Aliases & Classifications for Withdrawal Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Withdrawal Disorder:

Name: Withdrawal Disorder 12 15
Withdrawal Syndrome 55 15
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome 72

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060001
UMLS 72 C0038587

Summaries for Withdrawal Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance-related disorder that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications, recreational drugs, and alcohol.

MalaCards based summary : Withdrawal Disorder, also known as withdrawal syndrome, is related to heroin dependence and opiate dependence, and has symptoms including seizures, opiate withdrawal symptoms and drug withdrawal symptoms. An important gene associated with Withdrawal Disorder is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Diazepam and Lofexidine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, prostate and liver, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Related Diseases for Withdrawal Disorder

Diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 216)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 heroin dependence 32.3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1
2 opiate dependence 32.0 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 neonatal abstinence syndrome 32.0 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
4 opioid addiction 30.5 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
5 morphine dependence 30.2 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 FOS
6 anxiety 30.2 TSPO OPRL1 CNR1
7 substance dependence 29.6 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1
8 motion sickness 29.6 FOS ADRA2A
9 alcohol dependence 29.2 TSPO PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
10 cocaine dependence 29.1 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
11 drug dependence 29.0 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1
12 pain agnosia 28.7 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 FOS CNR1
13 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 28.2 OPRM1 FOS ADRA2C ADRA2A
14 barbiturate dependence 11.4
15 subacute delirium 10.6
16 tremor 10.5
17 nodular prostate 10.4 KLK3 AR
18 cyclic vomiting syndrome 10.4 OPRM1 CNR1
19 androgenic alopecia 10.3 KLK3 AR
20 alcohol use disorder 10.3
21 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 10.3 KLK3 AR
22 uremic pruritus 10.3 OPRK1 CNR1
23 audiogenic seizures 10.3
24 prostatic hypertrophy 10.2 KLK3 AR
25 diarrhea 10.2
26 seizure disorder 10.2
27 ptosis 10.2
28 visual epilepsy 10.2
29 drug psychosis 10.2 FOS CNR1
30 cystitis cystica 10.1 KLK3 AR
31 drug-induced mental disorder 10.1 FOS CNR1
32 ocular motor apraxia 10.1
33 opioid abuse 10.1 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
34 prostate cancer 10.0
35 tobacco addiction 10.0
36 status epilepticus 10.0
37 smoking as a quantitative trait locus 3 10.0
38 encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis 10.0
39 cannabis dependence 10.0
40 48,xyyy 10.0
41 hypertonia 10.0
42 amnestic disorder 10.0 TSPO PDYN CNR1
43 separation anxiety disorder 10.0 TSPO OPRM1
44 respiratory failure 9.9
45 focal epilepsy 9.9
46 narcolepsy 9.9
47 headache 9.9
48 myoclonus 9.9
49 atrial standstill 1 9.9
50 migraine with or without aura 1 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder:



Diseases related to Withdrawal Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Withdrawal Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Withdrawal Disorder:


seizures, opiate withdrawal symptoms, drug withdrawal symptoms, withdrawal symptoms

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Withdrawal Disorder:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.11 ADRA2A ADRA2C AR CNR1 FOS OPRD1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.1 ADRA2A ADRA2C AR CNR1 FOS NPL
3 integument MP:0010771 9.86 AR CNR1 FOS OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRL1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.85 ADRA2A ADRA2C AR CNR1 FOS OPRD1
5 normal MP:0002873 9.5 ADRA2A AR CNR1 FOS OPRL1 OPRM1
6 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.17 AR CNR1 FOS NPL OPRK1 OPRM1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Withdrawal Disorder

Drugs for Withdrawal Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 255)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
2
Lofexidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 31036-80-3 30668
3
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
4
Tetrabenazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-46-8 6018
5
Oxazepam Approved Phase 4 604-75-1 4616
6
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 4 502-85-2 5360545
7
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
8
Flumazenil Approved Phase 4 78755-81-4 3373
9
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
10
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
11
Xylometazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 526-36-3 5709
12
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
13
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
14
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
15
Chlordiazepoxide Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 58-25-3 2712
16
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
17
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
18
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
19
Dronabinol Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1972-08-3 16078
20
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
21
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
22
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
23
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
24
Phenobarbital Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-06-6 4763
25
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
26
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
27
Lorazepam Approved Phase 4 846-49-1 3958
28
Pregabalin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
29
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
30
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
31
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
32
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
33
Esmolol Approved Phase 4 103598-03-4, 81147-92-4 59768
34
Glutamic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 56-86-0 33032
35
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
36 Liver Extracts Phase 4
37 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4
38 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
39 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4
40 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4
41 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
42 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
43 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
44 Nicotinic Agonists Phase 4
45 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
46 Detox adjuvant Phase 4
47 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
48 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
49 glucocorticoids Phase 4
50 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 165)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment for Alcohol Dependence With Gabapentin: A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02771925 Phase 4 Gabapentin 2g/day divided in two doses for 24 weeks;Placebo 2g/day divided in two doses for 24 weeks
2 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Potential for Clinical Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms Associated With Valbenazine Completed NCT03698331 Phase 4 Valbenazine;Placebo oral capsule
3 Buprenorphine in the Emergency Department: Buprenorphine Versus Clonidine for Opioid Withdrawal Completed NCT03174067 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Clonidine
4 The Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid in Alcohol-dependence Treatment Efficacy (GATE) I Trial: a Comparative Study Versus Oxazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Completed NCT02090504 Phase 4 Sodium Oxybate (SMO);Oxazepam
5 Simultaneous fMRI/EEG of the 4 mg Nicotine Lozenge in Relief of Cognitive Impairment Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal Completed NCT00657020 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
6 A Behavioral Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Reducing Cue- and Withdrawal-induced Craving in Daily Dependent Smokers Completed NCT02108626 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo
7 Nicotine Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: a Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT01362959 Phase 4 Transdermal nicotine patch
8 Acute Drug Withdrawal in a General Medical Setting Completed NCT00249366 Phase 4 Lorazepam (drug);Lorazepam
9 Treatment of Polydrug-Using Opiate Dependents During Withdrawal Completed NCT00367874 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Valproate
10 Treatment Of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Dexmedetomidine Vs Diazepam In A Hospital O'horán Completed NCT03877120 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine 0.004 MG/ML;Diazepam Injectable Solution
11 Carbamazepine and Lorazepam in Outpatient Detoxification Completed NCT00000441 Phase 4 lorazepam (Ativan);carbamazepine (Tegretol)
12 Comparison of Chlordiazepoxide and Gabapentin for Outpatient Alcohol Detoxification Treatment Completed NCT01573052 Phase 4 Chlordiazepoxide;Gabapentin
13 Effect of Flumazenil on Hypoactive Delirium Secondary to Benzodiazepine Toxicity in the ICU Completed NCT02899156 Phase 4 Flumazenil;Placebo
14 Efficiency and Safety Study of Short-term Prednisone to Treat Moderate and Severe Subacute Thyroiditis Completed NCT01837433 Phase 4 Prednisone 1 week;Prednisone 6 weeks
15 A Double-blind Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial of Lofexidine Versus Diazepam in the Management of the Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome During Inpatient Detoxification in Singapore Completed NCT01675648 Phase 4 Lofexidine;Diazepam;Placebo for Lofexidine;Placebo for Diazepam
16 Dexmedetomidine Addition to Benzodiazepines for Patients With Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in the ICU: a Randomised Controlled Study Completed NCT02496650 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine
17 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Reward Responsivity During Nicotine Withdrawal in Smokers With Schizophrenia and Normal Controls Completed NCT00373126 Phase 4 transdermal nicotine patch
18 Randomized Clinical Trial of Pregabalin for Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Recruiting NCT03017430 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Clonidine;Doxylamin;Ketorolac, Loperamide, Metoclopramide, Nefazolin and Phenazepam (benzodiazepine)
19 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Open Label Trial of Symptom-triggered Benzodiazepine Versus Fixed-dose Gabapentin for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Recruiting NCT03012815 Phase 4 Gabapentin;Benzodiazepines;Divalproex Sodium
20 Varenicline OTC Trial on Efficacy and Safety Recruiting NCT03557294 Phase 4 1.0mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.5mg Varenicline b.i.d.;0.0mg placebo Varenicline b.i.d.
21 Prospective Assessment of Valproate on Ethanol Withdrawal Recruiting NCT03235531 Phase 4 Valproate;Lorazepam
22 Efficacy and Safety of the Administration of the Passiflora Extract for Benzodiazepine Withdrawal in Institutionalized Older Adults: Clinical Trial Phase III Recruiting NCT03780595 Phase 4 Passiflora incarnata;Control
23 Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome With Clonidine Versus Morphine as Primary Therapy Recruiting NCT03092011 Phase 4 Clonidine;Morphine Sulfate
24 Using Imaging to Assess Effects of THC on Brain Activity Recruiting NCT03655717 Phase 4 Dronabinol;Ethanol;Placebo Dronabinol;Placebo Ethanol
25 Assessment of NADA Acupuncture for Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms During Gradual Opioid Withdrawal in Chronic Pain Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03397212 Phase 4
26 A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Phenobarbital and Ketamine Adjunctive Therapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Not yet recruiting NCT03788889 Phase 4 Ketamine;Phenobarbital;Lorazepam;Placebo A;Placebo B
27 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study of Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®), With Lorazepam Rescue, for the Management of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) and Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (AWD) Terminated NCT01362205 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Placebos
28 Evaluation of Pregabalin's Abuse Liability and Its Effects on Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms in Inpatients Undergoing Medically Assisted Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Terminated NCT02423018 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Placebo
29 Tight Hemodynamic Control in Patients Who Are Chronically on Metoprolol: A Study Comparing the Post Op Continuation of the Preoperative Oral Dose Beta Blockers to Intravenous Esmolol Titrated to a Target Heart Rate (HR) Terminated NCT01404767 Phase 4 Esmolol;Metoprolol
30 Efficacy of Extended Release Tramadol for Treating Prescription Opioid Withdrawal Completed NCT00980044 Phase 2, Phase 3 Tramadol;Placebo
31 Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam in the Inpatient Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome [Sicherheit Und Wirksamkeit Von Levetiracetam (Keppra) für Die Behandlung Des stationären Alkoholentzugsyndroms] Completed NCT00146471 Phase 3 Levetiracetam;Placebo
32 Comparison of a Fixed-Schedule Therapy Versus a Symptom-Triggered Therapy for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Medical Out-Patients Completed NCT00136617 Phase 3 chlordiazepoxide
33 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Safety Study of Lofexidine Completed NCT02363998 Phase 3 Lofexidine
34 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine For Out-patient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032968 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
35 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification Completed NCT00032955 Phase 3 Buprenorphine/naloxone
36 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multiple-Dose, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Potential of Withdrawal Effects Following Administration of Oxycodone/Naltrexone Capsules and Oxycodone in Methadone-Maintained Opioid-Dependent Subjects Completed NCT02391571 Phase 3 Oxycodone/Naltrexone Capsules;Oxycodone;Placebo
37 Pharmacogenetics, Emotional Reactivity and Smoking Cessation: Genetic Differences in Limbic Activation Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal Completed NCT00664404 Phase 3
38 Phase 3, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Efficacy, Safety, and Dose-Response Study of Lofexidine for Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal (Days 1-7) Followed by Open-Label, Variable Dose Lofexidine Treatment (Days 8-14) Completed NCT01863186 Phase 3 Lofexidine HCl;Placebo;Open Label Lofexidine HCL
39 Fluoxetine as a Quit Smoking Aid for Depression-Prone Smokers Completed NCT00018174 Phase 3 Fluoxetine;Placebo
40 The Effect of Aromatherapy on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Salivary Cortisol Levels Completed NCT03097484 Phase 3 lavender and chamomile essential oils
41 Placebo Controlled Trial of Depakote ER in Alcohol Dependent Patients With Mood and/or Anxiety Symptoms Completed NCT00202514 Phase 2, Phase 3 divalproex sodium extended release
42 Multicenter Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Oral Adjuvant Magnesium Supplementation in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Recruiting NCT03033823 Phase 3 Magnesium;Placebo Oral Tablet
43 Baclofen to Prevent Agitation in Alcohol Addicted Patients in ICU: Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Against Placebo Trial Recruiting NCT02723383 Phase 3 BACLOFEN;PLACEBO
44 NIDA CTN Protocol 0080: Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): Infant Neurodevelopmental Outcomes (INO) Sub-study Not yet recruiting NCT03911739 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
45 Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): a Pragmatic Randomized Trial Comparing Extended-release and Daily Buprenorphine Formulations Not yet recruiting NCT03918850 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
46 NIDA CTN Protocol 0080: Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Expectant Mothers (MOMs): a Pragmatic Randomized Trial Comparing Extended-release and Daily Buprenorphine Formulations: Conceptual Model Assessments (CMA) Sub-study Not yet recruiting NCT03911466 Phase 3 Buprenorphine Injection;Buprenorphine Sublingual Product
47 Preventing Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome With Oral Baclofen: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial Terminated NCT02052440 Phase 3 Baclofen;Placebo
48 ASSESSMENT OF THE SAFETY AND BENEFIT OF PROSPECTIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUG WITHDRAWAL IN LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND PREDICTION OF OPERATIONAL TOLERANCE Unknown status NCT00647283 Phase 2
49 Sublingual Buprenorphine Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02249026 Phase 1, Phase 2 BZDs + opiate exposure treated with BPN;Opiates exposure treated with BPN
50 The Effects of One-Time Pregnenolone, DHEA, Or Placebo Administration On Withdrawal Symptoms, Mood, Craving And Cigarette Evaluation Ratings In Male Smokers Completed NCT00900900 Phase 2 Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Withdrawal Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Carbamazepine
Clonidine
CLONIDINE HCL PWDR
Clonidine Hydrochloride
Haloperidol
haloperidol decanoate
Haloperidol lactate
Hydroxyzine
Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride
Hydroxyzine Pamoate
Lorazepam
Perphenazine
Procaine
Procaine hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Withdrawal Disorder

Anatomical Context for Withdrawal Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Withdrawal Disorder:

41
Brain, Prostate, Liver, Heart, Myeloid, Testes, Cortex

Publications for Withdrawal Disorder

Articles related to Withdrawal Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 3907)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Clinical efficacy of alternative antiandrogen therapy in Japanese men with relapsed prostate cancer after first-line hormonal therapy. 9 38
17302569 2007
2
Prospective study of estramustine phosphate for hormone refractory prostate cancer patients following androgen deprivation therapy. 9 38
16037707 2005
3
Functional domain and motif analyses of androgen receptor coregulator ARA70 and its differential expression in prostate cancer. 9 38
15166229 2004
4
3 beta-acetoxyandrost-1,5-diene-17-ethylene ketal functions as a potent antiandrogen with marginal agonist activity. 9 38
12672951 2003
5
Behavioral effects of potentiated antibodies to morphine and mu-opioid receptors during withdrawal syndrome. 9 38
12949640 2003
6
Prostate-specific antigen levels and prognosis in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with low-dose dexamethasone. 9 38
11803262 2002
7
Androgen receptor mutations in carcinoma of the prostate: significance for endocrine therapy. 9 38
12083956 2001
8
Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome associated with prostate cancer therapies: incidence and clinical significance. 9 38
11085345 2000
9
Promotion of agonist activity of antiandrogens by the androgen receptor coactivator, ARA70, in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. 9 38
9636157 1998
10
Prolonged prostate-specific antigen response in flutamide withdrawal syndrome despite disease progression. 9 38
9634122 1998
11
[Molecular biological aspect]. 9 38
9617316 1998
12
Incidence and characteristics of antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome in prostate cancer after treatment with chlormadinone acetate. 9 38
9743699 1998
13
[An equivalent of anti-androgen withdrawal syndrome: decrease of prostate specific antigen and clinical response to estramustine phosphate withdrawal]. 9 38
9180872 1997
14
The antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 9 38
9144890 1997
15
Codon 877 mutation in the androgen receptor gene in advanced prostate cancer: relation to antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 9 38
8827083 1996
16
Hyperadrenergic state following acute withdrawal from clonidine used at supratherapeutic doses. 9 38
8726097 1996
17
Prostate-specific antigen decline after casodex withdrawal: evidence for an antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. 9 38
7510915 1994
18
Prostate specific antigen decline after antiandrogen withdrawal: the flutamide withdrawal syndrome. 9 38
7679759 1993
19
alpha N-acetyl human beta-endorphin-(1-31) alleviates the morphine withdrawal syndrome in rodents: a comparative study with clonidine. 9 38
1608292 1992
20
Reversible neurologic abnormalities associated with prolonged intravenous midazolam and fentanyl administration. 9 38
1919899 1991
21
Research and policy priorities for addressing prenatal exposure to opioids in Alaska. 38
31020919 2019
22
Post-cesarean delivery pain. Management of the opioid-dependent patient before, during and after cesarean delivery. 38
31005380 2019
23
Musculoskeletal Pain in Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia After Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy Cessation. 38
31171474 2019
24
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Estimated Burden of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, Tennessee, 2013-2016. 38
31390300 2019
25
Addressing the impact of opioids on women and children. 38
31151658 2019
26
Thrombocytopenia in Patients Hospitalized for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome and Its Associations to Clinical Complications. 38
31403690 2019
27
Alcohol use disorder and alcohol withdrawal syndrome in Vietnamese hospitalized patients. 38
30660599 2019
28
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor withdrawal syndrome? 38
31379099 2019
29
Racial association and pharmacotherapy in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. 38
31388115 2019
30
Standard Fixed-Schedule Methadone Taper Versus Symptom-Triggered Methadone Approach for Treatment of Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. 38
31270130 2019
31
Non-Opioid Neurotransmitter Systems that Contribute to the Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome: A Review of Preclinical and Human Evidence. 38
31391211 2019
32
The ACT NOW Clinical Practice Survey: Gaps in the Care of Infants With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. 38
31324654 2019
33
A Standardized Care Pathway following Mandibular Distraction in Infants Less Than 3 Months of Age. 38
31331240 2019
34
Cognitive interference as a possible therapeutic strategy to prevent expression of benzodiazepine withdrawal. 38
31299121 2019
35
[The first step towards a unified approach: validation of the Hungarian version of the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised in Hungarian general hospital settings]. 38
31327247 2019
36
Endogenous Opioid Dependence Induced in Rats by Periodic Intake of 5% Ethanol Solution. 38
31346864 2019
37
Sex differences in the expression of morphine withdrawal symptoms and associated activity in the tail of the ventral tegmental area. 38
31042569 2019
38
Diagnosis and Management of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use. 38
30753550 2019
39
Phenobarbital and symptom-triggered lorazepam versus lorazepam alone for severe alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit. 38
31326601 2019
40
Neurobehavioral effects of neonatal opioid exposure in mice: Influence of the OPRM1 SNP. 38
31267641 2019
41
Withdrawal effects following repeated ethanol exposure are prevented by N-acetylcysteine in zebrafish. 38
30946939 2019
42
Predictive factors for abiraterone withdrawal syndrome. 38
31060755 2019
43
Affective Behavior in Withdrawal Seizure-Prone and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant Mice during Long-Term Alcohol Abstinence. 38
31046129 2019
44
Comparison of phenobarbital-adjunct versus benzodiazepine-only approach for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the ED. 38
30414743 2019
45
High-Dose Gabapentin for the Treatment of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis. 38
31278761 2019
46
Longer treatment duration and history of osteoarticular symptoms predispose to tyrosine kinase inhibitor withdrawal syndrome. 38
31271217 2019
47
Comparison of In-Hospital Outcomes of Patients With-Versus-Without Atrial Fibrillation and Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. 38
31395296 2019
48
Comparative effectiveness of opioid replacement agents for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 38
31316147 2019
49
Sedative and Analgesic Drug Rotation Protocol in Critically Ill Children With Prolonged Sedation. Evaluation of Implementation and Efficacy to Reduce Withdrawal Syndrome. 38
31261229 2019
50
In Utero Exposure to Norbuprenorphine, a Major Metabolite of Buprenorphine, Induces Fetal Opioid Dependence and Leads to Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. 38
31028107 2019

Variations for Withdrawal Disorder

Expression for Withdrawal Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Withdrawal Disorder.

Pathways for Withdrawal Disorder

Pathways related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.72 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 KLK3
2
Show member pathways
12.56 TSPO PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3
Show member pathways
11.96 PDYN OPRM1 ADRA2C ADRA2A
4 11.49 OPRM1 OPRD1 FOS
5
Show member pathways
10.79 KLK3 FOS AR
6 10.77 ADRA2C ADRA2A
7 10.62 FOS AR

GO Terms for Withdrawal Disorder

Cellular components related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.87 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1 ADRA2C
2 integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane GO:0030285 9.43 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.43 OPRM1 OPRK1 ADRA2C
4 dendrite membrane GO:0032590 9.4 OPRM1 OPRD1
5 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.26 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1
6 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.16 OPRM1 OPRD1
7 axon terminus GO:0043679 8.92 PDYN OPRK1 OPRD1 ADRA2C
8 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.07 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 NISCH

Biological processes related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 36)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 aging GO:0007568 9.83 TSPO FOS CNR1
2 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.83 OPRM1 FOS CNR1
3 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.81 AR ADRA2C ADRA2A
4 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.8 OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
5 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.77 CNR1 ADRA2C ADRA2A
6 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.76 OPRM1 OPRD1 CNR1
7 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.74 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
8 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007188 9.73 CNR1 ADRA2C ADRA2A
9 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.72 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
10 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.71 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 CNR1
11 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.69 OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
12 response to radiation GO:0009314 9.67 OPRM1 OPRK1
13 response to progesterone GO:0032570 9.67 TSPO FOS
14 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.67 OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
15 activation of protein kinase B activity GO:0032148 9.66 ADRA2C ADRA2A
16 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.65 OPRL1 CNR1
17 regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0019229 9.65 ADRA2C ADRA2A
18 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.64 ADRA2C ADRA2A
19 regulation of smooth muscle contraction GO:0006940 9.63 ADRA2C ADRA2A
20 estrous cycle GO:0044849 9.63 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
21 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure GO:0003073 9.62 KLK3 AR
22 regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic GO:0032228 9.62 NISCH CNR1
23 behavior GO:0007610 9.61 OPRL1 OPRK1
24 adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071875 9.61 ADRA2C ADRA2A
25 negative regulation of norepinephrine secretion GO:0010700 9.6 ADRA2C ADRA2A
26 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0106072 9.58 OPRM1 OPRL1
27 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.56 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
28 receptor transactivation GO:0035624 9.55 ADRA2C ADRA2A
29 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.55 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 ADRA2A
30 negative regulation of epinephrine secretion GO:0032811 9.54 ADRA2C ADRA2A
31 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.54 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
32 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0031635 9.48 OPRM1 OPRK1
33 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.26 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
34 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.02 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 ADRA2C
35 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.13 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1 AR
36 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.03 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1

Molecular functions related to Withdrawal Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.73 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CNR1 ADRA2A
2 adrenergic receptor activity GO:0004935 9.46 ADRA2C ADRA2A
3 epinephrine binding GO:0051379 9.4 ADRA2C ADRA2A
4 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.37 OPRK1 OPRD1
5 androgen binding GO:0005497 9.32 TSPO AR
6 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.26 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
7 alpha2-adrenergic receptor activity GO:0004938 9.16 ADRA2C ADRA2A
8 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 8.92 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
9 protein binding GO:0005515 10.25 TSPO OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 NPL

Sources for Withdrawal Disorder

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
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62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
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73 UMLS via Orphanet
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