Aliases & Classifications for Withdrawal Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Withdrawal Disorder:

Name: Withdrawal Disorder 12 15
Withdrawal Syndrome 54 15
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome 70


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060001
UMLS 70 C0038587

Summaries for Withdrawal Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance-related disorder that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications, recreational drugs, and alcohol.

MalaCards based summary : Withdrawal Disorder, also known as withdrawal syndrome, is related to neonatal abstinence syndrome and opioid addiction, and has symptoms including seizures, opiate withdrawal symptoms and drug withdrawal symptoms. An important gene associated with Withdrawal Disorder is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Acetylcholine and Lofexidine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, prostate and liver, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Related Diseases for Withdrawal Disorder

Diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 279)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neonatal abstinence syndrome 31.6 PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
2 opioid addiction 30.7 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1
3 status epilepticus 30.3 TSPO GRIN2B FOS
4 alcohol use disorder 30.2 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1A GRIN2B CRHR1 CRH
5 heroin dependence 30.2 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1
6 tobacco addiction 30.1 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 CRHR1 CRH
7 focal epilepsy 30.1 TSPO PDYN GRIN2B
8 chronic pain 30.1 PNOC OPRM1 CNR1
9 personality disorder 30.1 SLC6A3 HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
10 barbiturate abuse 30.0 POMC OPRM1 HCRT
11 morphine dependence 30.0 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 HCRT FOS
12 cannabis dependence 30.0 PENK HCRT CNR1
13 motion sickness 29.9 POMC OPRM1 HTR1A FOS
14 agoraphobia 29.8 HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
15 social phobia 29.8 HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
16 borderline personality disorder 29.8 SLC6A3 HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
17 pathological gambling 29.7 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1A
18 post-traumatic stress disorder 29.7 POMC CRHR1 CRH CNR1
19 constipation 29.7 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
20 opiate dependence 29.7 SLC6A3 POMC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
21 mood disorder 29.5 SLC6A3 POMC HTR1A CRHR1 CRH CNR1
22 impulse control disorder 29.4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1A GRIN2B
23 adjustment disorder 29.4 TSPO POMC HTR1A HCRT CRH
24 panic disorder 29.2 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
25 eating disorder 29.2 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 HCRT CRH CNR1
26 psychotic disorder 29.1 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A GRIN2B CNR1
27 drug dependence 29.1 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
28 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.1 TSPO SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1A GRIN2B FOS
29 substance dependence 28.9 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 CRHR1
30 substance abuse 28.9 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A CRHR1
31 opioid abuse 28.8 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
32 alcohol dependence 28.8 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
33 pain agnosia 28.6 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
34 parkinson disease, late-onset 28.6 TSPO SLC6A3 PENK PDYN HTR1A HCRT
35 migraine with or without aura 1 28.0 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A
36 schizophrenia 27.4 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
37 barbiturate dependence 11.0
38 subacute delirium 10.7
39 tremor 10.6
40 prostate leiomyoma 10.4 KLK3 AR
41 prostate calculus 10.4 KLK3 AR
42 nodular prostate 10.4 KLK3 AR
43 audiogenic seizures 10.4
44 bronchiectasis 3 10.4 KLK3 AR
45 prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma 10.4 KLK3 AR
46 tuberculous epididymitis 10.4 POMC KLK3
47 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 10.4 KLK3 AR
48 ectopic cushing syndrome 10.3 POMC CRH
49 prostate neuroendocrine neoplasm 10.3 KLK3 AR
50 pituitary infarct 10.3 POMC CRH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder:

Diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Withdrawal Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Withdrawal Disorder:

seizures; opiate withdrawal symptoms; drug withdrawal symptoms; withdrawal symptoms

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 9.47 FOS
2 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.47 CRHR1 FOS NCOA4 NPFF OPRK1
3 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.47 HTR1A
4 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.47 HTR1A
5 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.47 NCOA4 POMC
6 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.47 HCRT HTR1A OPRK1 OPRM1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Withdrawal Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.33 AR CNR1 CRH CRHR1 FOS GRIN2B
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.28 AR CNR1 CRH CRHR1 DCAF8 FOS
3 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.09 AR CNR1 CRH FOS HTR1A OPRM1
4 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.07 AR CRH CRHR1 FOS OPRK1 OPRM1
5 integument MP:0010771 10 AR CNR1 CRH FOS OPRK1 OPRM1
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.97 AR CNR1 CRH CRHR1 FOS GRIN2B
7 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.61 CNR1 CRH CRHR1 GRIN2B HTR1A OPRM1
8 normal MP:0002873 9.32 AR CNR1 CRH CRHR1 FOS KLK3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Withdrawal Disorder

Drugs for Withdrawal Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 134)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
Lofexidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 31036-80-3 30668
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Chlordiazepoxide Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 58-25-3 2712
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 4 502-85-2 5360545
Oxazepam Approved Phase 4 604-75-1 4616
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Glutamic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 56-86-0 33032
19 Passionflower Phase 4
20 Narcotics Phase 4
21 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4
22 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
23 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
24 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
25 Sympatholytics Phase 4
26 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
27 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
28 Detox adjuvant Phase 4
29 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
30 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
31 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
32 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
33 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
34 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
35 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
36 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
37 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
38 Antidiarrheals Phase 4
39 phenazepam Phase 4 40113
40 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
41 Haloperidol decanoate Phase 4
42 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
43 Nicotinic Agonists Phase 4
44 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
45 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
46 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
47 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
48 Hormones Phase 4
49 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
50 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 124)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prospective Assessment of Valproate on Ethanol Withdrawal Unknown status NCT03235531 Phase 4 Valproate;Lorazepam
2 Efficacy and Safety of the Administration of the Passiflora Extract for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal in Institutionalized Older Adults: Clinical Trial Phase III Unknown status NCT03780595 Phase 4 Passiflora incarnata;Control
3 A Behavioral Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Reducing Cue- and Withdrawal-induced Craving in Daily Dependent Smokers Completed NCT02108626 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
4 Acute Drug Withdrawal in a General Medical Setting Completed NCT00249366 Phase 4 Lorazepam (drug);Lorazepam
5 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Open Label Trial of Symptom-triggered Benzodiazepine Versus Fixed-dose Gabapentin for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT03012815 Phase 4 Gabapentin;Benzodiazepines;Divalproex Sodium
6 The Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid in Alcohol-dependence Treatment Efficacy (GATE) I Trial: a Comparative Study Versus Oxazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT02090504 Phase 4 Sodium Oxybate (SMO);Oxazepam
7 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Potential for Clinical Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms Associated With Valbenazine Completed NCT03698331 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
8 Nicotine Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: a Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT01362959 Phase 4 Transdermal nicotine patch
9 Treatment of Polydrug-Using Opiate Dependents During Withdrawal Completed NCT00367874 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Valproate
10 Treatment Of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Dexmedetomidine Vs Diazepam In A Hospital O'horán Completed NCT03877120 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine 0.004 MG/ML;Diazepam Injectable Solution
11 Randomized Clinical Trial of Pregabalin for Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT03017430 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Clonidine;Doxylamin;Ketorolac, Loperamide, Metoclopramide, Nefazolin and Phenazepam (benzodiazepine)
12 Dexmedetomidine Addition to Benzodiazepines for Patients With Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in the ICU: a Randomised Controlled Study Completed NCT02496650 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine
13 A Double-blind Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial of Lofexidine Versus Diazepam in the Management of the Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome During Inpatient Detoxification in Singapore Completed NCT01675648 Phase 4 Lofexidine;Diazepam;Placebo for Lofexidine;Placebo for Diazepam
14 Varenicline OTC Trial on Efficacy and Safety Recruiting NCT03557294 Phase 4 1.0mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.5mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.0mg placebo Varenicline b.i.d.
15 Optimal Morphine Dosing Schedule for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Recruiting NCT04298853 Phase 4 Morphine PRN;Morphine scheduled
16 Phenobarbital Versus Ativan for Refractory Alcohol Withdrawal Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit Recruiting NCT04156464 Phase 4 Phenobarbital;Lorazepam
17 Assessment of NADA Acupuncture for Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms During Gradual Opioid Withdrawal in Chronic Pain Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03397212 Phase 4
18 Evaluation of Pregabalin's Abuse Liability and Its Effects on Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms in Inpatients Undergoing Medically Assisted Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Terminated NCT02423018 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Placebo
19 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study of Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®), With Lorazepam Rescue, for the Management of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) and Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (AWD) Terminated NCT01362205 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Placebos
20 A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Phenobarbital and Ketamine Adjunctive Therapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Withdrawn NCT03788889 Phase 4 Ketamine;Phenobarbital;Lorazepam;Placebo A;Placebo B
21 Efficacy of Extended Release Tramadol for Treating Prescription Opioid Withdrawal Completed NCT00980044 Phase 2, Phase 3 Tramadol;Placebo
22 Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam in the Inpatient Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome [Sicherheit Und Wirksamkeit Von Levetiracetam (Keppra) für Die Behandlung Des stationären Alkoholentzugsyndroms] Completed NCT00146471 Phase 3 Levetiracetam;Placebo
23 The Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Metamphetamine Withdrawal Symptoms Completed NCT04405193 Phase 2, Phase 3 N-acetyl cysteine;Placebo
24 Pharmacogenetics, Emotional Reactivity and Smoking Cessation: Genetic Differences in Limbic Activation Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal Completed NCT00664404 Phase 3
25 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Safety Study of Lofexidine Completed NCT02363998 Phase 3 Lofexidine
26 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032955 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
27 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine For Out-patient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032968 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
28 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multiple-Dose, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Potential of Withdrawal Effects Following Administration of Oxycodone/Naltrexone Capsules and Oxycodone in Methadone-Maintained Opioid-Dependent Subjects Completed NCT02391571 Phase 3 Oxycodone/Naltrexone Capsules;Oxycodone;Placebo
29 Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Efficacy, Safety, and Dose-Response Study of Lofexidine for Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal (Days 1-7) Followed by Open-Label, Variable Dose Lofexidine Treatment (Days 8-14) Completed NCT01863186 Phase 3 Lofexidine HCl;Placebo;Open Label Lofexidine HCL
30 Comparison of a Fixed-Schedule Therapy Versus a Symptom-Triggered Therapy for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Medical Out-Patients Completed NCT00136617 Phase 3 chlordiazepoxide
31 Pragmatic, Randomized, Blinded Trial to Shorten Pharmacologic Treatment of Newborns With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS) Recruiting NCT04214834 Phase 3 Morphine;Methadone
32 Multicenter Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Oral Adjuvant Magnesium Supplementation in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Recruiting NCT03033823 Phase 3 Magnesium;Placebo Oral Tablet
33 Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): a Pragmatic Randomized Trial Comparing Extended-release and Daily Buprenorphine Formulations Recruiting NCT03918850 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
34 NIDA CTN Protocol 0080: Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): a Pragmatic Randomized Trial Comparing Extended-release and Daily Buprenorphine Formulations: Conceptual Model Assessments (CMA) Sub-study Recruiting NCT03911466 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
35 Prospective Randomized Blinded Trial to Shorten Pharmacologic Treatment of Newborns With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS) Not yet recruiting NCT04455802 Phase 3 Buprenorphine or Placebo;Morphine or Placebo
36 NIDA CTN Protocol 0080: Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): Infant Neurodevelopmental Outcomes (INO) Sub-study Not yet recruiting NCT03911739 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
37 Treatment of Restless Legs Symptoms With Pramipexole to Improve the Outcomes of Protracted Opioid Withdrawal in OUD: A Pilot Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04759703 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pramipexole;Placebo
38 Preventing Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome With Oral Baclofen: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial Terminated NCT02052440 Phase 3 Baclofen;Placebo
40 Sublingual Buprenorphine Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02249026 Phase 1, Phase 2 BZDs + opiate exposure treated with BPN;Opiates exposure treated with BPN
41 The Effects of One-Time Pregnenolone, DHEA, Or Placebo Administration On Withdrawal Symptoms, Mood, Craving And Cigarette Evaluation Ratings In Male Smokers Completed NCT00900900 Phase 2 Placebo
42 Use of Massage Therapy to Reduce Anxiety and Improve Sleep in Patients Participating in an Inpatient Withdrawal Management (Detox) Program: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT00992979 Phase 2
43 The Effect of Melatonin Upon Post-Acute Withdrawal Among Males in a Residential Treatment Program: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo, Controlled Trial Completed NCT02431728 Phase 1, Phase 2
44 Gabapentin Vs. Lorazepam in Alcohol Withdrawal Completed NCT00229125 Phase 2 Gabapentin;Lorazepam
45 A Double-blind Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial Assessing the Effectiveness of Two Probiotic Products During Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Managing Withdrawal Symptoms Associated With Smoking Cessation Completed NCT02492022 Phase 2
46 Modeled Dose Exposure of Sublingual Buprenorphine in the Neonatal Opioid Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT03608696 Phase 1, Phase 2 Buprenorphine
47 A Randomized Comparison of Sublingual Buprenorphine to Morphine Sulfate in the Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) Completed NCT01708707 Phase 2 Buprenorphine;Morphine Sulfate
48 Effects of Dynorphin 1-13 on Heroin Addiction Completed NCT00000244 Phase 2 Dynorphin 1 - 13
49 Phase II Clinical Studies on Anti-addictive Therapeutic Effects of Mirtazapine in Human Subjects Addicted to Cocaine. Completed NCT01949571 Phase 2 Mirtazapine (REMERON, Schering-Plough-Organon)
50 An Open Label Trial of Lithium for the Management of Cannabis Withdrawal Completed NCT00114439 Phase 2 Lithium carbonate

Search NIH Clinical Center for Withdrawal Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

Clonidine Hydrochloride
haloperidol decanoate
Haloperidol lactate
Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride
Hydroxyzine Pamoate
Procaine hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Withdrawal Disorder

Anatomical Context for Withdrawal Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Withdrawal Disorder:

Brain, Prostate, Liver, Pituitary, Heart, Myeloid, Cortex

Publications for Withdrawal Disorder

Articles related to Withdrawal Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 4198)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Clinical efficacy of alternative antiandrogen therapy in Japanese men with relapsed prostate cancer after first-line hormonal therapy. 54 61
17302569 2007
Prospective study of estramustine phosphate for hormone refractory prostate cancer patients following androgen deprivation therapy. 54 61
16037707 2005
Functional domain and motif analyses of androgen receptor coregulator ARA70 and its differential expression in prostate cancer. 61 54
15166229 2004
3 beta-acetoxyandrost-1,5-diene-17-ethylene ketal functions as a potent antiandrogen with marginal agonist activity. 61 54
12672951 2003
Behavioral effects of potentiated antibodies to morphine and mu-opioid receptors during withdrawal syndrome. 54 61
12949640 2003
Prostate-specific antigen levels and prognosis in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with low-dose dexamethasone. 61 54
11803262 2002
Androgen receptor mutations in carcinoma of the prostate: significance for endocrine therapy. 54 61
12083956 2001
Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome associated with prostate cancer therapies: incidence and clinical significance. 54 61
11085345 2000
Promotion of agonist activity of antiandrogens by the androgen receptor coactivator, ARA70, in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. 54 61
9636157 1998
Prolonged prostate-specific antigen response in flutamide withdrawal syndrome despite disease progression. 54 61
9634122 1998
[Molecular biological aspect]. 54 61
9617316 1998
Incidence and characteristics of antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome in prostate cancer after treatment with chlormadinone acetate. 61 54
9743699 1998
[An equivalent of anti-androgen withdrawal syndrome: decrease of prostate specific antigen and clinical response to estramustine phosphate withdrawal]. 61 54
9180872 1997
The antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 61 54
9144890 1997
Codon 877 mutation in the androgen receptor gene in advanced prostate cancer: relation to antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 61 54
8827083 1996
Hyperadrenergic state following acute withdrawal from clonidine used at supratherapeutic doses. 54 61
8726097 1996
Prostate-specific antigen decline after casodex withdrawal: evidence for an antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 54 61
7510915 1994
Prostate specific antigen decline after antiandrogen withdrawal: the flutamide withdrawal syndrome. 61 54
7679759 1993
alpha N-acetyl human beta-endorphin-(1-31) alleviates the morphine withdrawal syndrome in rodents: a comparative study with clonidine. 54 61
1608292 1992
Reversible neurologic abnormalities associated with prolonged intravenous midazolam and fentanyl administration. 61 54
1919899 1991
Chemical composition of Zhumeria majdae essential oil and its effects on the expression of morphine withdrawal syndrome and tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. 61
33053122 2021
Understanding barriers to timely identification of infants at risk of neonatal opiate withdrawal syndrome. 61
31195865 2021
Impact of cuddler service-learning program in medical student education of opioid use disorder in pregnancy and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 61
33797332 2021
Evaluation of dexmedetomidine withdrawal in critically ill adults. 61
33227592 2021
A miniature pig model of pharmacological tolerance to long-term sedation with the intravenous benzodiazepines; midazolam and remimazolam. 61
33493482 2021
The Time is NOW: Filling the Gaps in Treatment of Opioid-Exposed Infants: A Prospective, Pragmatic, Randomized Control Drug Trial. 61
33789403 2021
Correlating Scores but Contrasting Outcomes for Eat Sleep Console Versus Modified Finnegan. 61
33653727 2021
The effect of crocin (the main active saffron constituent) on the cognitive functions, craving, and withdrawal syndrome in opioid patients under methadone maintenance treatment. 61
33078480 2021
Post-discharge healthcare utilization in infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 61
33766722 2021
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS): A Transgenerational Echo of the Opioid Crisis. 61
32229609 2021
Which detoxification regimens are effective for alcohol withdrawal syndrome? 61
33760908 2021
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: improving outcomes in the emergency department with aggressive management strategies. 61
33729735 2021
Phenobarbital and Clonidine as Secondary Medications for Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. 61
33632932 2021
Adjunctive Phenobarbital for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Focused Literature Review. 61
33678057 2021
Evaluation of the course and treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome with the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol - Revised: A systematic review-based meta-analysis. 61
33503582 2021
Clinical Pharmacology and Dosing Regimen Optimization of Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Treatments. 61
33650314 2021
Maternal and iatrogenic neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome: Differences and similarities in recognition, management, and consequences. 61
33675100 2021
Should the CIWA-Ar be the standard monitoring strategy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the intensive care unit? 61
33762020 2021
Phenobarbital Monotherapy for the Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Surgical-Trauma Patients. 61
32830517 2021
Placental DNA methylation profiles in opioid-exposed pregnancies and associations with the neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 61
33711455 2021
Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome frequently occurs in paediatric intensive care without algorithm for tapering of analgosedation. 61
33728643 2021
Placental aromatase expression decreased in severe neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 61
31092079 2021
Hystero-epilepsy in the Tuesday Lessons and NMDA receptor function: A hypothesis for dissociative disorder. 61
33799161 2021
Can Deep Brain Stimulation Withdrawal Syndromes Be Avoided by Removing Infected Implanted Pulse Generator and Cables with Contralateral Replacement in the Same Session? 61
33677446 2021
Maternal Opioid Exposure Culminates in Perturbed Murine Neurodevelopment and Hyperactive Phenotype in Adolescence. 61
33811940 2021
Automated quantification of opioid withdrawal in neonatal rat pups using Ethovision® XT software. 61
33529734 2021
Enduring consequences of perinatal fentanyl exposure in mice. 61
32187805 2021
A multidisciplinary approach to the management of liver disease and alcohol disorders in psychiatric settings (Review). 61
33603878 2021
Neonatal opioid exposure: public health crisis and novel neuroinflammatory disease. 61
32985461 2021
Physiologic Indirect Response Modeling to Describe Buprenorphine Pharmacodynamics in Newborns Treated for Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. 61
32939690 2021

Variations for Withdrawal Disorder

Expression for Withdrawal Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Withdrawal Disorder.

Pathways for Withdrawal Disorder

Pathways related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
6 11.74 POMC OPRM1 FOS
Show member pathways
8 11.63 NCOA4 KLK3 AR
10 11.39 NCOA4 KLK3 AR
Show member pathways
11.24 KLK3 FOS AR
12 10.78 FOS AR
13 9.98 POMC CRHR1 CRH

GO Terms for Withdrawal Disorder

Cellular components related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 HTR1A GRIN2B CRHR1
2 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.88 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 GRIN2B FOS CRHR1
3 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 9.85 SLC6A3 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 CRH
4 synapse GO:0045202 9.76 PNOC PDYN OPRK1 HTR1A HCRT GRIN2B
5 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.72 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 NPFF CRH
6 secretory granule GO:0030141 9.65 POMC KLK3 HCRT
7 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.61 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1
8 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.56 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
9 dendrite GO:0030425 9.5 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 NPFF
10 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.02 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 NPFF

Biological processes related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 40)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.21 POMC PNOC PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 HTR1A
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.1 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
3 response to drug GO:0042493 10 TSPO SLC6A3 NPFF FOS CRH
4 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.91 PENK OPRM1 FOS CNR1
5 aging GO:0007568 9.88 TSPO SLC6A3 PENK FOS CNR1
6 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.84 SLC6A3 PENK OPRK1
7 learning or memory GO:0007611 9.81 GRIN2B CRH CNR1
8 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.81 OPRM1 HTR1A CNR1
9 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.8 OPRM1 OPRK1 HCRT
10 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.8 PNOC FOS CRHR1 CRH
11 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 CRH CNR1
12 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.8 SLC6A3 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 GRIN2B CRH
13 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.77 OPRM1 OPRK1 NPFF
14 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.77 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 NPFF CNR1
15 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.76 SLC6A3 PENK CNR1
16 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.76 OPRM1 NPFF HCRT GRIN2B
17 response to radiation GO:0009314 9.75 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
18 regulation of NMDA receptor activity GO:2000310 9.74 OPRM1 GRIN2B CRH
19 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.73 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
20 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.7 OPRM1 OPRK1 HCRT
21 response to pain GO:0048265 9.68 TSPO CRH
22 estrous cycle GO:0044849 9.68 OPRM1 OPRK1
23 cellular response to estrogen stimulus GO:0071391 9.68 NCOA4 AR
24 positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling GO:0043950 9.67 OPRM1 CRH
25 behavior GO:0007610 9.67 OPRK1 HTR1A
26 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure GO:0003073 9.67 KLK3 AR
27 sleep GO:0030431 9.66 HCRT FOS
28 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.65 OPRM1 OPRK1
29 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.65 SLC6A3 HTR1A
30 parturition GO:0007567 9.65 CRHR1 CRH
31 cellular response to testosterone stimulus GO:0071394 9.64 NCOA4 AR
32 positive regulation of behavioral fear response GO:2000987 9.62 PENK CRH
33 acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0002438 9.62 OPRM1 NPFF
34 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.61 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 NPFF HTR1A
35 negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion GO:0033685 9.6 OPRK1 CRH
36 regulation of corticosterone secretion GO:2000852 9.56 POMC CRHR1
37 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0031635 9.55 OPRM1 OPRK1
38 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.55 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
39 regulation of serotonin secretion GO:0014062 9.54 HTR1A CRH
40 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.23 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1

Molecular functions related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.72 SLC6A3 POMC NPFF CRH AR
2 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.37 OPRM1 OPRK1
3 opioid receptor binding GO:0031628 9.33 PNOC PENK PDYN
4 androgen binding GO:0005497 9.26 TSPO AR
5 opioid peptide activity GO:0001515 9.13 PNOC PENK PDYN
6 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.02 PNOC PENK NPFF HCRT CRH

Sources for Withdrawal Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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