Withdrawal Disorder

Categories: Mental diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Withdrawal Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Withdrawal Disorder:

Name: Withdrawal Disorder 11 14
Withdrawal Syndrome 53 14
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome 71


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Disease Ontology 11 DOID:0060001
UMLS 71 C0038587

Summaries for Withdrawal Disorder

Disease Ontology: 11 A substance-related disorder that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications, recreational drugs, and alcohol.

MalaCards based summary: Withdrawal Disorder, also known as withdrawal syndrome, is related to neonatal abstinence syndrome and alcohol use disorder, and has symptoms including seizures, opiate withdrawal symptoms and drug withdrawal symptoms. An important gene associated with Withdrawal Disorder is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are GPCR downstream signalling and Signal Transduction. The drugs Acetylcholine and Lofexidine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, liver and cortex, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and nervous system

Related Diseases for Withdrawal Disorder

Diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 351)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neonatal abstinence syndrome 31.7 PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
2 alcohol use disorder 30.8 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 DRD2 CRHR1
3 premature ovarian failure 7 30.5 POMC CRH
4 morphine dependence 30.3 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 HCRT FOS
5 alcohol dependence 30.1 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
6 barbiturate abuse 30.1 POMC OPRM1 HCRT
7 hepatic encephalopathy 30.1 TSPO OPRM1 DRD2
8 heroin dependence 30.0 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 DRD2
9 narcolepsy 30.0 SLC6A3 PDYN HCRT DRD2
10 motion sickness 30.0 POMC OPRM1 HTR1A FOS
11 personality disorder 30.0 SLC6A3 HTR1A DRD2 CRHR1 CRH
12 tobacco addiction 30.0 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A DRD2 CRHR1
13 psychotic disorder 30.0 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A FOS DRD2
14 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 29.9 POMC CRH
15 restless legs syndrome 29.9 SLC6A3 POMC HCRT DRD2
16 impulse control disorder 29.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR1A DRD2
17 narcolepsy 1 29.8 HTR1A HCRT
18 panic disorder 29.7 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC HTR1A DRD2 CRHR1
19 parkinson disease, late-onset 29.7 TSPO SLC6A3 PENK PDYN HTR1A HCRT
20 bruxism 29.6 HTR1A HCRT DRD2
21 borderline personality disorder 29.6 SLC6A3 HTR1A DRD2 CRHR1 CRH
22 peripheral nervous system disease 29.6 U2AF1 POMC OPRM1 FOS AR
23 adjustment disorder 29.5 TSPO POMC HTR1A HCRT CRH
24 childhood absence epilepsy 29.5 TSPO POMC PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A FOS
25 pathological gambling 29.5 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A DRD2
26 drug dependence 29.5 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
27 epilepsy 29.4 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A
28 mood disorder 29.4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN HTR1A HCRT DRD2
29 pain agnosia 29.4 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
30 social phobia 29.2 SLC6A3 POMC HTR1A DRD2 CRHR1 CRH
31 sleep disorder 29.2 SLC6A3 POMC HTR1A HCRT FOS CRH
32 opiate dependence 29.1 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
33 eating disorder 29.1 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 HTR1A HCRT DRD2
34 bipolar disorder 29.0 TSPO SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A FOS
35 opioid abuse 29.0 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
36 post-traumatic stress disorder 29.0 SLC6A3 POMC HTR1A HCRT FOS DRD2
37 substance dependence 28.9 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 HTR1A
38 migraine with or without aura 1 28.7 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A
39 alzheimer disease, familial, 1 28.7 TSPO SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A HCRT
40 anxiety 28.6 TSPO SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
41 substance abuse 28.6 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 HTR1A
42 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 28.5 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 HTR1A HCRT
43 subacute delirium 10.7
44 tremor 10.6
45 audiogenic seizures 10.4
46 prostate leiomyoma 10.4 KLK3 AR
47 prostate calculus 10.4 KLK3 AR
48 prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma 10.4 KLK3 AR
49 prostate small cell carcinoma 10.4 KLK3 AR
50 waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome 10.3 POMC CRH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder:

Diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Withdrawal Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Withdrawal Disorder:

seizures; opiate withdrawal symptoms; drug withdrawal symptoms; withdrawal symptoms

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Withdrawal Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.16 AR CRH CRHR1 DRD2 FOS HCRT
2 nervous system MP:0003631 10.15 AR CRH CRHR1 DRD2 FOS HCRT
3 normal MP:0002873 10.13 AR CRH CRHR1 DRD2 FOS KLK3
4 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 10.01 CRH CRHR1 DRD2 HTR1A OPRM1 PDYN
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.92 AR CRH DRD2 FOS OPRM1 PDYN
6 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.9 AR CRH CRHR1 DRD2 FOS OPRK1
7 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.89 AR CRH CRHR1 DRD2 FOS HCRT
8 integument MP:0010771 9.4 AR CRH DRD2 FOS OPRK1 OPRM1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Withdrawal Disorder

Drugs for Withdrawal Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 156)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
Lofexidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 31036-80-3 30668
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Venlafaxine Approved Phase 4 99300-78-4, 93413-69-5 5656
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741 5523
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 4 502-85-2 23663870
Oxazepam Approved Phase 4 604-75-1 4616
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Methimazole Approved Phase 4 60-56-0 1349907
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-91-8, 4205-90-7 2803 20179
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Experimental, Vet_approved Phase 4 86347-14-0, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Glutamic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 56-86-0 33032
21 Passionflower Phase 4
22 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
23 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
24 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
25 Sympatholytics Phase 4
26 Narcotics Phase 4
27 Nicotinic Agonists Phase 4
28 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
29 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4
30 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
31 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
32 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
33 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
34 Detox adjuvant Phase 4
35 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
36 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
37 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
38 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
39 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
40 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
41 phenazepam Phase 4 40113
42 Antidiarrheals Phase 4
43 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
Haloperidol decanoate Phase 4 52919
45 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
46 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
47 Antithyroid Agents Phase 4
48 Antibodies Phase 4
49 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
50 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 139)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy and Safety of the Administration of the Passiflora Extract for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal in Institutionalized Older Adults: Clinical Trial Phase III Unknown status NCT03780595 Phase 4 Passiflora incarnata;Control
2 Prospective Assessment of Valproate on Ethanol Withdrawal Unknown status NCT03235531 Phase 4 Valproate;Lorazepam
3 A Behavioral Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Reducing Cue- and Withdrawal-induced Craving in Daily Dependent Smokers Completed NCT02108626 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
4 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Open Label Trial of Symptom-triggered Benzodiazepine Versus Fixed-dose Gabapentin for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT03012815 Phase 4 Gabapentin;Benzodiazepines;Divalproex Sodium
5 Treatment of Polydrug-Using Opiate Dependents During Withdrawal Completed NCT00367874 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Valproate
6 A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Venlafaxine and Naltrexone for Relapse Prevention in Patients With Opioid Use Disorder Attributed to Tramadol Completed NCT05569031 Phase 4 Venlafaxine;Lofexidine
7 Optimal Morphine Dosing Schedule for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT04298853 Phase 4 Morphine PRN;Morphine scheduled
8 The Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid in Alcohol-dependence Treatment Efficacy (GATE) I Trial: a Comparative Study Versus Oxazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT02090504 Phase 4 Sodium Oxybate (SMO);Oxazepam
9 Acute Drug Withdrawal in a General Medical Setting Completed NCT00249366 Phase 4 Lorazepam (drug);Lorazepam
10 Nicotine Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: a Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT01362959 Phase 4 Transdermal nicotine patch
11 Randomized Clinical Trial of Pregabalin for Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT03017430 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Clonidine;Doxylamin;Ketorolac, Loperamide, Metoclopramide, Nefazolin and Phenazepam (benzodiazepine)
12 Treatment Of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Dexmedetomidine Vs Diazepam In A Hospital O'horán Completed NCT03877120 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine 0.004 MG/ML;Diazepam Injectable Solution
13 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Potential for Clinical Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms Associated With Valbenazine Completed NCT03698331 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
14 Varenicline OTC Trial on Efficacy and Safety Completed NCT03557294 Phase 4 1.0mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.5mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.0mg placebo Varenicline b.i.d.
15 A Double-blind Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial of Lofexidine Versus Diazepam in the Management of the Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome During Inpatient Detoxification in Singapore Completed NCT01675648 Phase 4 Lofexidine;Diazepam;Placebo for Lofexidine;Placebo for Diazepam
16 Dexmedetomidine Addition to Benzodiazepines for Patients With Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in the ICU: a Randomised Controlled Study Completed NCT02496650 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine
17 Clinical Study on the Effect of Routine Treatment and Intensive Treatment on the Regulation of Graves' Disease and the Cumulative Recurrence Two Years After Drug Withdrawal Recruiting NCT05461820 Phase 4 Methimazole
18 Assessment of NADA Acupuncture for Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms During Gradual Opioid Withdrawal in Chronic Pain Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03397212 Phase 4
19 Evaluation of Pregabalin's Abuse Liability and Its Effects on Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms in Inpatients Undergoing Medically Assisted Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Terminated NCT02423018 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Placebo
20 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study of Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®), With Lorazepam Rescue, for the Management of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) and Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (AWD) Terminated NCT01362205 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Placebos
21 A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Phenobarbital and Ketamine Adjunctive Therapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Withdrawn NCT03788889 Phase 4 Ketamine;Phenobarbital;Lorazepam;Placebo A;Placebo B
22 Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Efficacy, Safety, and Dose-Response Study of Lofexidine for Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal (Days 1-7) Followed by Open-Label, Variable Dose Lofexidine Treatment (Days 8-14) Completed NCT01863186 Phase 3 Lofexidine HCl;Placebo;Open Label Lofexidine HCL
23 Multicenter Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Oral Adjuvant Magnesium Supplementation in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT03033823 Phase 3 Magnesium;Placebo Oral Tablet
24 Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam in the Inpatient Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome [Sicherheit Und Wirksamkeit Von Levetiracetam (Keppra) für Die Behandlung Des stationären Alkoholentzugsyndroms] Completed NCT00146471 Phase 3 Levetiracetam;Placebo
25 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine For Out-patient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032968 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
26 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032955 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
27 Efficacy of Extended Release Tramadol for Treating Prescription Opioid Withdrawal Completed NCT00980044 Phase 2, Phase 3 Tramadol;Placebo
28 Pharmacogenetics, Emotional Reactivity and Smoking Cessation: Genetic Differences in Limbic Activation Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal Completed NCT00664404 Phase 3
29 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multiple-Dose, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Potential of Withdrawal Effects Following Administration of Oxycodone/Naltrexone Capsules and Oxycodone in Methadone-Maintained Opioid-Dependent Subjects Completed NCT02391571 Phase 3 Oxycodone/Naltrexone Capsules;Oxycodone;Placebo
30 Comparison of a Fixed-Schedule Therapy Versus a Symptom-Triggered Therapy for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Medical Out-Patients Completed NCT00136617 Phase 3 chlordiazepoxide
31 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Safety Study of Lofexidine Completed NCT02363998 Phase 3 Lofexidine
32 The Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Metamphetamine Withdrawal Symptoms Completed NCT04405193 Phase 2, Phase 3 N-acetyl cysteine;Placebo
33 NIDA CTN Protocol 0080: Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): a Pragmatic Randomized Trial Comparing Extended-release and Daily Buprenorphine Formulations: Conceptual Model Assessments (CMA) Sub-study Recruiting NCT03911466 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
34 Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): a Pragmatic Randomized Trial Comparing Extended-release and Daily Buprenorphine Formulations Recruiting NCT03918850 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
35 Pragmatic, Randomized, Blinded Trial to Shorten Pharmacologic Treatment of Newborns With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS) Recruiting NCT04214834 Phase 3 Morphine;Methadone
36 NIDA CTN Protocol 0080: Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): Infant Neurodevelopmental Outcomes (INO) Sub-study Recruiting NCT03911739 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
37 Prospective Randomized Blinded Trial to Shorten Pharmacologic Treatment of Newborns With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS) Not yet recruiting NCT04455802 Phase 3 Buprenorphine or Placebo;Morphine or Placebo
38 Treatment of Restless Legs Symptoms With Pramipexole to Improve the Outcomes of Protracted Opioid Withdrawal in OUD: A Pilot Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04759703 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pramipexole;Placebo
39 Novel Use of Probenecid to Alleviate Symptoms of Opioid Withdrawal in People With Chronic Pain Undergoing Voluntary Opioid Tapering: a Pilot Study Not yet recruiting NCT04939623 Phase 2, Phase 3 Probenecid
40 Prospective, Randomized, Open Label Controlled Trial To Evaluate The Safety And Efficacy Of Dexmedetomidine Use Beyond 24 Hours Compared With Midazolam In Children Admitted To Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at KASCH-MNGHA. Not yet recruiting NCT05485519 Phase 3 Dexmedetomidine;Midazolam
41 Preventing Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome With Oral Baclofen: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial Terminated NCT02052440 Phase 3 Baclofen;Placebo
42 Sublingual Buprenorphine Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02249026 Phase 1, Phase 2 BZDs + opiate exposure treated with BPN;Opiates exposure treated with BPN
44 A Phase 1b/2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Ascending- Dose Study of BXCL501 to Treat Symptoms of Acute Opioid Withdrawal in Patients With Opioid Use Disorder Who Are Physically Dependent on Opioids Unknown status NCT04470050 Phase 1, Phase 2 Sublingual film containing Dexmedetomidine (BXCL501);Placebo film for BXCL501
45 A Randomized Comparison of Sublingual Buprenorphine to Morphine Sulfate in the Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) Completed NCT01708707 Phase 2 Buprenorphine;Morphine Sulfate
46 Effects of Dynorphin 1-13 on Heroin Addiction Completed NCT00000244 Phase 2 Dynorphin 1 - 13
47 Modeled Dose Exposure of Sublingual Buprenorphine in the Neonatal Opioid Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT03608696 Phase 1, Phase 2 Buprenorphine
48 An Open Label Trial of Lithium for the Management of Cannabis Withdrawal Completed NCT00114439 Phase 2 Lithium carbonate
49 The Effect of Melatonin Upon Post-Acute Withdrawal Among Males in a Residential Treatment Program: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo, Controlled Trial Completed NCT02431728 Phase 1, Phase 2
50 Gabapentin Vs. Lorazepam in Alcohol Withdrawal Completed NCT00229125 Phase 2 Gabapentin;Lorazepam

Search NIH Clinical Center for Withdrawal Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Clonidine Hydrochloride
haloperidol decanoate
Haloperidol lactate
Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride
Hydroxyzine Pamoate
Procaine hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Withdrawal Disorder

Anatomical Context for Withdrawal Disorder

Organs/tissues related to Withdrawal Disorder:

MalaCards : Brain, Liver, Cortex, Heart, Prostate, Breast, Amygdala

Publications for Withdrawal Disorder

Articles related to Withdrawal Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 4521)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Clinical efficacy of alternative antiandrogen therapy in Japanese men with relapsed prostate cancer after first-line hormonal therapy. 53 62
17302569 2007
Prospective study of estramustine phosphate for hormone refractory prostate cancer patients following androgen deprivation therapy. 53 62
16037707 2005
Functional domain and motif analyses of androgen receptor coregulator ARA70 and its differential expression in prostate cancer. 53 62
15166229 2004
3 beta-acetoxyandrost-1,5-diene-17-ethylene ketal functions as a potent antiandrogen with marginal agonist activity. 53 62
12672951 2003
Behavioral effects of potentiated antibodies to morphine and mu-opioid receptors during withdrawal syndrome. 53 62
12949640 2003
Prostate-specific antigen levels and prognosis in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with low-dose dexamethasone. 53 62
11803262 2002
Androgen receptor mutations in carcinoma of the prostate: significance for endocrine therapy. 53 62
12083956 2001
Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome associated with prostate cancer therapies: incidence and clinical significance. 53 62
11085345 2000
Promotion of agonist activity of antiandrogens by the androgen receptor coactivator, ARA70, in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. 53 62
9636157 1998
Prolonged prostate-specific antigen response in flutamide withdrawal syndrome despite disease progression. 53 62
9634122 1998
[Molecular biological aspect]. 53 62
9617316 1998
Incidence and characteristics of antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome in prostate cancer after treatment with chlormadinone acetate. 53 62
9743699 1998
[An equivalent of anti-androgen withdrawal syndrome: decrease of prostate specific antigen and clinical response to estramustine phosphate withdrawal]. 53 62
9180872 1997
The antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 53 62
9144890 1997
Codon 877 mutation in the androgen receptor gene in advanced prostate cancer: relation to antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 53 62
8827083 1996
Hyperadrenergic state following acute withdrawal from clonidine used at supratherapeutic doses. 53 62
8726097 1996
Prostate-specific antigen decline after casodex withdrawal: evidence for an antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 53 62
7510915 1994
Prostate specific antigen decline after antiandrogen withdrawal: the flutamide withdrawal syndrome. 53 62
7679759 1993
alpha N-acetyl human beta-endorphin-(1-31) alleviates the morphine withdrawal syndrome in rodents: a comparative study with clonidine. 53 62
1608292 1992
Reversible neurologic abnormalities associated with prolonged intravenous midazolam and fentanyl administration. 53 62
1919899 1991
An ultra-sensitive UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method for determination of 54 benzodiazepines (pharmaceutical drugs, NPS and metabolites) and z-drugs in biological samples. 62
35963014 2023
Perinatal oxycodone exposure causes long-term sex-dependent changes in weight trajectory and sensory processing in adult mice. 62
36269379 2022
Cost effectiveness of buprenorphine vs. methadone for pregnant people with opioid use disorder. 62
33455473 2022
There is reduced immunohistochemical staining of placental aromatase in severe neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 62
34978244 2022
Fetal gastric area ratio to predict severe neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 62
34151686 2022
Withdrawal Syndrome Following Discontinuation of 28 Antidepressants: Pharmacovigilance Analysis of 31,688 Reports from the WHO Spontaneous Reporting Database. 62
36400895 2022
Healthcare utilization among children with a history of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome: A matched cohort study. 62
36302288 2022
Impact of in utero opioid exposure on newborn outcomes: beyond neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 62
35109759 2022
Phenobarbital for Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study. 62
35833888 2022
Web Exclusive. Annals for Hospitalists Inpatient Notes - Managing Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in the Hospital Setting-A Call for Research. 62
36375158 2022
Assessing the Impact of Prenatal Medication for Opioid Use Disorder on Discharge Home With Parents Among Infants With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. 62
35245916 2022
Assessing Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Severity as a Function of Maternal Buprenorphine Dose and Umbilical Cord Tissue Concentrations. 62
36321504 2022
Topical steroid withdrawal syndrome: time to bridge the gap. 62
35833942 2022
Deep Brain Stimulation-Withdrawal Syndrome in Parkinson's Disease: Risk Factors and Pathophysiological Hypotheses of a Life-Threatening Emergency. 62
36344398 2022
Patient- and physician-reported pain after tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. 62
35511672 2022
Androgenic Steroids Use and Abuse: Past, Present, and Future. 62
36309421 2022
Pediatric delirium is associated with increased brain injury marker levels in cardiac surgery patients. 62
36333387 2022
Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease. 62
36340306 2022
All-cause and liver-related mortality risk factors in excessive drinkers: Analysis of data from the UK biobank. 62
36317527 2022
Medical marijuana legalization in Oklahoma: Effects on neonatal exposure to opiates. 62
36452967 2022
Effect of human mesenchymal stem cell secretome administration on morphine self-administration and relapse in two animal models of opioid dependence. 62
36333316 2022
Probing different paradigms of morphine withdrawal on sleep behavior in male and female C57BL/6J mice. 62
36415467 2022
A Comparison of Methods Examining Time-to-Readmission in the First Year of Life. 62
36257991 2022
Buprenorphine-naloxone Versus Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder in Pregnancy. 62
35916423 2022
A history of ethanol intake accelerates the development of morphine analgesic tolerance: A protective potential for omega-3 fatty acids. 62
36375028 2022
Early Weight Loss Percentile Curves and Feeding Practices in Opioid-Exposed Infants. 62
36073203 2022
Gabapentin to treat acute alcohol withdrawal in hospitalized patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
36402053 2022
A genetic association study of tobacco withdrawal endophenotypes in African Americans. 62
34279980 2022
Phenobarbital to manage severe gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal: A case series. 62
36269081 2022
Burden of caregiving of alcohol related liver disease patients: a possible role of training and caregiver groups frequency. Proposal of a method. Preliminary results. 62
36255285 2022

Variations for Withdrawal Disorder

Expression for Withdrawal Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Withdrawal Disorder.

Pathways for Withdrawal Disorder

GO Terms for Withdrawal Disorder

Cellular components related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 10.11 SLC6A3 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 CRH
2 synapse GO:0045202 10.09 PNOC PDYN OPRK1 HTR1A HCRT DRD2
3 dendrite GO:0030425 10.06 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 NPFF
4 perikaryon GO:0043204 10.02 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 NPFF DRD2
5 presynaptic membrane GO:0042734 9.8 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
6 obsolete integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.56 DRD2 OPRK1 OPRM1 SLC6A3
7 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.47 SLC6A3 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 NPFF
8 obsolete integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.26 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2

Biological processes related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.46 AR CRH CRHR1 DRD2 HTR1A OPRK1
2 aging GO:0007568 10.21 TSPO SLC6A3 PENK FOS
3 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 10.14 OPRM1 NPFF HCRT DRD2
4 female pregnancy GO:0007565 10.1 PNOC FOS CRHR1 CRH
5 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 10.09 OPRK1 OPRM1 PENK
6 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 10.07 SLC6A3 PENK OPRK1 DRD2
7 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.06 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 NPFF HTR1A
8 response to nicotine GO:0035094 10.05 SLC6A3 PENK DRD2
9 response to radiation GO:0009314 10.04 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
10 eating behavior GO:0042755 10.02 HCRT OPRK1 OPRM1
11 adrenal gland development GO:0030325 9.99 CRH CRHR1 TSPO
12 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.96 DRD2 FOS OPRK1 OPRM1 PENK SLC6A3
13 cellular response to testosterone stimulus GO:0071394 9.94 NCOA4 AR
14 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.94 SLC6A3 HTR1A
15 parturition GO:0007567 9.93 CRHR1 CRH
16 G protein-coupled opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.93 OPRM1 OPRK1
17 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.92 SLC6A3 DRD2
18 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 9.91 SLC6A3 DRD2
19 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.91 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
20 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051583 9.89 SLC6A3 DRD2
21 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.88 CRHR1 DRD2 OPRM1
22 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.87 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
23 general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process GO:0051867 9.86 PENK CRHR1
24 regulation of corticosterone secretion GO:2000852 9.78 POMC CRHR1
25 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0031635 9.73 OPRM1 OPRK1
26 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.65 OPRK1 OPRM1 PDYN PENK PNOC
27 behavior GO:0007610 9.6 OPRK1 HTR1A
28 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.53 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
29 postsynaptic signal transduction GO:0098926 9.46 OPRM1 OPRK1

Molecular functions related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 10 SLC6A3 POMC NPFF DRD2 CRH AR
2 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.71 SLC6A3 DRD2
3 opioid peptide activity GO:0001515 9.63 PDYN PENK PNOC
4 androgen binding GO:0005497 9.62 TSPO AR
5 G protein-coupled opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.54 OPRM1 OPRK1
6 opioid receptor binding GO:0031628 9.43 PDYN PENK PNOC
7 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.32 PNOC PENK NPFF HCRT CRH

Sources for Withdrawal Disorder

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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