 IL6 IL2 IL10 CD8A

Molecular functions related to West Nile Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.32 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNA1

Sources for West Nile Encephalitis

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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