MCID: XRP001
MIFTS: 42

Xerophthalmia

Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Xerophthalmia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Xerophthalmia:

Name: Xerophthalmia 12 73 54 44 15 70
Conjunctival Xerosis 12 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10138
ICD9CM 34 375.15
MeSH 44 D014985
NCIt 50 C34503
SNOMED-CT 67 193887002
ICD10 32 E50.7
UMLS 70 C0043349 C3665609

Summaries for Xerophthalmia

Disease Ontology : 12 A dry eye syndrome that is characterized by conjunctival and corneal xerosis, Bitot's spots, keratomalacia, nyctalopia, and retinopathy resulting from vitamin A deficiency.

MalaCards based summary : Xerophthalmia, also known as conjunctival xerosis, is related to keratoconjunctivitis sicca and keratomalacia, and has symptoms including dryness of eye and dacryops. An important gene associated with Xerophthalmia is RHO (Rhodopsin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins and the visual cycle I (vertebrates). The drugs Dipivefrin and Immunoglobulins have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, liver and salivary gland.

Wikipedia : 73 Xerophthalmia (from Ancient Greek "xērós" (ξηρός) meaning "dry" and "ophthalmos" (οφθαλμός) meaning... more...

Related Diseases for Xerophthalmia

Diseases related to Xerophthalmia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 285)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 keratoconjunctivitis sicca 31.3 TRIM21 TNFSF13B SSB SPTAN1 RO60 CD4
2 keratomalacia 30.3 TTR RHO RARS1 LRAT CYP26A1
3 hypopyon 30.0 CRP CD4
4 bell's palsy 29.8 MTRNR2L5 CD8A CD4
5 conjunctival disease 29.8 CRP CD8A CD4
6 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 29.8 CRP CD8A CD4
7 kwashiorkor 29.7 TTR CRP CD4
8 facial paralysis 29.6 MTRNR2L5 CRP CD8A CD4
9 dysentery 29.4 TTR CRP CD4
10 sjogren syndrome 29.4 TRIM21 TNFSF13B SSB SPTAN1 RO60 AQP5
11 autoimmune disease 29.3 TRIM21 TNFSF13B RO60 CRP CENPB
12 dry eye syndrome 11.0
13 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.7
14 night blindness 10.6
15 neonatal lupus erythematosus 10.4 TRIM21 SPTAN1
16 pulmonary embolism and infarction 10.4 TRIM21 RO60
17 second-degree atrioventricular block 10.4 TRIM21 SSB
18 measles 10.4
19 hordeolum 10.3 MTRNR2L5 CD4
20 granulomatous myositis 10.3 TRIM21 CD8A
21 endocardial fibroelastosis 10.3 TRIM21 SSB RO60
22 atrioventricular block 10.3 TRIM21 SSB RO60
23 panophthalmitis 10.3 CRP CD4
24 rheumatoid arthritis interstitial lung disease 10.3 CRP CD4
25 epidural abscess 10.3 CRP CD4
26 pericardial tuberculosis 10.3 CRP CD4
27 urogenital tuberculosis 10.3 CRP CD4
28 breast abscess 10.3 CRP CD4
29 meningovascular neurosyphilis 10.3 CRP CD4
30 pyomyositis 10.3 CRP CD4
31 suppurative lymphadenitis 10.3 CRP CD4
32 first-degree atrioventricular block 10.3 TRIM21 CRP
33 splenic abscess 10.3 CRP CD4
34 orbital cellulitis 10.3 CRP CD4
35 acute orbital inflammation 10.3 CRP CD4
36 neuroretinitis 10.3 CRP CD4
37 opportunistic bacterial infectious disease 10.3 CRP CD4
38 cutaneous lupus erythematosus 10.3 TRIM21 TNFSF13B RO60
39 cork-handlers' disease 10.3 CD8A CD4
40 mediastinitis 10.3 CRP CD4
41 necrotic uveal melanoma 10.3 CD8A CD4
42 nocardiosis 10.2 CRP CD4
43 arachnoiditis 10.2 CRP CD4
44 optic papillitis 10.2 CRP CD4
45 gastrointestinal tuberculosis 10.2 CRP CD4
46 early yaws 10.2 CD8A CD4
47 intestinal tuberculosis 10.2 CRP CD4
48 ventilation pneumonitis 10.2 CD8A CD4
49 protein-energy malnutrition 10.2
50 diarrhea 10.2

Comorbidity relations with Xerophthalmia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Heart Disease
Hypertension, Essential

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Xerophthalmia:



Diseases related to Xerophthalmia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Xerophthalmia

UMLS symptoms related to Xerophthalmia:


dryness of eye; dacryops

Drugs & Therapeutics for Xerophthalmia

Drugs for Xerophthalmia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 23)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 3 52365-63-6 3105
2 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
3 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
4 Antibodies Phase 2
5
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved 23593-75-1 2812
6
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 22916-47-8 4189
7
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved 9004-61-9 53477741
8 Sclerosing Solutions
9
Ethyl cellulose 9004-57-3 24832091
10 Immunosuppressive Agents
11 Cyclosporins
12 Antirheumatic Agents
13 Dermatologic Agents
14 Anti-Infective Agents
15 Calcineurin Inhibitors
16 Antifungal Agents
17 Protective Agents
18 Viscosupplements
19 Immunologic Factors
20 Adjuvants, Immunologic
21 Pharmaceutical Solutions
22 Ophthalmic Solutions
23 Lubricant Eye Drops

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 12)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomised Controlled Trial to Compare the Efficacy of Systane Ultra and Refresh Drop in the Treatment of Dry Eye in Asian Eyes Completed NCT00796926 Phase 3 Systane Ultra eyedrops;Refresh eye drops
2 A Phase IIa Efficacy and Safety Trial With Intravenous S95011 in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Patients: An International, Multicentre, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Not yet recruiting NCT04605978 Phase 2 S95011 concentrate for solution for infusion;Placebo concentrate for solution for infusion
3 Use of Autologous Serum Eye-drops as Tears in Patients With Recalcitrant Dry Eye Completed NCT01089985 Phase 1 Autologous serum eyedrops
4 Influence of 2% HPMC Used During Cataract Surgery for Intraoperative Corneal Optical Clarity and Post-operation Xerophthalmia. Unknown status NCT02363530
5 Correlation of Noninvasive Tear Film Function and the Optical Quality in Mild and Moderate Dry Eye Unknown status NCT03815539
6 Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy Unknown status NCT03403023 Restasis
7 A Randomized, Double-masked, Controlled, Non-inferiority Study to Evaluate Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of Lubricin Eye Drops vs Sodium Hyaluronate Eye Drops Given 4 Times a Day for 4 Weeks & 1 Week Follow-up in Subjects With Dry Eye Completed NCT02510235
8 Dry Eye Outcome and Prescription Study Recruiting NCT03652415
9 Prevalence of Ocular Manifestations in Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Active, not recruiting NCT03753893
10 Effects of Acupuncture on Xerostomia and Xerophthalmia in Sjögren's Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-blinded Clinical Trial Enrolling by invitation NCT04056221
11 Effect of Meibomian Gland Related Therapy on the Morphology of Meibomian Gland Withdrawn NCT04636372
12 Évaluation de l'Utilisation d'un Photoscreener Comme méthode de dépistage Des problèmes Ophtalmologiques pédiatriques en Haïti Withdrawn NCT02655432

Search NIH Clinical Center for Xerophthalmia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cod Liver Oil
retinol acetate
retinyl palmitate
Vitamin A
VITAMIN A (AS ACETATE & BETA CAROTENE)
VITAMIN A (AS PALMITATE & BETA CAROTENE)
VITAMIN A (NATURAL)
VITAMIN A PALMITATE (SOLUBILIZED)

Cochrane evidence based reviews: xerophthalmia

Genetic Tests for Xerophthalmia

Anatomical Context for Xerophthalmia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Xerophthalmia:

40
Eye, Liver, Salivary Gland, Breast, Bone, Thyroid, Bone Marrow

Publications for Xerophthalmia

Articles related to Xerophthalmia:

(show top 50) (show all 934)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Xerophthalmia and vitamin A status. 54 61
9537797 1998
2
Starch digestibility and β-carotene bioaccessibility in the orange- fleshed sweet potato puree-wheat bread. 61
33565638 2021
3
Long-term outcomes of pediatric and young adult patients receiving radiotherapy for nonmalignant vascular anomalies. 61
33754454 2021
4
Triad of hypovitaminosis A, hyperostosis, and optic neuropathy in males with autism spectrum disorders. 61
33666531 2021
5
Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid, Sjögren's Syndrome, and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis as a Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome: A case report. 61
33601905 2021
6
Unstimulated whole salivary flow in Sjögren's Syndrome: systematic literature review and meta-analysis. 61
33536075 2021
7
What is the evidence that mycobacteria are associated with the pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome? 61
33665595 2021
8
A Rare Case of Extramedullary Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Masses on the Breast and Chest Wall Complicated with Sjogren's Syndrome. 61
33469343 2021
9
Impact of home food production on nutritional blindness, stunting, wasting, underweight and mortality in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. 61
33272038 2020
10
A Presentation of Pediatric Sjögren's Syndrome with Abducens Nerve Palsy. 61
33316834 2020
11
Fingolimod reduces salivary infiltrates and increases salivary secretion in a murine Sjögren's model. 61
33059968 2020
12
Ocular manifestations and clinical characteristics of 535 cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a cross-sectional study. 61
32421258 2020
13
Subacute Onset Sensorimotor Axonal Neuropathy with Sicca Syndrome. 61
33603915 2020
14
Minor salivary gland biopsy: Its role in the classification and prognosis of Sjögren's syndrome. 61
33099041 2020
15
Psoriatic spondyloarthritis and Sjögren syndrome: a casual association? 61
33213129 2020
16
Sjögren syndrome associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 61
33275251 2020
17
A rare association of aniridia with conjunctival xerosis in two Indian siblings with PAX6 mutation. 61
33120723 2020
18
Premature onset of Sjögren's syndrome is prone to be complicated with renal tubular acidosis. 61
32815322 2020
19
Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome: A novel mutation in a Korean family and review of literature. 61
32715658 2020
20
Vitiligo as the Presenting Manifestation of Sjogren's Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Vitiligo and Its Associated Autoimmune Conditions. 61
33274132 2020
21
Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Sjögren's Syndrome: A Case Report. 61
33083163 2020
22
Male patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: A distinct clinical subgroup? 61
32918388 2020
23
[Severe polyneuropathy in primary Sjögren's syndrome : Sjögren's syndrome should be considered in patients with motor neuropathy]. 61
32474638 2020
24
A 77-Year-Old Woman With Sjogren Syndrome Experiencing Progressive Dyspnea on Exertion and Nonproductive Cough. 61
32892887 2020
25
Recurrent Life-threatening Pneumonitis in a 37-Year-Old Woman. 61
32892889 2020
26
Aseptic meningitis as an initial presentation of Sjögren syndrome: a report of two cases and literature review. 61
33132443 2020
27
The efficacy and safety of acupuncture or combined with western medicine for dry eye: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32871915 2020
28
Sterile Corneal Perforation Occurring Several Years After Biliopancreatic Diversion. 61
32144634 2020
29
Meta-Analysis of Treatment for Primary Sjögren's Syndrome. 61
31058469 2020
30
Advances in Mast Cell Activation by IL-1 and IL-33 in Sjögren's Syndrome: Promising Inhibitory Effect of IL-37. 61
32560266 2020
31
Characteristics of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome associated interstitial lung disease and relevant features of disease progression. 61
31902032 2020
32
Chronic eyelid edema and xerophthalmia secondary to periorbital hyaluronic acid filler injection. 61
31441981 2020
33
Structurally coloured contact lens sensor for point-of-care ophthalmic health monitoring. 61
31989133 2020
34
Bilateral Keratomalacia Leading to Blindness Secondary to Diet-Induced Vitamin A Deficiency in Infants. 61
32176803 2020
35
The association between vitamin deficiency and otolaryngologic diseases: A therapeutic target. 61
31733530 2020
36
Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study Report # 6. Opportunistic screening of vitamin A deficiency through School Sight Program in tribal Odisha (India). 61
31957725 2020
37
Unstimulated whole saliva flow for diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome: time to revisit the threshold? 61
32093745 2020
38
Economic impact of dry eye disease in Spain: A multicentre retrospective insurance claims database analysis. 61
32064919 2020
39
Recent Advances in Mouse Models of Sjögren's Syndrome. 61
32695097 2020
40
Biomarkers and Diagnostic Testing for Renal Disease in Sjogren's Syndrome. 61
33042142 2020
41
Application of classification criteria of Sjogren syndrome in patients with sicca symptoms: Real-world experience at a medical center. 61
31303456 2020
42
Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency among Preschool Children in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 61
32258145 2020
43
Total external ophthalmoplegia: First clinical manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome. 61
31490084 2019
44
Potentially inappropriate anticholinergic drug prescriptions for patients with Sjögren's syndrome. 61
32743497 2019
45
Systematic review of oral and craniofacial findings in patients with Fabry disease or Pompe disease. 61
31405600 2019
46
Bilateral facial paralysis as a rare neurological manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome: case-based review. 61
31175417 2019
47
VEMPs and Dysautonomia Assessment in Definite Cerebellar Ataxia, Neuropathy, Vestibular Areflexia Syndrome (CANVAS): a Case Series Study. 61
31414248 2019
48
Clinical factors associated with worse quality-of-life scores in United States thyroid cancer survivors. 61
30898373 2019
49
Case Report: Vitamin A Deficiency and Nyctalopia in a Patient with Chronic Pancreatitis. 61
31107845 2019
50
Peripheral and central nervous system involvement in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome: a case report. 61
31126347 2019

Variations for Xerophthalmia

Expression for Xerophthalmia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Xerophthalmia.

Pathways for Xerophthalmia

GO Terms for Xerophthalmia

Biological processes related to Xerophthalmia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinol metabolic process GO:0042572 9.33 LRAT RBP1 TTR
2 positive regulation of viral entry into host cell GO:0046598 9.32 TRIM21 CD4
3 vitamin A metabolic process GO:0006776 9.26 LRAT RBP1
4 response to vitamin A GO:0033189 9.13 CYP26A1 LRAT RBP1
5 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 8.92 LRAT RBP1 RHO TTR

Molecular functions related to Xerophthalmia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinol binding GO:0019841 8.62 RBP1 LRAT

Sources for Xerophthalmia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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