MCID: WHP001
MIFTS: 45

Whipple Disease

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Whipple Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Whipple Disease:

Name: Whipple Disease 12 73 20 58 44 15 70
Intestinal Lipodystrophy 12 73 20 53 58
Whipple's Disease 12 53 17
Intestinal Lipophagic Granulomatosis 20 70
Tropheryma Whippelii Infection 20
Secondary Non-Tropical Sprue 20
Whipples Disease 54

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
whipple disease
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: <1/1000000 (Europe),1-9/1000000 (Italy); Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare gastroenterological diseases
Rare infectious diseases


Summaries for Whipple Disease

NINDS : 53 Whipple's disease is a multi-system infectious bacterial disease that interferes with the body's ability to metabolize fats. Caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei, the disorder can affect any system in the body, including the brain, eyes, heart, joints, and lungs, but usually occurs in the gastrointestinal system. Neurological symptoms occur in up to 40 percent of individuals and may include dementia, abnormalities of eye and facial muscle movements, headaches, seizures, loss of muscle control, memory loss, weakness, and vision problems. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and abdominal bleeding and pain. Fever, cough, anemia, heart and lung damage, darkening of the skin, and joint soreness may also be present. The disease is more common in men and neurological symptoms are more common in individuals who have severe abdominal disease. Rarely, neurological symptoms may appear without gastrointestinal symptoms and can mimic symptoms of almost any neurologic disease.

MalaCards based summary : Whipple Disease, also known as intestinal lipodystrophy, is related to constrictive pericarditis and panophthalmitis. An important gene associated with Whipple Disease is IL16 (Interleukin 16), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers and LDL Oxidation in Atherogenesis. Affiliated tissues include heart, eye and bone, and related phenotypes are depressivity and developmental regression

GARD : 20 Whipple disease is an infectious bacterial disease that affects many different organ systems and interferes with the body's ability to process (metabolize) fats. The disease usually occurs in the gastrointestinal system, but may affect any part of the body including the heart, lungs, brain, joints, and eyes. In the gastrointestinal system, it interferes with the body's ability to absorb certain nutrients. This leads to a condition known as malabsorption. Whipple disease causes weight loss, incomplete breakdown of carbohydrates or fats, and problems with the immune system. It is caused by infection from bacteria called Tropheryma whipplei. When recognized and treated, Whipple disease can usually be cured. Untreated, the disease may be fatal.

Wikipedia : 73 Whipple's disease is a rare systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei.... more...

Related Diseases for Whipple Disease

Diseases related to Whipple Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 656)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 constrictive pericarditis 30.2 CRP ALB
2 panophthalmitis 30.2 CRP CD4
3 pericarditis 30.1 TNF CRP ALB
4 lymphangitis 30.1 CRP CD4
5 synovitis 29.9 TNF CRP CD68
6 panniculitis 29.9 TNF CRP CD4
7 neuroretinitis 29.9 DPYSL5 CRP CD4
8 bursitis 29.9 TNF CRP
9 relapsing fever 29.8 TNF HSPD1 CRP
10 gastroenteritis 29.8 TNF CRP ALB
11 panuveitis 29.8 TNF MRAP CRP CD4
12 tenosynovitis 29.7 TNF HSPD1 CRP CD4
13 lymph node tuberculosis 29.7 TNF CRP CD4
14 acute myocarditis 29.7 TNF CRP CD4
15 lymphadenitis 29.7 TNF CRP CD4
16 disease by infectious agent 29.6 TNF HSPD1 CRP CD4 ALB
17 marasmus 29.6 CD4 ALB
18 choreatic disease 29.6 TOR1A PNMA2 IGLON5 DPYSL5
19 peritonitis 29.6 TNF CRP ALB
20 endocarditis 29.6 TNF HSPD1 CRP ALB
21 bacterial infectious disease 29.6 TNF HSPD1 CRP CD4
22 papilledema 29.6 CRP CD4 ALB
23 granulomatosis with polyangiitis 29.5 TNF CRP CD4
24 chronic meningitis 29.5 CRP CD4 ALB
25 cholangitis 29.5 TNF CRP ALB
26 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 29.5 TNF IL16 DHPS CD4
27 orchitis 29.4 TNF CRP CD68 CD4
28 temporal arteritis 29.4 TNF CRP CD68 CD4
29 spondyloarthropathy 1 29.4 TNF MRAP HSPD1 CRP
30 tetanus 29.4 TNF CRP ALB
31 sleep disorder 29.3 TNF IGLON5 CRP ALB
32 iritis 29.3 TNF MRAP CRP CD4
33 iridocyclitis 29.3 TNF MRAP CRP CD4
34 tropical sprue 29.3 TOR1A TGM2 ALB
35 meningitis 29.3 TNF CRP ALB
36 meningoencephalitis 29.3 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
37 giardiasis 29.3 TOR1A TGM2 CD4 ALB
38 granulomatous hepatitis 29.3 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
39 intestinal obstruction 29.3 TNF CRP ALB
40 pericardial effusion 29.3 CRP CD68 CD4 ALB
41 volvulus of midgut 29.2 CRP ALB
42 autoimmune disease 29.2 TNF TGM2 IL16 HSPD1 CRP
43 portal hypertension 29.2 TNF CD4 ALB
44 visceral leishmaniasis 29.2 TNF CRP ALB
45 type 1 diabetes mellitus 29.1 TNF HSPD1 CRP ALB
46 exanthem 29.1 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
47 intestinal perforation 29.0 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
48 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 29.0 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
49 crohn's disease 29.0 TNF CRP CD4 ALB
50 leprosy 3 28.8 TNF HSPD1 CD68 CD4 ALB

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Whipple Disease:



Diseases related to Whipple Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Whipple Disease

Human phenotypes related to Whipple Disease:

58 31 (show all 48)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 depressivity 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000716
2 developmental regression 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002376
3 arthritis 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001369
4 malabsorption 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002024
5 fatigue 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012378
6 fever 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
7 myoclonus 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001336
8 abdominal pain 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002027
9 anorexia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002039
10 arthralgia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002829
11 cachexia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0004326
12 mediastinal lymphadenopathy 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100721
13 diarrhea 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002014
14 sleep disturbance 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002360
15 hypotension 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002615
16 splenomegaly 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001744
17 hepatomegaly 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002240
18 myalgia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003326
19 uveitis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000554
20 pleuritis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002102
21 abnormal pyramidal sign 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007256
22 ataxia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001251
23 hydrocephalus 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000238
24 hypothyroidism 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000821
25 muscle weakness 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001324
26 respiratory insufficiency 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002093
27 encephalitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002383
28 increased intracranial pressure 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002516
29 polydipsia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001959
30 cranial nerve paralysis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0006824
31 anemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001903
32 myocardial infarction 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001658
33 hyponatremia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002902
34 proptosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000520
35 cough 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012735
36 gastrointestinal hemorrhage 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002239
37 peripheral neuropathy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0009830
38 pericarditis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001701
39 myocarditis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012819
40 chest pain 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100749
41 erectile dysfunction 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100639
42 generalized hyperpigmentation 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007440
43 galactorrhea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100829
44 insulin resistance 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000855
45 myositis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100614
46 pedal edema 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0010741
47 seizure 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001250
48 seizures 58 Occasional (29-5%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Whipple Disease:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.32 ALB CD4 CD68 CRP DHPS IGLON5

Drugs & Therapeutics for Whipple Disease

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Detection and Characteristic of Whipple Diseases in the Great Britany Completed NCT03350685

Search NIH Clinical Center for Whipple Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: whipple disease

Genetic Tests for Whipple Disease

Anatomical Context for Whipple Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Whipple Disease:

40
Heart, Eye, Bone, Lung, Skin, Spinal Cord, Lymph Node

Publications for Whipple Disease

Articles related to Whipple Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 335)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
[A 3-week history of intestinal symptoms in a 67-year-old male patient with chronic arthralgia]. 61
33296012 2021
2
The Effect of Tocilizumab on Inflammatory Markers in Patients Hospitalized with Serious Infections. Case Series and Review of Literature. 61
33804790 2021
3
A Case of Whipple Disease With Cutaneous Manifestations. 61
33606378 2021
4
Whipple disease mimicking inflammatory bowel disease. 61
32610889 2021
5
Gastrointestinal and renal involvement in systemic vasculitis. 61
33226251 2020
6
Case Report: Tropheryma whipplei Infection Presenting with Optic Disc Edema. 61
33252544 2020
7
Unusual effectiveness of systemic steroids in Whipple disease. 61
32192939 2020
8
Cervical myelopathy as a form of presentation of Whipple disease. 61
31053484 2020
9
Chronic bursitis and tenosynovitis revealing Whipple's disease. 61
32007648 2020
10
Whipple disease: a 15-year retrospective study on 36 patients with positive polymerase chain reaction for Tropheryma whipplei. 61
32896657 2020
11
Lessons from practice Low attenuation lymphadenopathy on computed tomography leading to diagnosis of Whipple disease. 61
32712997 2020
12
Whipple Disease and Ankylosing Spondylitis-A Case Report. 61
32649408 2020
13
Whipple disease diagnosed by enteroscopy: first case report in Colombia of an underdiagnosed disease and literature review. 61
32576148 2020
14
Wither Away: Weight Loss and Persistent Inflammation in a Woman With Whipple Disease. 61
31678352 2020
15
Pearls & Oy-sters: A rare presentation of Whipple disease: Still waters run deep. 61
32015179 2020
16
Primary Whipple disease of the Central Nervous System presenting with rhombencephalitis. 61
31449925 2019
17
Potential Role for Urine Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Whipple Disease. 61
30945731 2019
18
From Whipple Disease to Tropheryma whipplei Infection. 61
30351351 2019
19
Author response: IgLON5-mediated neurodegeneration is a differential diagnosis of CNS Whipple disease. 61
30858248 2019
20
Reader response: IgLON5-mediated neurodegeneration is a differential diagnosis of CNS Whipple disease. 61
30858247 2019
21
Whipple disease after bariatric surgery: from malabsorption to malnutrition status. 61
30834767 2019
22
Ocular Whipple Disease: Report of Three Cases. 61
30192690 2019
23
Myo-Inositol and Its Derivatives: Their Emerging Role in the Treatment of Human Diseases. 61
31680956 2019
24
Tropheryma whipplei Infection (Whipple Disease) in the USA. 61
29572616 2019
25
Seronegative Arthritis and Whipple Disease: Risk of Misdiagnosis in the Era of Biologic Agents. 61
31737398 2019
26
Histochemistry in the diagnosis of non-neoplastic gastrointestinal disorders. 61
30366790 2018
27
Tropheryma whipplei Increases Expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G on Monocytes to Reduce Tumor Necrosis Factor and Promote Bacterial Replication. 61
30076840 2018
28
Diagnostic Approach for Classic Compared With Localized Whipple Disease. 61
29992176 2018
29
IgLON5-mediated neurodegeneration is a differential diagnosis of CNS Whipple disease. 61
29769372 2018
30
Novel Tropheryma species in a lung biopsy sample from a kidney transplant recipient. 61
28962995 2018
31
A case of rapidly progressive dementia: Whipple disease of CNS. 61
29079886 2018
32
Whipple Disease Presenting as Cystic Brain Tumor: Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
29707758 2018
33
Cytology of cerebrospinal fluid in CNS Whipple disease. 61
28770535 2017
34
Genotypic analysis of Tropheryma whipplei from patients with Whipple disease in the Americas. 61
28385924 2017
35
Gastroenterology and Neurology. 61
28570327 2017
36
Erythema Nodosum Leprosum-Like Lesions Are a Histopathologic Pattern in Whipple's Disease and a Sign of the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Case Series and Review of the Literature. 61
28098596 2017
37
Pseudo-Whipple Disease Cutaneous Lesions. 61
27097339 2016
38
Deep Vein Thrombosis as Initial Manifestation of Whipple Disease. 61
27920655 2016
39
Tropheryma whipplei as a Cause of Epidemic Fever, Senegal, 2010-2012. 61
27314980 2016
40
High prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of Tropheryma whipplei in different populations from the North of Spain. 61
26585816 2016
41
Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis in Spain: Case reports of 17 prospective cases. 61
27368042 2016
42
Prosopagnosia as the Presenting Symptom of Whipple Disease. 61
27336807 2016
43
[Whipple disease in a patient under anti-TNF╬▒ therapy]. 61
26027513 2016
44
[Whipple disease: a differential diagnosis of polyarthritis to keep in mind]. 61
27197326 2016
45
[Refractory encephalitis because of seronegative celiac disease: a case report]. 61
26988169 2016
46
[Whipple disease]. 61
26480785 2015
47
Atypical presentation of Whipple disease with no diarrhea. 61
26275278 2015
48
Gastrointestinal diagnosis of classical Whipple disease: clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features in 191 patients. 61
25881849 2015
49
Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings. 61
25763722 2015
50
Primary Whipple disease of the brain: case report with long-term clinical and MRI follow-up. 61
26445540 2015

Variations for Whipple Disease

Expression for Whipple Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Whipple Disease.

Pathways for Whipple Disease

Pathways related to Whipple Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.2 TNF CD68 CD4
2 9.83 TNF CD68

GO Terms for Whipple Disease

Biological processes related to Whipple Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.33 TNF IL16 HSPD1
2 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 8.96 TNF CRP
3 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 8.92 TNF TGM2 IL16 HSPD1

Molecular functions related to Whipple Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.23 TOR1A TNF TGM2 MRAP DHPS CRP

Sources for Whipple Disease

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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